Page 1: Biography
Te Anaua, Hori Kingi
Te Ati Haunui-a-Paparangi leader, assessor
This biography, written by Steven Oliver, was first published in the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography in 1990.
Te Anaua, of Putiki Wharanui pa, near the mouth of the Wanganui River, was the leader of Ngati Ruaka of Te Ati Haunui-a-Paparangi in the early and mid nineteenth century. Descended from Hinengakau, his father was Te Aewa; his mother was Titia. He was baptised by the missionary John Mason at Putiki on 25 December 1842, and took the name Hori Kingi (George King). He was also known as Tu. He had two wives. The first, Te Hukinga, also known as Wikitoria, was of Ngati Ruru. Te Anaua and Te Hukinga were married at Putiki on 29 May 1843. After Te Hukinga's death in December 1860 Te Anaua married Ramarihi Taukari, also known as Te Ao-tarewa, of Ngati Ruaka, on 21 October 1861 at Putiki. It is not recorded if there were children of these marriages.
Te Anaua and his brother Te Mawae were among the leaders of the Wanganui tribes in the tribal wars of the early nineteenth century. In 1819 or 1820 he fought at Purua, near the mouth of the Wanganui River, against the expedition of northern, musket-armed tribes led by Tuwhare, Patuone and Nene. When the Amiowhenua northern war expedition of 1821-22 attacked Wanganui, Te Anaua fought against it at Mangawere, where two of his brothers were killed. He ambushed a section of the war party at Mangatoa and pursued it as far as Taupo.
In the early 1820s Ngati Raukawa, migrating south from Maungatautari, invaded the upper Wanganui. Te Peehi Turoa of Ngati Patu-tokotoko besieged them at Makakote pa, where Ngati Raukawa leader Te Rua-maioro was killed. It is said that when the pa surrendered Te Anaua took charge of the prisoners, and later, in a peaceful settlement, released them to Te Whatanui at Ranana. As a result, when Ngati Raukawa and their allies captured Putiki Wharanui in 1829, Te Anaua, with Te Peehi Turoa, was allowed to escape unharmed. About 1824 Te Anaua was involved in the attack by Wanganui and other southern tribes on Ngati Toa at Kapiti Island, but escaped the defeat. He later fought against the Tama-te-uaua migration of Te Ati Awa to the south in the early 1830s.
In the mid 1840s Te Anaua avoided conflict with war parties, led by Mananui Te Heuheu Tukino II of Ngati Tuwharetoa, which were making their way from Taupo to Waitotara. His brother Te Mawae followed the Christian injunction to feed his enemies by dividing a potato field for Mananui's warriors. The lower Wanganui tribes were strongly influenced by the CMS missionaries, whose mission station at Putiki was established in 1840. Te Anaua was closely associated with Richard Taylor, and became an ally of the government. In 1846–47, when the European settlement at Wanganui was threatened by Te Mamaku of Ngati Haua-te-rangi, Te Anaua provided men to help defend the town. In February 1848, at Governor George Grey's request, he went to Tuhua to try to conciliate Te Mamaku, and was present at the meeting some weeks later at which Te Mamaku pledged peace.
Te Anaua signed the Treaty of Waitangi at Wanganui in 1840. He had earlier signed Edward Jerningham Wakefield's deed of purchase for Wanganui, but later described it as being of no significance. With other Wanganui leaders he was successful in gaining increased Maori reserves, and when the Wanganui purchase was finalised in May 1848 Te Anaua divided the payment for the 80,000 acres among the hapu. Later that year he mediated between Ngati Raukawa and Ngati Apa over the sale of the Rangitikei block. In December 1848 he was appointed a magistrate by Taylor, and in the 1860s was appointed an assessor by the government. He was awarded a government pension of £20 (later increased to £50) in 1859, and at the 1860 Kohimarama conference of Maori leaders was presented by Governor Thomas Gore Browne with a staff of honour from Queen Victoria, in recognition of his loyalty.
Te Anaua was suggested for the Maori kingship in the early 1850s, but declined. In the 1860s he resisted the influence of both the King movement and Pai Marire in the Wanganui area. In May 1864 he led a force which defeated upper Wanganui Hauhau followers at Moutoa, an island in the Wanganui River. In July 1865 he was with Grey at Weraroa, a Hauhau pa near the Waitotara River, where he attempted to negotiate a surrender. After the Hauhau were driven from Pipiriki in August 1865 he assisted in arranging an end to hostilities on the Wanganui River.
In January–February 1866 Te Anaua took part in Major General Trevor Chute's campaign in South Taranaki, and is credited with having persuaded the Wanganui Maori troops to take part in Chute's inland march around Mt Taranaki. Later that year he travelled with Grey around both the North and South Islands. Te Anaua died at Putiki on 18 September 1868, and was buried at Korowhata hill, overlooking Putiki, on 23 September. He is thought to have been about 75 years of age at his death.