Vehicle and driver licensing
Cars needed to be registered and licensed by a local authority from 1905. Annual licensing of all drivers was introduced in 1925. Before the Transport Department was established in 1929, road safety and car regulation was the responsibility of several government departments and 300 local bodies.
Since 1987 New Zealand has had a three-stage graduated driver licensing system. A learner licence is gained by passing a theory test and must be held for at least six months. During this time, a learner driver must be supervised by a driver with a full licence whenever they drive.
The next step is to gain a restricted licence by passing a practical driving test. After this, the driver can drive alone (except between 10 p.m. and 5 a.m.), but cannot carry passengers without a supervisor.
Before applying for a full licence, the driver must have held a restricted licence for at least 18 months if aged under 25, or at least six months if aged 25 or over. The driver must pass another practical driving test, and will then receive a full licence, which must be renewed every 10 years.
Young people, particularly males, are disproportionately likely to be involved in a crash. However, in the 12 years after the introduction of the graduated licensing system, the number and rate of fatally or seriously injured vehicle occupants aged 15–24 nearly halved. In 2006, one-third of road users killed or injured were in this age group, and two-thirds were male.
While risk-taking behaviour is more pronounced amongst young males, when the crash statistics are adjusted to allow for the greater distances driven by young men than by young women, most of the gender distinction disappears. Driver inexperience seems to be an important factor in crashes. Loss of control on corners and head-on crashes are the main causes of fatal accidents. Cornering too quickly is the main cause of injury accidents.
From 1928 drivers were required to obtain insurance against their liability to pay damages arising from death or injury to others. The premium was payable to a nominated company with the annual vehicle licence fee. This scheme lasted until 1974, when cover for everyone was provided under the Accident Compensation Act 1972, again from premiums paid with the annual licence fee.
Compulsory inspection of vehicles was introduced in 1931, initially for passenger service vehicles such as buses, and later for goods vehicles and school buses. From 1937 this requirement was extended to private cars. The aim was to reduce the number of accidents caused by faulty vehicles. During and after the Second World War, few cars were imported and the warrant of fitness (WOF) inspection was essential to check the condition of an ageing national vehicle fleet.
WOFs were issued for six months. From 1985 cars less than three years old could receive a WOF for 12 months.
Seat belts became available in cars from the 1950s. In the 2000s it is compulsory for the driver and all passengers to use them.
A blood alcohol limit for drivers of 100 milligrams per 100 millilitres of blood was introduced in 1969. This was reduced to 80 milligrams in 1978 and 50 milligrams in 2014. The legal limit for drivers under 20 years of age was lowered to 30 milligrams in 1993, and to zero in 2011.
Despite ongoing drink-driving campaigns, alcohol still plays a major role in road crashes. In 1996, 31% of crash deaths and 69% of serious injuries were alcohol-related. Innocent victims made up nearly half the total. People aged 15 to 39 had the highest incidence of death and injury.
An open-road limit of 50 miles (80 kilometres) per hour was introduced during the Second World War – when most roads were unsealed – to conserve tyres and road surfaces. As highway engineering and roads improved, the limit was raised to 55 miles (89 kilometres) per hour in 1963. In 1969 it was raised to 60 miles (97 kilometres) per hour on a few designated motorways.
In 1973, during the first oil shock, all limits were reduced to 50 miles per hour. The limit was metricated to 80 kilometres per hour in 1975, and lifted to 100 kilometres (62 miles) per hour in 1986.