Page 1: Biography
Te Aitanga-a-Hauiti tohunga, faith healer
This biography, written by Angela Ballara, was first published in the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography in 1998. It was translated into te reo Māori by the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography team.
Tūtekohi Rangi, also known as Wiremu Retimana Rangi or Richmond Rangi, was born, probably in 1871 or 1872, possibly at Mangatuna (north of Tolaga Bay), on the East Coast. His father was Ratawari Rangi of Ngāti Kuranui (Ngāi Te Kuranui), a hapū of Tolaga Bay and environs, part of Te Aitanga-a-Hauiti. His mother was Arihia Rangi, also of Te Aitanga-a-Hauiti. No records have been found of Tūtekohi's upbringing or young adulthood, but by the 1920s he was regarded in Mangatuna, his village, as the expert in Māori lore and carving.
Tūtekohi Rangi married, but the name of his wife has not been found. He had two surviving sons, one of whom was called Tītī. He may have taken another wife at Waikaremoana about 1948. His house at Mangatuna had a single room with an earth floor, about 20 by 14 feet, where the family lived, ate and slept. His wife and sons milked between 12 and 20 cows, and the cream cheque and a family benefit were Tūtekohi's only income.
From the 1930s Tūtekohi Rangi began to establish a reputation as a faith healer and tohunga. The Tūtekohi movement, as officials called it, was probably an unregistered offshoot of the Anglican church. It began with religious meetings based on Anglican prayers at Tāhaenui, near Nūhaka, at the home of Rāwiri (Dave) Kaipuke, a law clerk and interpreter, and was supported by Kīngi Hemopo, a local elder. No meetings were held unless Tūtekohi himself was present. He is said to have travelled there on a white horse, a powerful symbol of spiritual leadership on the East Coast since the days of the prophet Te Kooti Arikirangi. From 1938 the length of the meetings – four to six weeks – attracted the official displeasure of the Department of Health and the New Zealand Police Force. The employment and domestic arrangements of the adherents and the schooling of their children were all disrupted; it was rumoured, but not proved, that large amounts of liquor were consumed.
Over the next decade as Tūtekohi's reputation grew, the movement gained momentum. By 1949 there were 200 to 300 followers, including invalids hoping for a cure, and meetings were being held in five more locations: Waimako pā, Waikaremoana, led by Wiremu Matamua and Noa Tīwai; Raupunga, led by Paul (Pāora) Lemuel Te Urupū and Heuheu Heta; Hinemihi, Wairoa, led by Hākiaha Ponga; Mill pā, Frasertown; and Tikitiki. Many of the sick had tuberculosis and had been written off as incurable by doctors at Cook and Te Puia hospitals. There were no meetings at Mangatuna, but Tūtekohi's patients were often brought to his house and left there by relatives in the hope that he would cure them.
Health officials and the police attempted to extract a promise from the movement's leaders to keep meetings to a reasonable length, but despite pressure from the local tribal executive nothing changed. In 1948 the controller of Māori welfare, Rangi Royal, requested that local Māori welfare officers report on Tūtekohi's activities with a view to prosecuting him under the Tohunga Suppression Act 1907. In July 1950 Moana Raureti, welfare officer at Whakakī, Wairoa, wrote to Royal saying that the tribal executive was receiving complaints that nothing had been done. Tūtekohi's meetings had not grown in size, but they now lasted six to eight weeks. Although members of the executive considered that their authority was being flouted, and they were being criticised as ineffectual, they took no action. Witnesses were needed, but Māori people were reluctant to speak about tohunga, to risk their displeasure or lose their help. Neither government nor tribal authorities found a way to deal with the phenomenon.
Presumably, Tūtekohi's movement expired after he died on 21 February 1956 at his home at Ruataniwha Road, Wairoa. Two days later, he was buried at Wainui.