Story: Take whenua – Māori land tenure



These warriors wield both traditional weapons (tewhatewha or clubs) and European weapons (muskets and hatchets) during a haka outside Maketū . A claim to land on the basis of raupatu (conquest) needed to be defended by a strong body of warriors. This was known as ringa kaha (strength of the arm).

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Alexander Turnbull Library
Reference: A-080-051
Watercolour by Horatio Gordon Robley

Permission of the Alexander Turnbull Library, National Library of New Zealand, Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa, must be obtained before any re-use of this image.

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How to cite this page:

Paul Meredith, 'Take whenua – Māori land tenure - Discovery, ancestral right and conquest', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, (accessed 17 January 2022)

Story by Paul Meredith, published 24 Nov 2008