Kōrero: Papahurihia, Penetana

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Papahurihia, Penetana

?–1875

Nō Ngā Puhi; he matakite, he toa rangatira

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Judith Binney,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990, and updated in June, 1990.

Ko Papahurihia – arā, ko Te Atua Wera – he tohunga rongonui nō Ngā Puhi, nō Te Hikutū, nō Ngāti Hau. Kāhore e mōhiotia ana tōna rā whānau. Ko te kōrero i te tau 1866, e 50 ōna tau; ēngari i tōna matenga i te tau 1875 ka kīia e 78. Ka taupatupatu ēnei tau.

I puta mai ia i te kāwai ariki o te matakitetanga. He mana i heke iho i tōna tupuna wahine, i a Taimania, ki ōna mātua ki a Te Wharetī rāua ko Tūhoehoe. Ka tau ki a Papahurihia. Ko tētahi kōrero mō Te Wharetī ka whārona atu ana, tē tawhiti kē o tana taunga atu! Ā, he mana kē anō i a Tūhoehoe. Ka kitea a Papahurihia i ngā tuhituhi o ngā tau tīmatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1830. Nō te tau 1833 ka tūtaki a Te Rēwiti (Richard Davis) ki te iwi o Taiāmai i a rātou e tapa atu ana ki tētahi atua hou, ki a Papahurihia. Nō te tau 1834 ka puta te kōrero i a Te Karu Whā (Henry Williams) mō te atua nei, mō te Nākahi (he ngārara kei a Kenehi 3:1) me Papahurihia, te kaiwhakapuaki o ngā mea mīharo! Ka kī anō a Te Karu Whā, ko te Rāhoroi kē tō rātou rā tapu mō ngā karakia whakamoemiti, me te iriiri. E kī ana rātou e mōhio ana anō rātou ki ngā Karaipiture. Ēngari i taua wā kāhore anō a Te Karu Whā kia tūtaki ki ngā kaiwhakahaere o tēnei whakapono hou. He ngaro tonu a Papahurihia. Koia rā tonu te īngoa o te atua, o te whakahaere, me te tangata nāna i tīmata, ko Papahurihia.

Kei ana tohutohu tuatahi i roto o Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands), o Te Hokianga, ka mea ia i ahu mai te Māori i te whenua o ngā Hūrai. Ko te Māori he Hūrai tonu. I te Rāhoroi, i tō rātou rā tapu, ka whakatarengia tā rātou kara, ka huihui i te pō. Kōrero ai ia ki ngā wairua o te hunga mate. Ko tana reo ka whiua e ia ki te takiwā. Kia puta ake te reo o ngā wairua. Āhua whiowhio nei te tangi o aua reo. Tērā tētahi tangata whai ko John Webster te īngoa, i te hui a Papahurihia mō Hōne Heke i te tau 1845. Hei tāna, he māminga te angi o te tangi. I ētahi wā ka kakapa mai te hau o te tangi, ā, ki tana whakaaro i pā atu tētahi mea ki a ia.

I whakapono tonu te iwi ki te kōrero a Papahurihia he Hūrai rātou. Ehara kē rātou i te Karaitiana ēngari ko rātou te kāhui i āta tohungia e Te Atua māna ake. Ko te Nākahi tōna ariā. Ā, ko te Nākahi he ngārara mumura e mau ana i te tokotoko a Mohi, nāna rā te kupu whakaari i ora ai ngā tama a Iharaira i waenga koraha. Ki tā te Kawenata Hou ko te nākahi te tohu o te Karaiti.

I te tau 1834 ko Papahurihia he rangatira i Rangihoua me Te Puna. Kua mōhio kē ia ki te kōrero pukapuka i te reo Māori. Na, ko Te Tuhituhi a Hoani tētahi o ngā pukapuka tuatahi i tāia ki te reo Māori. Kei reira kei Hoani 3:14–15 ētahi kōrero anō mō te nākahi. Te āhua nei i mātau mai a Papahurihia ki ngā kōrero o te Paipera Tapu i te mīhana Mihinare i Rangihoua. Ko te āhua o te nākahi i rite ki te mokomoko kākāriki, te tohu ki te ao Māori he aituā, he mate kei te haere.

I puta ngā mahi a Papahurihia ki Te Puna, ki waenga i tōna iwi o Te Hikutū. Kore i roa ka hōrapa ki Pēwhairangi. Ka neke a Papahurihia ki Te Hokianga, ka rongo ngā Wēteriana, ā, i muri nei, ngā Katorika i ana whakahaere. Ko tāna whakarite mō tō rātou whakahaere ko te ariāringa. Ko ngā Mihinare he manga itiiti, tāwhanawhana noa nei. Ko ngā tohutohu a te tohunga nei mā te hunga e whai ana i tāna whakahaere anake ka taea te piki i taua rākau ā, torotika atu ki te rangi rā anō. Na, ko te hunga whakaponokore ka haere mā te manga tāwhana taka tonu atu ki te rua i Rarohēnga, ki te ahi a te Nākahi kei reira e mura mai ana. I te tau 1835 i te hui i Waimā, ka tautoheria e rāua ko William White o te mīhana Wēteriana ā rāua whakahaere. E kīia ana e 3,000 e 4,000 rānei, te huihuinga tāngata. Ki a White ko te hara nui ko te whakaōritetanga i te mana o Papahurihia ki tō te Karaiti.

Taka rawa iho ki te tau 1837, ka tapā he īngoa hou ki a Papahurihia, ko Te Atua Wera. I taua wā anō, ka patua e Kaitoke o Te Hikutū a Matiu rāua ko Rihimona, ngā kaikauwhau o te Hāhi Wēteriana. I taki kuhu atu ki te papakāinga o Te Hikutū i Mangamuka ki reira kauwhau ai. Ka puta te kōrero a George Hawke kua riro kē a Kaitoke i tētahi whakaritenga rerekē ki tō ngā Karaitiana. Nā reira i patua ai e ia ngā kaikauwhau. Ko te kaiwhakahaere i taua whakaritenga ko Te Atua Wera, ko tōna atua ko Papahurihia. Ko tōna tohu ko te reo whiowhio, ko te reo takiwā. He maha kua huri ki tērā whakahaere.

Ko Te Atua Wera, he atua mumura. He tino rangatira, he poropiti. Nā te mea i hoatu e Te Atua Wera te pū me te paura ki a Kaitoke, mōhio pū e kore ia e mate. Ki te mau haere tonu ia i ērā mea, kāhore ia e whara, ēngari ka mate ko ōna hoariri. Kei tērā pū e mau ana ngā tuhituhi kōkōwai a Te Atua Wera. Koia rā pea te pū i pūhia ai e ia ngā kaikauwhau.

Ko ētahi o ngā kaiaruaru a te poropiti ko Kaitoke rāua ko Waikato o Te Puna. Ki a rātou nei, he tāngata kikino rawa atu ngā mihinare. He tāngata kōhuru, he tāngata mākutu. He maha ngā mea kua matemate i a rātou. Ki tā Papahurihia, ka tahuna ngā mihinare ki te ahi a Hātana, ēngari ko tāna kāhui pono ka tomo ki tētahi whenua ātaahua, ki tētahi kāinga harakoakoa. Kei tā te kaikauwhau Katorika, kei tā Louis Catherin Servant, he whenua tērā e kore e pākia e te mātao, e te hemokai, e te matewai rānei. 'Kei reira te māramatanga mutungakore. Nui atu ngā mea katoa kei reira – te parāoa, te huka, te pū, te kaipuke. Me te aha hoki, haere tahi tonu te kōhuru me te āhuareka.' He pai kē atu tērā wāhi i te nohoanga i te rangi e kauwhautia rā e ngā mihinare. Ki a Papahurihia, he mea noa iho tērā wāhi, 'he pukapuka anake te kai o reira.'

Ka tū te pakanga i te tau 1843 ki Ōruru, i waenganui i ngā iwi o Te Rarawa me Ngā Puhi, ka puta te auahiroa i te rangi. Kotahi marama e tōroherohe ana i tana whiore i te paerangi. Ka mea a Te Atua Wera he tohu tērā nō te pakanga, nō te māuiui, nō te mate; anā, kei a ia te mana whakahaere i taua mea. Ko ngā kōrero o mua he whakakitenga nā ngā atua te auahiroa, te unahiroa a Tūnui-i-te-rangi rānei. Ki a Ngāti Kahungunu, ko Tūnui-i-te-ika. Mai i taua wā ka kōrerohia e te iwi o Te Hokianga he tohu nō Papahurihia.

I te tau 1845 ko ia te tāura a Hōne Heke. I te wā ka tāepangia a Heke ki Puketutu, i muri i tana topenga tuawhā i te pou kara i Kororāreka, ka kōrero ia ki a Te Atua Wera. Ko ia hoki te tino tohunga o Ngā Puhi. Ki tā Frederick Maning, kōrero ai a te Nākahi ki a Hōne Heke i te pō. I puta mai ngā kōrero i te māngai o te poropiti. 'Kia māia, kia toa, kia manawanui. Kaua e mataku ki ngā hōia. E kore e taea e rātou tēnei pā. Kaua hoki e mataku ki ngā pū nunui e kōrerotia nei. Ka parea e au ngā matā, e kore koe e tū. Ēngari kia tapu tonu tēnei pā me ōna tāngata. Kia mau ki ngā tikanga tapu a ō tūpuna. Ki te takahia ēnei, ahakoa itiiti noa, he aituā ka pā. Ka whakarērea koe e ahau. Ko koutou e inoi atu nā ki te atua o ngā mihinare, kia pūmau. Kaua e hapa. Ka whawhai, ka inoi. Kauaka e pā ki ngā taonga a ngā parekura. Kaua e kainga te kiko tangata kei riri te atua Pākehā. Kaua anō hoki e tūkinotia ngā atua Māori. Ko te painga tērā, kia maha ngā atua hei whakawhirinakitanga atu.'

He kōrero whakahāwea tā Maning, e mea ana ka tiakina a Heke me tana ope taua ina ngohengohe ki ngā tohutohu a Te Atua Wera. Nā te Nākahi i pare ake ngā matāmura i Puketutu. Ka horo te pā i Te Ahuahu i a Makoare Te Taonui i te marama o Hune, ka wareware a Hōne Heke. Ka tangohia ake e ia te pouaka kariri i te parekura, ka rere. I te rerenga ka kite atu i a Te Atua Wera e karawhiu ana i tana mere kia mārangaranga ake te ope. Nō tana kitenga atu i te toto i te pouaka, mōhio tonu te tohunga kua whakarērea rātou e ngā tūpuna. Kua huri anō a Heke ki te ira tangata. Ka taotū. Nāna i wareware. Ka tūmatapōngia te hoariri e Te Atua Wera kia puta ai ngā kaiamo i a Hōne Heke. He mana anō tērā nō te tohunga.

I te marama o Hūrae tau kē atu a Te Atua Wera ki te awhinga i Ōhaeawai. Ka patua a Rūtene George 'Toby' (ki tā te Māori, Tōpi) Philpotts, ka mauria mai tana kāwiu ki te tohunga kia tirohia ngā tohu. Ka titongia tana waiata harihari. Ka waiatangia e te ope, ka peia ngā hōia i Ōhaeawai:

Ka whawhai, ka whawhai, ē
Ka whawhai, ki roto ki te awa, ē
Puare katoa ake nei ē
Ka whawhai.
Kīhai koe i mau atu
Ki tō kāinga ki Ōropi, ē
I te āinga mai a wharewhare
Ki a Ihu Karaiti
Me te pukapuka
Kia taka ki tua
Ki taekaukau o taku kumu
Kei raro, ī, ī…

I tana moemoeā ka kite ia i te wairua e hopu toke ana hei hī tuna i Ruapekapeka. Ka titongia anō he waiata, ka tau hei ngeri mā Kawiti mā. Kua tū ko Te Atua Wera hei tohunga mō Tūmatauenga. Ka moe ia, ka puta mai te kupu a te atua me te whakakitenga. Ko te Nākahi, ka puta ka ngaro, pēnei i te uira nei. E tiaki ana i ngā toa e mau ana ki ngā tikanga kua whakatakotoria mai e te tohunga. Ko te pūtake hou o ēnei whakaakoranga he whakahē, he whakarikarika, ki te Karaipiture, ki te Karaiti.

I muri i te pakanga ka noho a Papahurihia i te papa kāinga i te awa i runga paku atu i Ōmanaia. I reira ka torotoro atu a John Webster i a ia i te tau 1847. E toru tekau mā whā nei pea tana pakeke i taua wā, ā, he tangata kūpara. Ko Te Atua Wera (arā ko Wero ki te tuhi a Webster) ko Papahurihia, ko Papa ōna īngoa. He whare nui, he whare raupō tana whare. Kotahi rau ngā tāngata ka uru ki roto. Maha atu ngā momo pū e tū haere ana i ngā pātū o taua whare! Ko ētahi he tino tawhito nei. I tētahi kokonga ko tana moenga i runga i te atamira. Āraia rawa. Koia rā te nohoanga o Papahurihia ki te kōrero ki te hunga o te ao wairua. Tokorua, tokotoru rānei ngā wāhine a Papahurihia. He tama tā rāua ko tana wahine matua. Ko Kikihu anō tētahi o ngā wāhine tokorua e noho ana i a ia i tēnei wā. He kōrero anō mō Eme me tā rāua tamāhine, me Whakarongohau. E rua ngā whakaahua o Papahurihia kei te pukapuka a Webster. Kei tētahi ko ia te kaea o te kapa haka. Kei tētahi anō e noho ana, e kōrero ana ki ōna hoa i te mahau o tētahi whare hou.

I taua wā anō pekapeka tonu ai hoki a Maxime Petit, he pirihi Katorika, ki te torotoro i a Te Atua Wera. Ko tērā o ana īngoa e kārangarangatia ana e ngā mihinare Katorika. E mea ana hoki he aro kē atu a Te Atua Wera ki a rātou, tēnā ki ngā Mihinare ki ngā Wēteriana. Tēnā pea nāna i tiki atu ētahi o ā rātou tikanga hei tauira mō tana whakahaere. Na, he maha ngā hapū i tohetohe atu ki te kāwanatanga. Ko te nuinga o rātou i tahuri kē i ngā Mihinare, ka whakamau atu ki te Hāhi Katorika. Nō Te Hikutū tonu ētahi i huri atu. Ko te āhua piri o Te Atua Wera ki te Kāhi Katorika e rite ana te kaha ki tana whakaparahako i ngā hāhi tūrangahapa.

He tangata whai rawa a Te Atua Wera i te wā i noho rawakore ai te nuinga o tana iwi i Te Hokianga. Ko John Warren o te mīhana Wēteriana i Waimā, i mōhio pū ki a Te Atua Wera. Hāereere tonu ai taua tangata kia kite i a Te Atua Wera i Rāwene. I te tau 1853 ka tatauria e Warren ngā rawa, ngā kararehe – he hōiho, he kau – a Te Atua Wera. Ina rā, nā ana mahi nanakia pea i tino whai rawa ai ia. Heoi ka haere te wā, ka noho rawakore a Te Atua Wera. Ko te āhua nei kāore noa ōna pōuri mō tērāāhua. Nō tēnei wā, he maha o tana iwi kua huri kē ki te Hāhi Wēteriana, iriiri rawa. Heoi nāna anō te kōrero ki a Warren i whakaae tonu ia ki tērā āhua. Heoi anō tāna he tatari kia kite ia mehemea ka mārie ake te noho a tana iwi i raro i ngā tikanga Karaitiana; ā, mehemea hoki ka whai whakaaro tonu mai ki a ia hei rangatira mō rātou. Mehemea ka pērā, ka tere tonu tana aru i a rātou ki roto i taua Hāhi. Ā, he aha rā, ka rokohanga atu e John Warren e noho mokemoke noa ana i tana kāinga. He tamaiti hei mahi kai atu māna.

Nō te tau 1856 nā ngā mahi a Āperahama Taonui, ka huri a Te Atua Wera hei Karaitiana. Kua huri kē anō a Taonui hei Wēteriana. Nā te minita Wēteriana, nā Thomas Buddle, i iriiri a Te Atua Wera, ka tapaina ko Penetana. I muri tonu mai ka honoa rāua ko Kikihu i te ture a te Hāhi. Taka rawa iho ki te tau 1859, kei Te Raupō, i Rāwene tonu rāua e noho ana. I reira hoki tana kura wānanga i riro rā mā Āperahama Taonui e whakahaere i tona wā. I te taenga ki te tau 1861, ka whakamanaia a Te Atua Wera hei wātene mō ngā pirihimana mā te kāwanatanga, hei āteha i te Kōti Whenua Māori.

I te mea he matakite a Papahurihia, ka muia e ngā Māori. I te muranga o te ahi a Tū i te tau 1863 ka rere te pātai ki a Papahurihia ka pēhea ngā pakanga ki Waikato, ki Taranaki. Kua puta hoki te kōrero ka orotātia te iwi Māori e tauiwi, ka riro ō rātou whenua. Ka karangahia he hui, ka kōrero ia ki ngā wairua. He punenga tana i poropititia, arā, ka ōrite te rironga o te tāhuna i te Pākehā me te Māori ina tukuna ana te patu. Kāhore hoki ia i whakaae ki te whakahaere a te Pai Mārire. E ai ki tētahi rīpoata a te kāwanatanga i te tau 1866, ahakoa ehara a Papahurihia i te ariki, nōna te mananui i roto o Te Hokianga. I kīia anō ko ia tētahi i piri pono ki te kāwanatanga.

Ka tae ki te tau 1870 ko ia tētahi o ngā rangatira o Te Hokianga e whakatau ana i te kāwana, i a George Ferguson Bowen, i te taenga atu ki Te Tai Tokerau. Anei tana kupu ki te kāwana: 'I mua i tō haerenga mai, moe iho au i hūtia ake e te tangata mangumangu he huru manu i taku pare. Ka kōrerotia e ahau ki te kāwana.' Ko wai ka hua, ko wai ka tohu he aha ngā whakaaro o te kāwana? He tohu rānei pea tērā ka ngaro te mana o Papahurihia?

Tērā anō te wā ka tukuna e rāua ko Āperahama Taonui ngā kōrero o mua ki a Hōne Waiti (John White). Nō te tau 1887–1890 ka tāia ki tana pukapuka The ancient history of the Māori. Tokorua hoki rāua he tohunga nō te waka o Māmari. Ko Frederick Maning anō tētahi o ngā kaituhi o taua wā i tahuri ki te whakaemi kōrero mō Papahurihia. Ina tata tonu nei, i te tau 1986, ka puta ko ngā tuhituhi a Kendrick Smithyman. He kōrero paki, he mōteatea.

Nō te toru o ngā rā o Noema 1875 ka mate a Papahurihia. I tanumia ki Ōmanaia. Nā William Rowse o te Hāhi Wēteriana ngā karakia. Ka mahue ake ko te pouaru ko Kikihu me tā rāua tamāhine, me Heene Whakarongohau. I tangohia te whakaahua o Papahurihia i tōna tangihanga, he tangata ātaahua, he korowaha, he pūkauae tana moko. Ko te tohu whakamaharatanga ki a Papahurihia nā te kāwanatanga i whakatū i te tau 1879. Ko te kōrero kāore i rata taua kōhatu ki tōna tūnga, ka whakahuri i a ia kia anga atu ki te raki, ki Te Rerenga Wairua.

Ko Te Atua Wera kei te mau tonu ki roto i te kete tūātea, ki ngā karakia wairua. I muri i a Papahurihia, ka ara ko Āperahama Taonui hei tohunga, i Ōmanaia i te marama o Maehe 1880. Ka taka ki te tau 1898 ka tū ko Hōne Tōia te papa atua hou i Waimā. I kīia tāna whakahaere ko te Whiowhio, koia rā hoki te reo o ngā wairua. Kei Ōmanaia, kei Whirinaki e noho ana te hunga o te whakahaere a Papahurihia, te hunga Whiowhio. E ai ki te kōrero kei te whakaputa tonu a te Nākahi hei tohu mate. He ringa huruhuru ki te pokowhiwhi. Kei te whakaputa hoki a Te Atua Wera. I te pakangatanga mō te Tāke Kurī, ka tono a Hōne Tōia ki a Te Atua Wera māna rātou e tohutohu.

Ko Papahurihia he tohunga matakite nō te ao kōhatu. Kāhore i eke ana whakahaere ki te āhuatanga o te mano tau a te Pākehā. Kāore āna whakaara i te hunga mate, ēngari anō te kōrerorero ki te hunga wairua i te āhuatanga o tērā momo tangata, o te tohunga matakite mai rā anō.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Judith Binney. 'Papahurihia, Penetana', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990, updated June, 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1p4/papahurihia-penetana (accessed 19 September 2019)