Introduction of horses
When horses were first brought to New Zealand in the 19th century, they were expensive. Only Māori chiefs could afford them.
Later, many horses were bought, paid for with pigs and flax. Horses made travel faster, and by the 1850s were the main form of land transport for Māori. They were also used as gifts to other tribes.
All the tribes who fought in the New Zealand wars of the 1860s had horses.
Tribes and early horses
Ngāpuhi was the first tribe to have horses. In 1814 their chief Ruatara was given a mare – one of the first horses in New Zealand. Ngāpuhi later gifted horses to the Te Arawa and Tūwharetoa tribes.
Māori who saw a horse swimming ashore at Wellington were said to have been frightened, thinking it was a taniwha (water monster). However, their chief was not afraid. He rode the horse, and the tribe bought it.
Some Māori found horses so strange that they called them ‘taniwha’ or ‘tipua’ (supernatural creatures). Others thought they were similar to dogs, because they have four legs, so they called them ‘kurī’ (dog). Mostly people used the word ‘hōiho’, based on the English word ‘horse’.
The prophet Te Kooti had a white horse and a black horse, which were believed to have spiritual power. Later, the Tūhoe prophet Rua Kēnana was said to have ridden Te Kooti’s white horse.
- Kaimanawa horses, which run wild in the central North Island, are associated with Tūwharetoa people, who see them as kaitiaki (guardians) and taonga (treasures).
- Nāti horses live on the North Island’s East Coast, with Ngāti Porou people – who are also nicknamed Nāti.
Horses became important for transport in rural Māori communities, and were used on farms. In some remote areas, they are still used to get to school or town.
Māori took part in races organised by Pākehā, or in races just for Māori. A number of Māori racing clubs were set up. One, the Ōtaki Māori Racing Club, started in 1886 and was still going in 2008.