In the 19th century many teachers did not receive formal training and learned on the job as pupil-teachers. Older pupils (aged 13 or over) were apprenticed to a school for about four years. They received a wage in return for teaching younger pupils and doing non-teaching tasks. They had to study for annual examinations in their spare time. These are the teachers of Campbell Street School (later Central Normal School) in Palmerston North around 1897. The four girls at the ends of each row are pupil-teachers.
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