After the battle of Rangiriri, the Kīngitanga (Māori King movement) forces retreated and built a large series of fortifications to protect the area producing most of their food. The centre of these defences was at Pāterangi, where a network of trenches and parapets was built with solid earthworks. Realising that the pā was highly defensible, the British decided to bypass it. Later in 1864 Captain Edward Brooks of the Royal Engineers returned to the site and drew this plan of the Pāterangi fortifications. Imperial officers were hugely impressed by the intricacy and ingenuity of their design.
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