Kōrero: Nihoniho, Matutaera

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Nihoniho, Matutaera

1850–1914

Nō Ngāti Porou, nō Te Aowera; he toa rangatira, he āteha, he tangata hokohoko

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Steven Oliver,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990, and updated in January, 2002.

E ai ki ngā tuhituhi a Matutaera Nihoniho mō ngā whawhai ki Te Tai Rāwhiti, i whānau ia i te 30 o Oketopa 1850 ki Whareponga e tata rā ki te kokoru o Waipiro. Ko Te Aowera me Te Aitanga-a-Mate o Ngāti Porou ōna hapū. Ko Hēnare Nihoniho tōna pāpā, he rangatira nui, i hinga i ngā whawhai ki te Hauhau i te tekau tau atu i 1860. Ko Heeni Nohowaka tōna whaea. Hei ngaki i te mate o tana rangatira, ka uru atu a Heeni ki te pakanga ki te Hauhau.

Ko te īngoa nei a Matutaera nō te Paipera Tapu, he whakamāoritanga mō Methuselah, ka whakapotongia ki a Tuta. Nō te tau 1860 a Matutaera i haere ai ki te kura a Te Wiremu (William Williams) i Waerenga-a-Hika, he wāhi kāre i tino pāmamao rawa atu i Tūranga (Gisborne). I taua wā, i reira anō tana pāpā; ko tana hiahia he whakamātau hei minita mō te Hāhi Mihinare. I te tau 1865, arā a Hēnare Nihoniho me tana hapū i te whakatuwheratanga o te whare karakia i Popoti, ka puta ake te minita rā, a Mohi Tūrei, ki te whakaatu ki a ia kua uru mai ngā rangatira o te Pai Mārire ki Ngāti Porou. Ko te hunga tēnei nā rātau a Te Wākana (C. S. Völkner) i patu i Ōpōtiki. Nō te Hune o 1865, ka whakatika atu a Te Aowera i raro i a Hēnare Nihoniho ki te tuki i te Pai Mārire i tētahi wāhi e tata atu ana ki te awa o Mangaone, ka taiaritia mai. Ko Hēnare Nihoniho tētahi o te parekura. I a ia e whakahemohemo ana, ka hoatu e ia tana pū ki a Te Teira Pikiuha, hai hari ki a Tuta, māna hei ngaki tōna mate.

I ngā whawhai ki Te Tai Rāwhiti, ka hono atu a Tuta Nihoniho ki ōna o Ngāti Porou i raro i a Rāpata Wahawaha. I Tikitiki, wāhi o te riu o Waiapu, ka hono atu ia ki te āwhina i te hunga kūpapa a te kāwanatanga ki te hanga pā ki reira. I reira anō ko Pukemaire, te pā o Te Whānau-a-Hinerupe, he hapū tautoko i te Pai Mārire. Ka whakaekea a Pukemaire, ka taiaritia mai, kātahi ka tukia a Tikitiki, ka riro. Ko ngā mōrehu kūpapa i puta i rere atu ki te pā o Mōkena Kōhere ki Te Hātepe. Ko Mōkena te tino kaitautoko o Ngāti Porou i te kāwanatanga. Ka hono mai ki a ia he ope hōia tangata whai, me wētahi tūao nō Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay), ka whakawhiwhia rātou e te kāwanatanga ki ngā rākau whawhai. I Te Hātepe, nā Nihoniho i tautapa, ā, nā Te Aowera i tautoko ko Rāpata Wahawaha hai kaingārahu mō rātau. I kakarihia te Hauhau e Te Aowera i Mākōtukutuku, i Pākairomiromi. Ka whakaekea a Pākairomiromi ka parekuratia te Hauhau. Ka hinga ko Iharaira Porourangi, he rangatira aporei o Ngāti Porou tonu i huri ki te Pai Mārire. Kātahi a Pukemaire ka whakaekea. Ka maranga te tuatoru o ngā huaki ka kitea kua kore kē he tangata. Kātahi te Hauhau ka whāia atu ki Te Kawakawa (Te Araroa), ka horo tērā, ka whāia ki Hungahungatoroa. He kore oti nō ngā maioro o Hungahungatoroa i horo ai; ka rere wētahi, ko wētahi anō i tuku i a rātau. Ko te mutunga tēnei o te whawhai ki te rohe o Ngāti Porou.

Kātahi a Ngāti Porou ka haria atu ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa (Poverty Bay). Ka awhitia e rātau te Hauhau i Waerenga-a-Hika. Nō te 19 o Noema 1865, ka whana whakairitia mai e te Hauhau ngā awarua a te kāwanatanga, ka riri tūngutu, ka whati he kōiwi i tētahi o ngā ringa o Nihoniho. E toru rā i muri mai ka whakahauraro te Hauhau. Ka whanatu whakatonga a Te Aowera ki Te Wairoa. Nō te 13 o Hānuere 1866, ka patua e rātau te Hauhau i Te Kōpane. I te mutunga o te whawhai i te rohe o Te Wairoa, ka hoki a Te Aowera ki ō rātau kāinga. He ruarua nei ngā tau e noho āio ana a Te Tai Rāwhiti.

Nō te rerenga mai o Te Kooti mā i Rēkohu (Chatham Islands) ka ū i te 10 o Hūrae 1868, ki Whareongaonga, he wāhi e 8 māero ki te tonga o Te Kurī-a-Pāoa (Young Nick's Head), ka hoki anō a Nihoniho ki ngā mahi a te hōia. Ahakoa whāia haeretia a Te Kooti kāore i mau. I Puketapu, e tata atu rā ki Waikaremoana, ka whakaarahia e Te Kooti he pā. I haria mai anō a Ngāti Porou ki Te Wairoa ki te huaki i a Puketapu, ēngari kāore i kōkiritia. Nā te whakaroaroa i taea ai e Te Kooti te tuki a Tūranganui-a-Kiwa. I Matawhero, he wāhi e tū tata atu ana ki Tūranga, ka patua e Te Kooti he maha ngā tāngata whai me ngā Māori i tautoko i te kāwanatanga. E ai ki ngā tuhinga a Nihoniho i te rangona o Ngāti Porou mō aua patunga ka pōtukia, ka puta ake anō hoki te whakatakariri. Ka rangatū a Ngāti Porou ki Mākāretu, te pā i rere atu ai a Te Kooti rātau ko tana ope taritari, mau herehere hoki. Nō te 3 o Tīhema 1868, ka whakaekea a Mākāretu. E 60 ana tāngata i matemate ka taui a Te Kooti ki te pā tawhito i te tihi ninihi o Ngātapa.

Nā Rāpata Wahawaha rāua ko Rūtene G. A. Preece te kakaritanga o Ngātapa i whakahaere. Hui katoa e 47 o Te Aowera me Nihoniho anō i te ope whakaeke. Kīhai i riro te pā i te mātua whakaekenga atu. Nō te taenga mai o ngā ope hauora o Te Aowera, me ngā Pirihimana Mau Pū (Armed Constabulary) i raro i a Kānara G. S. Whitmore, ka papahoro atu a Te Kooti mā i te marama o Hānuere 1869. Ka whāia, ka mau te tokomaha o ana tāngata, patupatua katoatia ngā mea tāne. Nō te taenga ake o te ope tuarua o Te Aowera, ko te whaea o Nihoniho, ko Heeni Nohowaka, tētahi o rātau. I kitea ia i reira e akiaki ana i ngā toa kia kaha te riri.

Mai i ngā pae maunga o Te Urewera a Te Kooti kawe ake ai i tana riri. Nā Rāpata me Ngāti Porou rātau ko ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga i urutomo te rohe nei. Nō te tau 1871, i mau ai a Kereopa Te Rau. He poropiti nā te Pai Mārire. Nāna i whakakīkī kia patua a Te Wākana i te tau 1865. I te haringa atu o Kereopa ki Ahuriri (Napier), ko Nihoniho tētahi o ngā tautiaki.

I te mutunga o te pakanga he toa hokohoko te mahi a Nihoniho i Whangaparāoa i Te Moana-a-Toi-te-huatahi (Bay of Plenty), ā, i whai pānga a ia ki tētahi hōtēra i Mākarika; he wāhi kei te take rāwhiti o Aorangi maunga i roto o Waiapu. I moea e ia a Mereana Tairua o Te Aitanga-a-Mate. Ahakoa kāore he uri, he maha ā rāua whāngai. Ka takatū te pakanga i waenga i a Rūhia rāua ko Peretānia (Great Britain), i te tau 1886, ka kāhititia ia hai kāpene mō te Ngāti Porou Raiwhara (Ngāti Porou Rifles), he ope hōia i whakahiatotia kei heipū ka pakanga. Ko tona tikanga ko ia te kaiārahi mō tētahi rōpū Māori, e haere ana ki Ingarangi i te tau 1897, ki te whakanui i te 60 tau i noho Kuini ai a Kuini Wikitōria (Victoria). He pāpāngia nōna e te mate kāore i haere. I te pakanga o te Boer War, ka hiahia ia māna e taki e 500 ngā hōia Māori hei āwhina i te whawhai a Peretānia. Ka whakapeka te kāwanatanga. Ka mate te tama a Rore Roberts, ka tukuna atu e Nihoniho he mere pounamu ki a ia. Ko Rore Roberts te kaingārahu a Peretānia mō ana hōia i te pakanga i Āwherika ki te Tonga.

I te tau 1901, ko ia te kaea o te kapa haka o Ngāti Porou i te hui pōwhiri i Rotorua mō te Tiuka o Cornwall, o York, rāua ko tana hoa wahine. E mau ana i tētahi hoari whakahōnore i taua wā; ko ngā kupu i te rau e whakairo ana ko 'Te Ao-wera Hapū Ngāti-Porou Raiwhara'. Tērā pea nā te kāwana, nā Tā William Jervois, i tuku te hoari nei ki a Nihoniho mō te korowai i kohaina e ia ki a Kuini Wikitōria i te tau 1886.

I mahi a Nihoniho, tuatahi hei kaiwhakamāori, ā, i muri mai hei āteha i te Kōti Whenua Māori i Tūranga. He kanohi i kitea tōna i reira. He mōhio nōna ki te whakapapa i mau tonu ai te nuinga o ngā whenua o tōna iwi. Ēngari a Waipiro, ahakoa te kokoraho a Te Aowera ka hoatu kētia ki a Te Whānau-a-Iritekura. Kāore i tukuna e ia tēnei take kia takoto noa, ka hokihoki tonu ki te kōti kia whakahokia mai. Nō te tau 1891, ka whetakina e Nihoniho mā te poraka i Waipiro. E 60 te hunga nei, e mau pū katoa ana. Heoi, i mutu pai noa iho. Ko ā rātau pū i tukuna ki ngā pirihimana i haere ake i Ākarana (Auckland).

Nō te tau 1887, ka hangaia e Nihoniho rātau ko Te Aowera he kāinga hou mō rātau ka tapaina ko Hiruhārama. I reira ka tukuna e ia he whenua 10 eka te rahi hai tūranga kura. I pūmau tonu a Nihoniho ki tōna whakaaro i hē te tangohanga o Waipiro i a Te Aowera, ā, nō te mea kāore ia i āhei ki reira noho ai ka noho kē mai he wāhi kē. Kīhai i mōhiotia nō nahea i mate ai tana wahine tuatahi. Nō muri mai ka moea e ia a Ria (Rea rānei) Horomona nō Ngāi Tahu. Ka noho ki te kāinga o tana wahine i Tuahiwi, he wāhi kei waenganui i ngā ngutu awa o Rakahuri (Ashley River) me Waimakariri i Te Waipounamu. Nō muri mai, ka hiki atu ki Hūpēnui (Greytown) i Te Wairarapa.

Ko tana mahi whakamutunga e mōhiotia ana ko te hui a ngā rangatira i Rotorua. Ko ia tētahi nāna i whaihanga te Ture Kaunihera Māori (Māori Councils Act) 1900. I ōna tau whakamutunga ka pāpāngia e te mate, ka pararaihatia, he hua nō tana takanga i te hōiho i a ia i Waipiro. Nō te marama o Tīhema 1913 tana haerenga whakamutunga ki Tūranga. Nō tōna hokinga ki Hūpēnui i te marama o Hānuere 1914, ka mate. I Pāpāwai tana tangihanga, ā, tanumia tonutia atu ki reira. I mahue mai ko tana pouaru ko Ria me ā rāua tamariki tokotoru, me Hāriata, me Rongotehēngia rātou ko Timi Kara.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Steven Oliver. 'Nihoniho, Matutaera', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990, updated January, 2002. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1n14/nihoniho-matutaera (accessed 14 October 2019)