Kōrero: Paremata Te Wahapiro, Te Kiore

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Paremata Te Wahapiro, Te Kiore

fl. 1822–1845

Nō Ngāti Tama; he kaihautū

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Lesley Richardson,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

I whānau a Paremata i te tīmatanga o te rau tau 1800–1899 ki Poutama, he pā nō Ngāti Tama, kei te taha marangai o Taranaki. Ko ia te mātāmua a Te Taku, te rangatira, te toa o Ngāti Tama. Ko tōna whaea ko Kauhoe, nō Ngāti Hinetuhi, he karangatanga hapū nō Ngāti Mutunga. Ko tana koroua, ki te taha ki tana pāpā, ko Whangataki II, e taea ana e ia te tataki i tōna tātai mai i ngā tūpuna o runga i a Tokomaru tatū iho ki a ia. He kāwai rangatira hoki tō Kauhoe; kāti, nō tana moenga tāne, kātahi ka ū rawa atu te hononga o ngā iwi o Te Āti Awa. E whanaunga ana anō a Paremata ki a Ngāti Toa; e here ana tēnei iwi ki a Ngāti Tama i runga i tā rātou whakakotahi i ngā whawhai.

Ka mate a Te Taku i tētahi riri i Taranaki ki te raki, ka moe a Kauhoe i a Te Pūoho-o-te-rangi, he tuakana nō Te Taku; he tino toa ia ki ngā whawhai, he rangatira, he tohunga hoki. Ka mutu, ka noho a Paremata hei irāmutu, hei tama whakaangi mā Te Pūoho, ka tupu ai tēnā whakapiringa i waenganui i a rāua mō ngā tau e 25. Ahakoa he wā nō te riri, nō te rangimārie rānei, pūmau tonu rāua ki a rāua.

E tamariki tonu ana a Paremata ka whakaīngoatia ki a Te Wahapiro, mō te horoinga a Te Pūoho i te waha o tana tino hoa o Te Rauparaha, o Ngāti Toa; he mate nō te waha. Ka mau ko Te Wahapiro tonu hei īngoa mōna i ngā pakanga. Whakahuatia ai anō tērā o ana īngoa a Te Raha mō Te Rauparaha. E tai tonu ana a Te Wahapiro, ka kitea tōna toa ki te whawhai, ā, nō muri nei ka whakaīngoatia ki tērā o ana īngoa ki a Te Kiore, ēngari kāore e mōhiotia ana te pūtake o tērā īngoa. Nō te tau 1822, ka whakauru atu a Paremata ki roto i a Ngāti Tama, i raro i a Te Pūoho ki te ārahi i a Ngāti Toa i te hekenga ki Kapiti. Tae rawa ake ki 1824, kua tīmata te whakarere a Ngāti Tama i ō rātou whenua tupu, ā, i roto i ngā tau tekau e hia kē ngā hekenga mai i Taranaki.

Nō te 1820, kua mārō kē te tū a Paremata i ngā whawhai, kua rua rawa hoki ngā waka ki raro i tōna mana. E kīia ana, nāna a Tūtepourangi o Ngāti Kuia i patu i Whakapuaka, kei te taha marangai o Whakatū (Nelson), i roto i ngā whawhai i Waimea (Tasman Bay). Ka ngana tonu a Paremata rāua ko Te Pūoho, ki te ārahi i ngā iwi whakaheke ki te taha whakarunga o Aotearoa, ki Te Waipounamu hoki, i hau ai ō rāua rongo i ngā whawhai o reira. I te pā o Kaiapoi a Paremata i te matenga o te ariki ihorei, o Te Pēhi Kupe, hei huānga tonu ki a ia; i uru hoki ia ki te karapotitanga o taua pā i te tau 1831–32. Uru rawa atu ia ki te riri a Te Āti Awa ki a Ngāti Raukawa ki Haowhenua, i te awa o Ōtaki, i te tau 1834. Kua moe kē anō ia i a Ngāhopi o Ngāti Tama rāua ko Ngāti Rārua. Otirā hei tungāne, tuahine tonu rāua ki a rāua. Hei tamāhine a Ngāhopi mā Hihi te tuakana o Te Pūoho. Taka rawa atu ki te tau 1836, kua tokowhā ā rāua tamariki.

I te tau 1836, ka haere a Paremata i te taha o Te Pūoho hei tuarua mōna, i tana haere ki Te Tai Hauāuru o Te Waipounamu mā Tioripātea (Haast Pass) ki te huaki i a Ngāi Tahu i te motu o Ruapuke. Nō te mau hereheretanga i Tūtūrau, i te wāhi i patua ai a Te Pūoho, ka haria e Taiaroa, te kaihautū o Ngāi Tahu ki Ōtākou (Otago), ki te matarae i reira, ka manaakihia ki te manaaki a te rangatira; ko ētahi i mau hereheretia rā, he mea hari ki Ruapuke. Kei tētahi kōrero, i ora ai a Taiaroa i te karapotitanga o Kaiapoi, nā Te Pūoho; nāna rātou tana iwi i tuku. I ū ana whakaaro kia kaua e maringi he toto i Tūtūrau. Ka tae te rongo ki Te Taitapu (Golden Bay) kua mate a Te Pūoho, ka hanga waiata a Kauhoe e tono ana kia ngakia te mate o tana tāne rāua ko tana tama, e pōhēhētia ana kua mate hoki.

Nō te tau 1839, ka hoki a Paremata ki tana iwi kua kā mai o rātou ahi i Whakapuaka. Ka noho rā ia i te nōhanga ihorei. E ai ki ētahi kōrero, he mea whakahoki mai e Paremata te ūpoko o Te Pūoho kua pakipakia, ka tāpukena ki tētahi ana tapu i Whakapuaka. Hei ranaki i te matenga o Te Pūoho, ka tukuna e Taiaroa a Miriama hei wahine mā Paremata, me ngā mere pounamu e rua. Ka wāhia mai hoki kia rua ngā wāhanga whenua i Tūtūrau mōna, ka tapaina tētahi ki a Paremata. Ko Hiria tētahi o ngā īngoa o Miriama, ēngari e kārangarangatia ana i Whakapuaka ko Ngāmīanga. Tērā, ko te whānau mai ā rāua tamāhine e rua.

He kāinga ora a Hawaiki i Whakapuaka, e nui ana te kai mātaitai. Kua pakari kē ngā māra taro, kūmara hoki, kua whai hua ngā rākau Pākehā i mauria mai rā i te marangai. Nō te mutunga o te tau 1841, ka tae mai te ope toro a te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Company) ki Waimea. I te tīmatanga e rata katoa ana a Paremata mā ki te Pākehā. Ka whakamanuhiritia e ia. E kōrerotia ana, nāna a Kāpene Arthur Wakefield i tohutohu ki te wāhi pai hei nōhanga mō rātou. I whakahinga atu a Wakefield, i te tīmatanga, ki te whenua i Motueka. Kua tukuna hoki e ia te koha ki ngā rangatira 12 o taua whenua. Nō te kitenga he whenua pai kē atu a Whakatū, kua whakaaro anō a Wakefield ki ētahi koha mā ngā rangatira 10 o Whakapuaka, kātahi ka tukuna, i runga i te pōhēhē, he koha ki ngā rangatira tokotoru anake o te tekau. Ko te kī a Wakefield, e rua tau te hokonga mai o te whenua nei i a Te Rauparaha rāua ko Te Hiko-o-te-rangi. I huihui a Paremata rātou ko tana iwi o Ngāti Toa ki Kapiti ki te kōrero i te raruraru nei; ā, kia whakaūngia hoki ngā take o Ngāti Tama ki te whenua.

Nō te tau 1842, ka ū mai ngā kaipuke hei hari Pākehā mai ki te kāinga hou, ki Whakatū. Kua mōhio noa atu a Paremata he iwi mano tini te Pākehā, kāti tumeke ana ia i tō rātou kaha tokomaha i te taenga mai. Kua maha kē atu ngā Pākehā i ngā Māori, kua āwangawanga hoki rātou ki ngā tikanga a te Pākehā mō ngā whenua whānui e waerea ana. Tērā anō ngā take i pōraruraru ai a Paremata. E pōuri tonu ana ia mō te matenga o Te Pūoho kāore anō kia ngakia. I riro ai te ope a Te Pūoho whaka-te-tonga i mua rā, he kore nō ētahi o ngā rangatira o Ngāti Tama me ērā atu o ngā rangatira, i whakaae ki tana kaupapa mō te wāwāhi i ngā whenua i Waimea me Te Taitapu; ka whakapaetia e Paremata, nō rātou tētahi wāhi o te take i mate ai tana pāpā. Kua kawa katoa ia, he riro nō tana iwi ki raro i te mana o ngā Karaitiana, tae atu hoki ki tētahi o rāua, ki a Wiremu Kātene Te Pūoho. Ka kīia e Paremata nā ngā mana o te Hāhi i ngaro ai ngā tikanga tawhito a te Māori, i kore ai e taea e ngā ope taua e rua te ngaki te mate o tana pāpā. Nō Hepetema 1842, i runga i te kaha whakatakariri, ka taupangutu a Paremata me tētahi rangatira i whakapaetia e ia. Ka rere te matā i waenganui i a rāua. Ka whakatika te nanakia rā, a Henry Augustus Thompson, te kaiwhakawā pirihimana o Whakatū, ki te pā ki te uiui i te raruraru nei. Kua poka noa te kaiwhakawā pirihimana ki te takahi i te mana o taua rangatira rā. Ko te mutunga iho, kua whakakotahi te iwi rā i a rātou, me te kino haere hoki o te riri o Paremata.

E rua marama i muri mai, kātahi ka hē rawa atu te mahi a Thompson; ka whakaitia tētahi o ngā rangatira o Tākaka, ka herea ngā ringaringa. Nō te tautohetanga i Tuamarino i Te Wairau i Hune, ka mate a Kāpene Wakefield rātou ko ngā Pākehā e 21, me ngā Māori tokowhā; ka pakanga. Kua kite ngā Pākehā o Whakatū kua kore ngā whenua o Te Wairau e riro i a rātou, kātahi ka huri anō te aroaro ki Whakapuaka. I te marama o Hūrae, ka tae mai a Paremata rātou ko tana rōpū, ka wāwāhia te whare, he mea hanga nā tauiwi ki tō rātou whenua; kāre te Pākehā i aha. Ka rongo ngā Pākehā o Whakatū i te matenga o Kāpene Wakefield, ka ohorere, ka mataku, kātahi ka hohoro ki te whakatū pā mō rātou. Nō te whakataunga a te kāwanatanga i te hē, i runga i te ture o ngā whakariterite i Te Wairau, me te whakatūpato hoki kei pōhēhētia e whakapono kore ana te Pākehā ki te Tiriti o Waitangi, kātahi ka puta ngā riri o tauiwi. Ahakoa ngā tangi a te Pākehā kia ngakia ō rātou mate, ka whakatakotoria e te Kamupene he kaupapa hou e whakakorehia ai ngā mana o runga i te whenua e tautohetia ana, me mātua whakahaere rawa e te kōmihana mō ngā whenua taupatupatu a te kāwanatanga. Nō te 1 o Ākuhata, ka pānuitia te kaupapa nei ki a Paremata i Whakapuaka e Meiha Mathew Richmond, te kaiwhakawā tumuaki o ngā pirihimana, mō Te Tai Tonga. Nō te 12 Oketopa, kei runga a Paremata i te kaipuke, i te North Star, ka tae anō a Meiha Richmond ki a ia; kore rawa ia i kite i tētahi mea kotahi hei whakaatutanga ki a ia kei te whakatutūngia te puehu, pērā i tā te karere mai i Whakatū i kī ai. Ka whakakāhoretia e te kāwanatanga te tono a ngā Pākehā kia tukuna atu he hōia.

I Pēpuere 1844, ka kī a Kāwana Pitiroi (Robert FitzRoy) ki ngā rangatira o Whakatū, e kore e tangohia ō rātou pā, ā rātou māra kai me ō rātou whenua kāore anō kia mana te hoko. Ka whakaae a Paremata ki ngā kōrero a te kāwana, ā, nō Ākuhata ka hainangia e ia te kaupapa tuku (Deed of Release) a William Spain, te kōmihana, e makere katoa ai ngā whenua o Whakatū me ērā atu wāhi. Kua taupatupatu ngā rohe whenua a te iwi ki ngā roherohenga i ngā mapi a te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni. Nō te mutunga o te tau 1844, ka tahuri te Pākehā ki te waere i ngā whenua i Whakapuaka, me te hanga whare; ka tapahia ētahi tōtara, ka tōia i te whenua i kīia rā e Paremata, nōna. Nō waenganui o Hānuere 1845, ka tae a Paremata ki te tirotiro i ngā whenua e tautohengia ana. Ka kī atu ki te hunga totohe ki te noho, ka tāorotia rātou me ō rātou kāinga. Ka haere te kaiwhakawā pirihimana mō Whakatū, a Donald Sinclair, me tana kaiwhakamāori, a John Tinline, ki te awaawa o Whakapuaka, ka tūpono atu ki a Paremata rātou ko ana toa e 20 e noho ana. Ka kitea kua hua kore kē te kōrero, ā, nō te piunga o Paremata i tana patu hei whakaū i ana tohutohu rā, mutu tonu atu te kōrero. Ka tahuri a Paremata rātou ko tana rōpū ki te wāwāhi i te pākoro kararehe, ka tahutahuna ngā whare e toru me ngā rākau toetoe 3,000. E ngana ana kia kore katoa ngā mea i hangaia i runga i tō rātou whenua.

I runga i te kaha whakatakariri o ngā Pākehā o Whakatū, ka karangatia he hui; ka tono a Te Pōkiha (William Fox), te kaiwhakahaere takiwā o te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni, kia huakina te pā. Kātahi ka whakataungia me haere a Samuel Stephens, te Kairūri Matua o te Kamupene, me te ope tāngata whakauru noa iho i raro i a Te Pōkiha, ki te whenua e tautohengia rā. Ka āta rūringia te whenua kia eke ki tā Spain i kī ai. Kātahi ka rere a Charles Reay rāua ko H. R. Butt, he minita, mā te moana kia tae ai ki te pā, me kore e taea e rāua te ārai te raruraru nei. Kua tau kē ngā whakaaro o Paremata mō te tūpono eke ki te raruraru: kua tae kē mai ngā mea o Motueka ki te āwhina i a rātou, e tatari atu ana ki ngā iwi o Te Taitapu.

Nō te ata o te 21 Hānuere 1845, ahakoa te kōrero a Sinclair kia kaua e whāia te take rā, nuku atu i te 80 ngā Pākehā mau pū i haere mā raro ki Whakapuaka. Ka tae ki te awaawa rā, ka tīmata tonu ngā kairūri ki te whakawātea i te rohe. Ka mahue rā a Butt ki te pā, kātahi ka haere a Reay rātou ko ngā tāngata tokotoru a Paremata mā raro ki te wāhi e rūringia ana te whenua. Nō te taenga ki reira, e whakatika ana te ope tangata whakauru noa iho ki te haere ki te pā, kāti kāore ia i whakaae kia riro māna te ope rā e ārahi. Ka tohutohungia ki te huarahi whāiti e haere ai mā raro ki te takutai moana, he ururua, he ngāherehere katoa. He uaua tonu. Mā te haere takitahi ka taea. He mataku nō Te Pōkiha kei uru ki te kokoti, ka mea me mau pū, ka hoki rā a Reay ki te pā me te mahere rūri, me te kōrero whakamutunga a Te Pōkiha. Nā wai rā i kōrero ki a Paremata, 1,000 te ope taua a Te Pōkiha, he ope mau pū. Nō te 25 o Hānuere, ka tae mai a Meiha Richmond, i runga i te kaipuke Hazard. Kua noho ia hei kaiwhakahaere mō Te Tai Tonga. E rua ngā rā i muri mai ka haere rātou ko Sinclair, ko T. S. Forsaith te kaiwhakamāori a te kāwanatanga me Te Pōkiha, ki te whakataki i ngā iwi o te pā. E hia nei te roa o ngā whakawhitiwhiti kōrero, ka whakaae a Paremata ki te tuku kia tokorua ana tāngata hei hoa mō te rōpū a te kāwanatanga, ki te tirotiro i te rohe. Nā runga i ā rātou kōrero i te hokinga mai, ka whakaae a Paremata ki te whakatau a Spain.

Nō muri mai, ka heke te hapū ki uta ki Te Kopi-o-Uenuku kei te awaawa o Whakapuaka, ka noho hāwhe māero te tawhiti i te rohe, kia pai ai te whakaū i tā rātou noho i tērā wāhanga o te whenua. Mai i taua wā rā, ka riro katoa ngā whakaaro o Paremata kia mau te rongo: ko ana māra kai ērā, ko te hanga i tana whare raupō, i a Hātana, tērā; ko te whakatupu hua rākau – he pītiti, he āporo; ko te hanga i tana pā hei hopu i te momo tuna i wehengia e ia mō ngā huihui me te hanga i tana waka hou.

Nō te tekau tau mai i te 1850, ka whakaaro a Paremata ki te whakahoki i ētahi o ana rōpā ki Te Ika-a-Māui. E whakataki ana ia i ana whanaunga i Te Awahou (Foxton), ka pāngia e te māuiui, ka mate. Kei te urupā i Moutoa e takoto ana.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Lesley Richardson. 'Paremata Te Wahapiro, Te Kiore', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1p5/paremata-te-wahapiro-te-kiore (accessed 12 December 2019)