Conifer–broadleaf forest has five main layers. The floor holds a dense layer of ferns, seedlings and other ground plants. Growing close to this layer are the shrubs. Then there are the subcanopy trees and tree ferns. Above these shade-tolerant plants there is a closed roof or canopy of tall trees, which blocks out most of the light. Finally, rising through the canopy are the emergent trees.
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Artwork by Rozel Pharazyn
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