Mature conifer–broadleaf forest consists of five layers. The forest floor has plants less than 1 metre high, most of them ferns. Shrubs then form a layer between 1 and 5 metres high. Subcanopy trees grow to 10–15 metres high. Above this, the canopy trees form a continuous forest roof around 20–25 metres high. At the top are emergent trees, which grow through the forest canopy. They can reach 30–50 metres high.
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