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Pomare, Wiremu Piti

by Angela Ballara

Biography

Ko tētahi o ngā īngoa o Pōmare ko Pōmare Ngātata. I whānau a ia i ngā tau tuatahi o te rau tau 1800–1899. Ko te whakaaro e 30 tōna pakeke i te tau 1834. Kāore i te mōhiotia ngā īngoa o ōna mātua. Ko te pēnei ko tōna kāwai i heke mai i a Piritaka, he rangatira nō Ngāti Kura, he karangatanga hapū o Ngāti Mutunga. He whanaunga tata a ia ki a Ngātata-i-te-rangi o Ngāti Te Whiti me Ngāti Tāwhirikura, he hapū nō Te Āti Awa. Ko tana wahine ko Tawhiti, he irāmutu nā Te Rauparaha o Ngāti Toa. Tokotoru ā rāua tamariki. Ko ngā whenua tupu o Ngāti Mutunga e hono atu ana ki ngā whenua o Ngāti Tama, e toro atu ana mō te 14 māero ki te taha raki o Waitara i Taranaki, ā, ka ahu atu ki Mōkau.

I a Pōmare e tamariki tonu ana, ka puta he pakanga i waenganui i ngā iwi whakaeke o Ngāti Toa me Waikato. I ngā whakahekenga o muri mai i te hinganga o Waikato i Motunui, me kī i te tau 1822, ko ētahi wāhanga o Ngāti Mutunga me Ngāti Tama i uru atu ki te hekenga o ngā tāngata o Taranaki ki Kapiti. Ko Pōmare rātou ko Ngātata, ko Te Poki me ētahi atu i uru ki te hekenga o te iwi e kīia ana ko Te Heke Nihoputa ki Waikanae i te tau 1824. I te tau i muri mai ka haere a Ngāti Mutunga ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara (Wellington Harbour). I noho a Pōmare i raro i a Ngātata i te awa o Kumutoto; ka hangaia he pā, ka turakina te ngahere kia wātea hei māra mahinga kai. Ko te tangata whenua o Te Whanganui-a-Tara i taua wā, ko Ngāti Ira; ā, kāore e kore nā Pōmare i āwhina a Te Poki me Patukawenga, ngā rangatira mātāmua o Ngāti Mutunga, ki te pana i a Ngāti Ira ki waho.

I te tau 1831, hei utu mō tō rātou hinga i Motunui, ka horo ki a Waikato te pā o Pukerangiora i Waitara. I muri i tēnei aituātanga, he maha anō o Taranaki i piki ki te taiwhakarunga. Nā ngā noho kino i waenganui i a rātou ko Ngāti Raukawa, ka puta te pakanga i Haowhenua i te tau 1834. I reira ka mate te teina o Pōmare, a Te Wakatīwai. Kātahi ka tūkinotia e ngā tuākana o Tawhiti te rua nehu o Te Wakatīwai, kia riro mai ai i a rātou he momo tupeka paipa, ko negro-head te īngoa, i tanumia ki te taha o te tūpāpaku. I te kaha riri o Pōmare mō tēnei takatakahitanga i te tapu, ka panaia e ia tana wahine me te tokorua o ā rāua tamariki, arā, ko te pōtiki me tō runga ake. I tēnei wā ka moea e ia a Hera Waitāoro, te tamāhine a Te Manu-toheroa o Ngāti Toa, hei wahine tuarua māna. I whakamātau a Rangi Topeora, te tuahine o Te Rangihaeata o Ngāti Toa, ki te hohou i te rongo i waenganui i a Pōmare me Tawhiti, me te tuku anō hoki i tana tamāhine, i a Rākapa Kahoki, me tētahi atu kōtiro anō hei wahine mā Pōmare, ēngari, kāore i paingia e Pōmare.

I hua te whakaaro ki ngā kaiārahi o Ngāti Mutunga me Ngāti Tama, kātahi tonu nei ka taieritia mai i Te Wairarapa, kia whakarērea te tuawhenua, ka ahu ki Rēkohu (Chatham Islands). Ko ētahi o ngā Māori i haere i te taha o H. Parker ki reira i te tau 1833, i pānui i te pai me te maha o te ora i Rēkohu, ā, ko te tangata whenua o reira he iwi kore mau rākau. I hē te whakaaro a Ngāti Tama rāua ko Ngāti Mutunga, ko Wharekauri te īngoa Māori o Rēkohu. I te ūnga mai o te kaipuke, te Lord Rodney ki Pōneke (Port Nicholson) i te 26 o Oketopa 1835, ka tīmata ngā mahi whakawhitiwhiti taonga i runga i te rangimārie; ēngari, e whā rā noa iho i muri mai, ka hopukina ngā hēramana, ka whakahaua e ngā rangatira a Kāpene Harewood ki te hari i a rātou ki Rēkohu i tō rātou wehi kei whakamatea rātou e ngā iwi kairiri ina noho rātou. E hia nei ngā rā i muri iho e whakakīia ana te kaipuke ki te taewa, ki te wai hoki. Ko te rahi o ngā rīwai, e 70 tana. I whakaaetia e ngā kaihautū kia patua, kia totea e 20 ngā poaka, ka hoatu ki te rangatira o te kaipuke, ki a Kāpene Harewood.

I te wā e mahia ana ēnei mahi, ka hui ngā rangatira o ngā hapū i Matiu (Somes Island), ka whakatauria kia tukuna ō rātou whenua i Waiwhetū me Pito-one (Petone) ki a Matangi o Ngāti Te Whiti. Nā Hēmi Pārai o Ngāti Haumia i kokoraho ngā mahinga kai i te taha tonga o Ngāūranga. Ko Te Aro i tukuna e Ngātata rāua ko Pōmare ki te iwi o Hēmi Pārai. I te 14 o Noema 1835, ka wehe atu te kaipuke a Lord Rodney me ōna pāhihi e 600. Kotahi rau o ēnei i heke i te kūrae o Kākāriki (Seatoun); ka mau hereheretia kī taurangitia e rātou te tumuaki tuarua o te kaipuke. E toru rā i muri iho, ka ū te kaipuke ki Rēkohu. I te tukutanga i ngā pāhihi me ngā uta ka rere anō te kaipuke ki Pōneke. He maha ngā rangatira i tēnei haerenga. I te haerenga tuaruatanga i te 30 o Noema, ka haria he ope anō. Kātahi, ka tukuna te tumuaki tuarua, ā, ka utua ki a Kāpene Harewood, he rīwai, he poaka, he pū, he paura pū me ētahi atu rākau patu.

I whakatauria e ngā rangatira kia kaua te whenua i Rēkohu e rohea kia hoki mai rā anō rātou. Otirā, kāore a Ngāti Tama i whakarongo; tangohia ana e rātou te rohe i Waitangi. Kātahi ka haongia e Ngāti Mutunga, a Kēkerewai (he wehenga nō Ngāti Mutunga) me Ngāti Haumia, he wāhanga o ngā toenga whenua mō tēnā, mō tēnā o rātou, ā, ka whakamōkaitia ngā Moriori. Ko te ope tuarua i tae atu kāore i whiwhi whenua mō rātou ake. Nā te ope tuatahi i tuku kia noho ki ō rātou whenua, otirā, kīhai rātou i whai pānga ki aua whenua. I ēnei whakataunga katoa kore rawa ngā Moriori i whakaarohia. Ko ngā mea i Waitangi tata tonu ka ngaro ki te korehāhā. Ahakoa e 2,000 pea te tokomaha o ngā iwi o Rēkohu i te tau 1835, me kī 160–200 i patua e ngā Māori i whakaeke ki Rēkohu.

I riro mai i a Pōmare te tūnga rangatira mātāmua o Patukawenga i te tau 1836–37. Kāore ia i pai kia noho a Ngāti Tama i Waitangi nō te mea i aukatia mai tōna iwi ake i ngā mahi hokohoko ki te hunga patu tohorā, ki ngā taunga kaimoana hoki. Ka tipu te kino i waenganui i ngā iwi whakaeke. He maha rātou i tīmata ki te whakatakoto kaupapa ki te hiki atu ki te motu i Norfolk, i Hāmoa (Samoa) rānei. I hē te whakapae, arā, nā Pōmare rāua ko Ngāti Mutunga i tango te waka hopu tohorā nei o ngā Wīwī, a te Jean Bart. Kātahi ka taiparatia e te manuao Wīwī, e te Cécille, ngā kāinga me ngā waka o ngā iwi i reira e noho ana. Ehara kē nā te whakatuma a te Māori i riro ai a te Jean Bart ēngari nā te putanga kē o te maurirere i te Wīwī. Ko te pūtake o te raruraru nei he totohe nō Ngātuna, te rangatira o Waitangi, kia hokohoko a te Jean Bart ki tōna iwi anake, kaua ki te iwi o Pōmare. He maha ngā ngārahu o Ngāti Tama i mate i te taiparatanga a te Wīwī. I te kitenga o Pōmare kua kahakore a Ngāti Tama ko tōna marangatanga atu tēnā kia pana i a rātou ki waho o Waitangi. I muri mai ka hoki te maha o Ngāti Tama ki te tuawhenua.

I te tau 1840, ka hokona e Pōmare ngā whenua i Waitangi ki a R. D. Hanson, ā, i te tau 1842 ka hoki a ia ki Pōneke. I tēnei haerenga ōna, ka iriiria a ia e Te Harawira (Octavius Hadfield) ko Wiremu (Wī) Piti (William Pitt). I muri iho ka hoki anō a Pōmare ki Rēkohu, ka mate atu i reira i te 29 o Hānuere 1851. I tanumia a ia ki te urupā o te whare karakia Wēteriana i Waitangi. Ko tōna whakakapi ki te tūnga kaiārahi mō tōna iwi ko tōna irāmutu, ko Wiremu Naera Pōmare.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

Ētahi whakaaro puaki, takenga

    McNab, R. The old whaling days. Christchurch, 1913

    Shand, A. 'The occupation of the Chatham Islands by the Maoris in 1835'. In Journal of the Polynesian Society 1, No 2 (July 1892)--2, No 1 (March 1893)

    Smith, S. P. History and traditions of the Maoris of the West Coast, North Island of New Zealand prior to 1840. New Plymouth, 1910

    Startup, R. M. Chatham Islands mails. [Masterton, 1975]


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Pomare, Wiremu Piti', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1p22/pomare-wiremu-piti (accessed 2 April 2020)