Kōrero: Kōhere, Mōkena

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Kohere, Mokena

?–1894

Nō Ngāti Porou; he rangatira, he āteha, he kaitōrangapū

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Rarawa Kohere,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

I whānau a Mōkena Kōhere ki Waiora-ā-Tāne, i Rangitukia. Ko ia te tama tuarua a Whakatātare (arā, Pākura) rāua ko Moahiraia. Ko ōna hapū ko Te Whānau-a-Rerewā me Ngāti Hokopū. He hononga anō ōna ki ngā hapū o Ngāi Tuitimatua me Te Whānau-a-Tūwhakairiora. He hapū katoa ēnei nō Ngāti Porou whānui tonu.

Ko Kakatarau tōna tuakana. Ko ia te rangatira nāna i ārahi a Ngāti Porou i ngā pakanga ki a Te Whānau-a-Apanui i te tekau tau mai i 1830. I hainatia e ia te Tiriti o Waitangi i 1840, ā, he wā i muri mai ka mate. Nō te mea he whare ngaro, ka riro i te taina, i a Mōkena te mana rangatira.

Ko tētahi whakamāramatanga mō te īngoa nei mō 'Kōhere' e hāngai ana ki a ia ka tū hei kaiwhakamarumaru mō te iwi me te whenua. Taihoa ake ka kitea he kupu poropiti ēnei. Ko tana īngoa tuarua a 'Mōkena' i tangohia mai i a Mōkena (John Morgan), he mihinare nō te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare (Church Missionary Society).

Ko tana wahine tuatahi ko Ērana Umutara. Ko Mārara Hinekukurangi o Te Whānau-a-Tāpuhi tana wahine tuarua. Tata ana ki te 50 tau rāua ko Mārara e noho tahi ana i Kāmiti i Waiora-a-Tāne hoki. I whānau tā rāua mātāmua a Hōne Hiki ki Kāmiti.

I whawhai tahi rāua ko tōna tuakana ko Kakatarau ki a Te Whānau-a-Apanui i te tau 1834, i te taenga ake o wērā ki te 'kai i ngā manawa o Ngāti Porou'. Kātahi ka huakina a Rangitukia pā, ka ū tonu, kāre i riro. He maha te parekura o te hunga whakaeke. I te tau 1836, ka whakahiatotia e Kakatarau tētahi waitaua kia tōpū ake ki Waiapu. Ko te rautipu i a Te Whānau-a-Apanui i Toka-ā-kuku pā i Te Kaha, te kaupapa. Nō te rohe mai i Wharekahika (Hicks Bay) ki Te Wairarapa wētahi o ngā rangatira i puta ake ki te tautoko. Ka tukia a Toka-ā-kuku, kāre i hinga, kātahi ka karapotia. Ahakoa te roa o te pakipakitanga me te rahi o te parekura, ka ū tonu a Te Whānau-a-Apanui. Ka whakataungia e Ngāti Porou kua rite i ngā mate o Te Whānau-a-Apanui tā rātau take, ka hīkina te pakipaki, hoki atu ana ki te kāenga.

Ko Piripi Taumata-ā-Kura anō tētahi o te waitaua ki Toka-ā-kuku. Ko ia tētahi o ngā mea tuatahi ki te kauhau i te Rongopai ki ngā iwi o te riu o Waiapu, ā, riro ana rātau i te awe o ana tohutohu me ngā tohutohu anō hoki a ngā mihinare o te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare, i hanake ki Te Tai Rāwhiti i te tau 1840. Nā Mōkena i hanga te whare karakia o Hoani i Rangitukia. Ko te 1856 te tau i whakatapua ai tēnei whare e Pīhopa Herewini (G. A. Selwyn). He whare rahi tonu. E 800 te whakaminenga ka kapi ki roto. Taihoa ake ka whakatūria a ia hei hīnotamana reimana.

I whakamahia e Mōkena ngā āhuatanga a te Pākehā, ana tikanga me ana rākau pai hai oranga mō tōna iwi. Ko te mōhio ki ngā mahi tuku iho a ngā tīpuna, arā, te pou kai me te whakatere waka, i hurihia e ia hai painga mō rātau. Mai rā anō i te tau 1840 e puta ana te hua i ā rātau mahi ahu whenua, mahi hokohoko hoki. Inā kē te kaitā o ngā mahinga kānga me ngā mahinga wīti i poua. Hai kawe i ngā hua ki Ākarana (Auckland), ā, tae atu ana hoki ki Ahitereiria; ka hokona mai e rātau he kaipuke. E 20 tana te taumaha o tēnei kaipuke nā Mōkena i hoko mai. Nāna i tapa ki tana tamāhine ki a Mereana. Kai ngā rekoata kaipuke o 1852 e mau ana, ko Mōkena te kāpene o te Mereana. Ko ia anō hoki te kaiwhakarite mō tōna iwi i waenga i ngā kaihokohoko.

Ko tētahi wāhanga o te kaupapa kāwanatanga Māori motuhake-ā-takiwā a Kāwana Hōri Kerei (George Grey), ko te whakatū āteha. I Hānuere o 1862, ka whakatūria a Mōkena hai āteha matua mō te rūnanga o Ngāti Porou. Ko te tōpūtanga o Waiapu me te kokorutanga o Tokomaru tōna rohe mahi. I whakaātehatia ana hoa rangatira a Iharaia Te Houkāmau ki Wharekahika, me Wikiriwhi Mātāuru (he īngoa anō tōna, ko Matehēnoa), ki Te Kawakawa (Te Araroa). Ko te nuinga o ā rātau mahi he whakapūmau i te ture me te āta noho a te tangata i ō rātau rohe. Ko te Kaiwhakawā Takiwā tonu tō rātau kaiāwhina. Otirā, ko te nuinga o ngā mahi whakatau i ngā take ture, nā ngā rūnanga tonu o tēnā, o tēnā wāhi i whakahaere. Nā te mea he rangatira rātau, i whai tūnga ai ngā āteha nei i roto i ngā rūnanga. Me kī e tautoko ana te kaupapa a Kerei i te tūmomo kāwanatanga a te Māori nō mai rā anō.

I te tōmuatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1860, ka huri wētahi o Ngāti Porou ki te kaupapa o te Kīngitanga. Heoti, ko ngā rangatira o Ngāti Porou i pūmau ki tō rātau ake tino rangatiratanga, ka noho hei kūpapa. I tuhia e Ātirīkona W. L. Williams, ko te kupu kūpapa tonu te īngoa o te iwi o Waiapu mō rātau anō, nō te mea, kāre rātau i tautoko i te take a te kāwanatanga, i te take rānei a te Kīngitanga. Ahakoa te noho pōkaikaha o ngā whakaaro o Mōkena mō te Kīngitanga, i kaha tonu tana whakatūpato i tana iwi kia kaua rātau e uru atu ki te pakanga i Waikato, koi noho ngā whenua o Ngāti Porou hai take muru. Ahakoa rā, i tautokona tonutia a Waikato e wētahi o Ngāti Porou. I te hokinga ake i te tau 1862, ka hūtia a Rua, te haki a te Kīngitanga, ki Waiomatatini. Ki a Mōkena me ngā rangatira o Ngāti Porou, he wero taua haki ki ō rātau mana tuku iho.

I te tau 1865, ka puta ake te Hauhau, ka rewa te patu i Te Tai Rāwhiti. Ko Mōkena tētahi nāna i ātete. Mehemea kāre, tērā pea e riro katoa Te Tai Rāwhiti me te rahi tonu o Te Ika-a-Māui i te Hauhau. Nā tēnei mahi āna, hau whānui ana tōna rongo puta noa i te motu. E hāngai ana tēnei mahi āna ki tana takoha, arā, ka whakapūmautia e ia tō rātau mana; ngā āhuatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi i hainatia rā e tōna tuakana e Kaka-tarau, me tana here i a ia ki te Whakapono.

I Maehe o 1865, ka kōhurutia mai e te Hauhau a Te Wākana (C. S. Völkner) i Ōpōtiki. Wero ana te rongo ki te poho o Ngāti Porou. He tangata hoki i mōhiotia i ngā hui hīnota a te pīhopatanga o Waiapu e te nuinga o ngā rangatira o Te Tai Rāwhiti. Ko ngā rangatira nei ko Mōkena Kōhere, ko Hēnare Pōtae, ko Rāniera Kāwhia, ko Mohi Tūrei, ko Hōtene Porourangi (arā, Te Horo) me Rāpata Wahawaha, haere ai ki aua hui i runga i tō rātau karanga minita, hīnotamana reimana rānei. I tuhi katoa rātau ki te pīhopa, ki a Te Wiremu (William Williams) ki te whakahē i taua patunga.

I Maehe o 1865, ka hiki te Hauhau i Ōpōtiki puta rawa ake ki Tūranga (Gisborne). Ko Te Wiremu tērā ka whakatumahia, me te kī atu ka patua pērātia a ia i a Te Wākana rā. Nō te rerenga atu o te pīhopa me tana whānau i Tūranga, ka tonoa atu a Mōkena e Ngāi Te Kete hapū o Rongowhakaata, kia hanake. Na, ko Mōkena he whanaunga tata, ā, he tino hoa anō hoki nō tō rātau rangatira nō Paratene Tūrangi (arā, Paratene Pōtoti). Nō te taenga atu o Mōkena e tū mai ana tētahi pou kaitā, nā Ngāi Te Kete i tārai mō te kara o Peretānia (Great Britain). Nā te noho āwangawanga ki ngā nekeneke a te Hauhau, ka whakatauria taihoa e hūtia te kara. Heoti, nā te kore pai o Mōkena ki te awe o te Hauhau i taua takiwā, ka whakaarahia e rātau ko wētahi o Ngāi Te Kete, he pou āhua kaitā tonu, kātahi ka hūtia te kara o Peretānia. I whakatakariri wētahi o Tūranganui-a-Kiwa (Poverty Bay) ki taua hutinga, ēngari, nā te mea me huhuti i te whenua ake o ngā kaihuti, ka tau te wera. I tuhi atu a Mōkena ki a Te Mākarini (Donald McLean), te kaiwhakahaere-ā-porowini, te take i hūtia ai te kara. Arā, hei whakarurunga mō Ngāi Te Kete, ā, kāre ia i whakahau i wētahi atu kia tahuri mai, ko ōna whanaunga anake.

Nō te 8 o Hune 1865, ka hoki tahi atu a Mōkena rātau ko Te Mākarini, ko Ātirīkona Williams ki Tūpāroa whanga atu ai ki a Hēnare Pōtae rātau ko Rāniera Kāwhia me Mohi Tūrei mā. I hanake te tokotoru nei i te hui i Popoti, he pā kai uta. I puta te rongo i Popoti kua tomokia te rohe o Waiapu e te Hauhau, te hunga nāna a Te Wākana i kōhuru. Ka whakamōhiotia atu e te tokotoru nei ki a Mōkena mā, kua riro he wāhanga o te iwi ki te hopu i a Pātara Raukatauri o Taranaki, te kaingārahu o te Hauhau. Ko Hēnare Nihoniho rāua ko Rāpata Wahawaha ngā rangatira nāna te 40 o Te Aowera hapū i ārahi ki te rapa i te Hauhau. Ehara! kua kitea. He ope mau pū katoa, 150 te rahi. Ko te nuinga he rāwaho, ēngari ko wētahi anō nō Ngāti Porou tonu, i taritari opetia mai i te raki o Waiapu. Ka pā atu, ka taieritia mai. Te tauitanga tēnā o Te Aowera. Ka mauria e Mōkena he wāhanga o tōna hapū hai tuarā mō Te Aowera. Ēngari i hanepī anō, ā, pērā i a Rāpata mā rā, i anga ia ki te taui. Ka taui mai ā tae noa ki Te Hātepe wawao ai i a rātau. Koi nei te pā o Mōkena. E tū tata atu ana ki te ngutu awa o Waiapu i Rangitukia. Ko te Hauhau i noho mai i Pākairomiromi, e rua māero pea te tawhiti ki uta o Te Hātepe.

Kotahi marama a Te Hātepe e awhitia ana e te Hauhau. He whawhai whakapāpā te mahi. Ahakoa i āwhinatia mai e wētahi o ana hoa rangatira, nā te ruarua o te pū, o te kariri, me te rahi o te taua Hauhau, i roa ai te awhinga. Me kī ko te rua o te Hauhau ki te kotahi o Mōkena mā te ritenga o ngā toa o tētahi taha ki ō tētahi taha. Ka tukuna e ngā rangatira he reta ki Pōneke (Wellington). He whakaatu kua tae ake te hunga Hauhau o Taranaki me rau wāhi kē, ki te whakatutuki i tā rātau kī, arā, e haepapatia ana e rātau ngā kaiwawao. He inoi anō hoki kia tonoa ake he taputapu whawhai me tētahi ope whakahirihiri. Ka puta atu ko Rūtene Te Piiki (R. N. Biggs) me ana kaitūao Pākehā e 20 ki te pā o Mōkena i te 3 o Hūrae. E rua rā i muri mai ka huakina e te Hauhau, ka taieritia e Mōkena rātau ko Te Piiki mā. Nō te 13 o Hūrae, ka ū i a Te Mākarini ki uta, a Kāpene Pereiha (James Fraser) me te 50 hōia a te kāwanatanga. I tua atu ko ā rātau pū, ā rātau kariri me te putunga rawa hai whakangata i ō rātau hiahia. Ka tae ake te kupu maungārongo a Pātara ki a Mōkena, kia noho ai ko te ope hōia Pākehā anake hai pakangatanga māna. Ēngari, ko te whakautu kē a Mōkena, he tuku kōrero ki ō Ngāti Porou i tautoko rā i te Kīngitanga, ā, i tēnei wā e tū tahi ana me te Hauhau. Arā, ki a rātau anake tana kupu houhou i te rongo. Ēngari koi nei tana whakarite, me mau herehere mai a Pātara ki a ia, ā, me anga rātau ki te oati ka noho pūmau rātau ki te Kuini ā muri atu. Kāre i tutuki.

Ko te tātai hai huaki i a Pākairomiromi, nā Mōkena. Nō te 2 o Ākuhata ka pāhoro ngātahitia e ngā ope a Mōkena rāua ko Pereiha a Pākairomiromi, ka riro. He rahi te parekura. Ko ngā Hauhau i puta i taui ki Pukemaire pā i Tikitiki. Ka tukia anō i reira. Ko tō rātau rerenga atu tēnā ki Hungahungatoroa pā, 13 maero te tawhiti, ki Te Kawakawa, e tū tata ana ki Te Araroa o ēnei rā. Hai ārai kai puta anō, ka whāia atu e Te Piiki rāua ko Rāpata Wahawaha mā te ara i uta. He roa kē ake te ara o Mōkena rāua ko Pereiha ki Hungahungatoroa, nā te mea, e takahi kē atu ana mā te taha moana. Nō muri tata iho i te taenga atu o Rāpata mā ka tae atu ko Mōkena mā. E takawhita ana a Mōkena kia hauraro ngā Hauhau o Ngāti Porou i reira. Kāre i roa kua karanga ake ki a Te Piiki rāua ko Mōkena ki tō rātau hiahia ki te hohou i te rongo. Ka puta ake, ka tuku i ā rātau pū. Nā runga i te whakaaro tērā rātau e patua, ka tahuti ngā Hauhau rāwaho ki Waerenga-a-Hika i Tūranganui-a-Kiwa. Ko ngā Hauhau o Ngāti Porou i mauria hereheretia atu ki Te Hātepe. I reira ka oatitia e rātau te oati ka noho pūmau rātau ki te Kuini. Kātahi ka murua e Mōkena ō rātau hara me te kī atu, kia hoki ki ō rātau hapū ki te tahu i ā rātau ahi. Ka hoki, ēngari, i āta tirohia tā rātau noho a muri atu.

I takea mai te kore pai o Mōkena ki te kaupapa a te Pai Mārire i tana whakapono e takatakahi ana rātau i te kaupapa o te Tiriti o Waitangi; i tōna ake whakapono; i tōna mana rangatira ki tōna rohe; i te oranga hoki o tōna iwi. He mōhio anō hoki nōna, ka murua ngā whenua o te iwi mehemea ka tahuri rātau ki te whawhai i te kāwanatanga.

I te hinganga o Hungahungatoroa ka hora te āio ki te rohe o Waiapu. Kua noho i nāianei ko Waerenga-a-Hika i Tūranganui-a-Kiwa te pū o te riri. He pā maioro tō ngā Hauhau i reira. Ka tae ake a Te Mākarini ki Tūpāroa ki te tono i a Ngāti Porou hei tuarā mōna. Nō te 9 o Noema 1865, ka hoki tahi atu rātau ki Tūranga me te 260 o Ngāti Porou i raro i a Rāpata Wahawaha rāua ko Hōtene Porourangi. Kāre a Mōkena i uru atu ki taua waitaua. I haere kē rātau ko tana hurahura ki uta, ki Makauri. Nā rātau i tātakimōrī ai ngā mahi a ngā toro Hauhau. Na, i Waerenga-a-Hika, i whakakotahitia te taua o ngā Māori me tō ngā Pākehā i raro i a Pereiha, kātahi ka awhitia. E whitu rā e pakipakitia ana, ka horo.

Nō te mutunga o te whawhai i Tūranganui-a-Kiwa, ka tono a Raharuhi Rukupō kia noho tahi rāua ko Mōkena ki ōna whenua, ā, nā Paratene Tūrangi a Mōkena i whakatū hai kaitiaki mō ngā pānga whenua o Ngāti Maru. He wāhi nui tonu tā Mōkena i roto i ngā mahi kia kore e murua ngā whenua o Rongowhakaata. Mō tēnei mahi āna ka tukuna a Hinewirangi, he mere pounamu, hei takoha ki a ia.

I te tukunga o te patu i te tau 1865, ka kī taurangi a Kerei me Te Mākarini, ka tohua ngā whenua o Ngāti Porou ki a rātau anō. Nō te tau 1866, ka hui tahi a Mōkena rātau ko Rāpata, ko Te Mākarini mā. Ka whakatauria e rātau me kati te hoko, te rīhi rānei i te katoa o ngā whenua ki te raki o Waiapu. Heoti, i tukuna ki te kāwanatanga hai take muru, he wāhanga whenua o Te Tai Rāwhiti, arā, hai utu i te hara o rātau i whai i te Hauhau. I tēnei wā kua noho ko Te Piiki te kanohi mō te Karauna. Nō tana kitenga he iti rawa te whenua i whoatu, ka whakakorea te tuku. Ka whakatika mai a Te Piiki ka rohea te whenua mai i Wharekahika ki Reporua, hai whakaea i te take muru. Ēngari, nō tana taenga atu ki te rūri i te poraka, ka panaia e Mōkena. Ko te mōunu a te kāwanatanga mā Mōkena i nāianei he utunga moni nunui tonu. Kāre i tangohia e te rangatira nei. He mōhio nōna he niho ngau whenua taua moni. Kātahi ka kī atu, 'E hoki kōrua ko tō moni, nāku anake nā te Māori taku riri, ehara nāu nā te Pākehā'. Nā tēnei mahi āna i whakaata tōna tino rangatiratanga, ā, i kore ai hoki ōna whenua i riro i te take muru.

Ahakoa rā, ka tohe tonu ngā kanohi a te Karauna kia hokona he whenua o Te Tai Rāwhiti ki a rātau. Ka mauria e Mōkena tana pitihana ki Pōneke, ki te whakamahara atu i te kāwanatanga ki te kī taurangi o mua atu a Kerei me Te Mākarini. Ka tono anō hoki kia whakamutua te tohetohe ki te hoko whenua. I noho tonu ki a Ngāti Porou ō rātau whenua ā tae noa ki te tau 1874. I taua tau ka tū he hui ki Wharekahika. Ka whakatauria i reira kia tū te Kōti Whenua Māori ki Waiapu. Ko te kaupapa he āta tirotiro i ngā kerēme whenua Māori. Ahakoa i tū taua hui ki Waiapu i te tau 1875, kāre a Mōkena i pai ki te kaupapa-here a te Kōti Whenua Māori. Ki a ia me noho tonu ki te katoa o te iwi nō rātau te whenua te mana whenua. I te tīmatanga o te tau 1875, ka tū tana hui ki Te Pākihi i Whanga-o-keno (East Cape), ka whakatauria me rāhui hai whenua tūturu te whenua i waenga i ngā awa o Awatere me Maraehara. Ko Mōkena te rangatira o aua whenua. E rua wiki i muri mai ka whakatūturutia i Horoera ngā whakataunga o Te Pākihi. I whakawhenua tūturutia anō hoki e ērā o ngā rangatira o te raki o Waiapu, ō rātau whenua. Nā te punenga o Mōkena i kore ai ngā whenua i hokona. Kotahi tonu tana kupu ki tana iwi, kia puritia te whenua hai oranga mō rātau me ō rātau uri whakaheke.

Nō te tau 1868, te pōti tuatahi mō ngā tūru Māori e whā, ki te Whare Pāremata. Ka tautapaina e Ngāti Porou ko Mōkena hei whakatūranga mō rātau. Ēngari kāre te pepa tautapa i tae wawe atu ki Ahuriri (Napier), ka hanepī a Mōkena. Heoti, i te tau 1872, ko ia tētahi o ngā Māori tuatahi kia whakaritea hei mema ki te Kaunihera Ture (Legislative Council) o te Whare Pāremata. He nui tonu ngā take i tīorioritia e ia ki te aroaro o ngā mema i te wā i a ia i reira, arā, ko te Kōmihana Uiui mō ngā whenua o te Kāreti o Te Aute; ko te whakatū pirihimana ki ngā takiwā Māori; me te katinga o te niupepa Māori whai mana rā a Te Waka Māori. Nō te tau 1870, ka whakawhiwhia ki a ia te hoari hōnore a Kuini Wikitōria (Victoria). Ka taka ki te tau 1871, ka whakawhiwhia ki a ia te mētara o Niu Tīreni mō Tūmatauenga (New Zealand War Medal).

I ana kōpikopikotanga ki te rūnanga nui o te Pāremata ka whakahoahoa a Mōkena rāua ko Hikawera Mahupuku, rangatira o Te Wairarapa. I runga i te tono a tērā ka mauria mai e Mōkena wētahi o ngā tohunga mau whao o Ngāti Porou. Nā rātau i hanga, i whakairo te whare nui ahurei nei a Tākitimu i Kehemane, e tū tata ana ki Te Waihenga, he wāhi tata atu ki Martinborough. Ko 1887 te tau whakamutunga o Mōkena i te Kaunihera Ture. Ka mutu, ka hoki ia ki tana kāenga tūturu ki Rangitukia. I noho tahi rāua ko Henarata, te pouaru a tana mātāmua a Hōne Hiki, ā mate noa ia. Ko te 4 o Maehe 1894 te rā o tōna hinganga. E ai ki ngā kōrero, neke atu i te 80 ōna tau.

He rārangi kai tētahi haka a Ngāti Porou e kī ana, 'Me e kore ana a Te Mōkena a nge?'. He kupu whakamaharatanga ēnei mō tana whakaoratanga i wētahi Hauhau o Ngāti Porou i mau herehere i Te Pito, ki te tonga o Whanga-o-keno. E takatū ana kia puhipuhia ka rokohangatia atu e ia, ka tohua kia ora. Ahakoa nā taua mahi ana i whānau mai ai aua kupu, e tino hāngai ana anō ki ana mahi mō tōna iwi i a ia e ora ana. He wā i muri i tōna matenga ka puta te kōrero: 'Ko Mōkena Kōhere te rangatira nāna i toutou ngā ahi a ngā iwi o Waiapu me Tūranganui-a-Kiwa kia kā ake anō. Mehemea kāre a Mōkena tērā e ngaro ki tōna iwi ngā taonga tuku iho a ō rātau tīpuna.'

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Rarawa Kohere. 'Kōhere, Mōkena - Kohere, Mokena', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1k15/kohere-mokena (accessed 18 November 2019)