During the 1990s and 2000s there was increasing aggregation among New Zealand publishers as local firms were bought by large multinational companies and then those companies, looking for economies of scale and feeling the pressure from the rise of digital publishing, came together in mergers. In 2013 Random House and Penguin merged. This diagram shows the steps towards the creation of this very large firm, which by 2013 was publishing about 85 New Zealand titles a year.
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