Oceans at risk
Although the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea established new laws, it could not guarantee that they would be managed wisely. It envisaged that coastal states would develop rules governing their marine environments, including fisheries in their exclusive economic zones (EEZs). Also needed were more specific international and regional rules to ensure the sustainable management of open-seas fisheries, and to set safety and environmental standards for international shipping.
Action programmes, additional rules, and new management bodies have achieved much. But the state of the world’s oceans continues to deteriorate. The three greatest threats remain:
- pollution from land-based sources
- destruction of marine habitats.
The international community faces many other complex problems, including criminal activities such as terrorism, piracy, migrant smuggling and illicit traffic in drugs, arms and other goods. There is also the major issue of rising sea level caused by global warming.
New Zealand’s response
Joining in the effort to protect the world’s oceans, New Zealand has:
- participated in global efforts to reduce pollution from land sources, which accounts for 80% of all ocean pollution.
- sought to reduce the pollution that enters its coastal waters from the land.
- drawn attention to the fact that over 70% of the world’s fisheries are being fished at or above sustainable levels.
- promoted international action to eliminate destructive fishing practices such as drift netting.
- played a prominent part in establishing a forum within the United Nations where issues can be discussed informally, drawing on a range of expertise.
Overfishing and illegal fishing
New Zealand is particularly concerned to manage its fisheries and protect the marine environment both within its EEZ and in surrounding waters, including the Southern Ocean.
Cleaning up our own act
While critical of other countries for destructive fishing, New Zealand is not above reproach. Some of its own vessels practise bottom trawling. This has an extremely detrimental effect on the sea-floor environment, and has drawn international criticism.
The massive over-capacity of the world fishing fleet is a major concern for New Zealand. The world fishing fleet already has at least double the capacity needed for sustainable catch levels. It discards 25% of its catch, and would run at a loss but for government subsidies.
The failure of many states to stop their vessels engaging in illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing on the high seas or in other EEZs is another significant problem.
Supporting the UN convention
New Zealand has a vested interest in supporting the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea in its present form. It seems most unlikely that any renegotiation would produce such a favourable result. Therefore, New Zealand can be expected to play an active role in the development of new measures and agreements to deal with current problems and any others that emerge. The convention provides the stable legal framework against which such solutions can be developed.