Kōrero: Te Rangitopeora

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Te Rangitopeora

?–1865–1873?

Nō Ngāti Toa; he wahine whai mana, he kaiwawao, he kaitito waiata

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Teremoana Sparks and W. H. Oliver,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990, and updated in April, 2012.

I whānau a Rangi Topeora ki Kāwhia i te tīmatanga o te rau tau 1800–1899. Ko Te Rākaherea tōna matua, ā, ko Waitohi o Ngāti Toa me Ngāti Raukawa tōna whaea. Ko ōna hapū ko Ngāti Kimihia me Ngāti Te Maunu. I mau ia ki ngā iwi o tōna whaea. E taitamāhine tonu ana ia i te heke whakarungatanga mai o Ngāti Toa ki te noho ki Kapiti me te takutai moana i te tuawhenua. Kei ngā tuhituhi e kī ana, tokowhā ngā tāne i moea e Topeora. Ko Te Rātūtonu o Ngā Māhanga ki Taranaki te mea tuatahi, i moe rāua i te tau 1818. Nō te tau 1822 ka mate a Te Rātūtonu. Ko ana tāne o Te Arawa, ko Rangikapiki tō mua, ko Mātene Te Whiwhi tā rāua tama; ko Te Wehi-o-te-rangi tō muri, nā rāua ko Rākapa Kahoki, he wahine. Ko Hauturu te tāne tuawhā. Ka pūremu a Hauturu ki tētahi tūmau i Kapiti; ka meatia e Rangi Topeora kia patua taua wahine rā, kia kainga hoki. Āpiti atu he tokomaha ngā whaiāipo a Topeora.

E tamariki tonu ana a Topeora, i Kāwhia, kua mātau kē ia ki te tito waiata, he āhua i kawea hoki e tana tamāhine, e Rākapa Kahoki. I ngā pakanga a Ngāti Toa ki Waikato, ka patua e Ngāti Pou ētahi wāhine o Ngāti Toa, hei tēina ki a Topeora ētahi. Ka titongia e Topeora te kaioraora mō ngā rangatira o Ngāti Pou. E tohu ana ngā kupu, arā, ā tōna wā, kia mōrikarika te tūkino i ngā rangatira o Ngāti Pou i mua i te patunga kia mate. Nō muri ka whakatutukitia te tohu e tana pāpā e Te Rauparaha, ka patua, ka kainga aua rangatira.

I te hekenga o Ngāti Toa ki Te Ūpoko-o-te-Ika, i haere me ā rātou pū mā Taranaki. Ka whawhai haere, ā, huhua noa ngā pā i horo. Kātahi a Taranaki ka whakatahi ki te pā kaha o Tāpuinīkau, e pātata ana ki Ōpunake. Ka taiapuhia e Te Rauparaha mā. Ko tētahi o ngā tāngata o roto o te pā, ko Te Rātūtonu, he whaiāipo nā Topeora. Ka whakahaua a Te Rātūtonu kia puta mai, kia moea rāua. Ēngari, ka arotau a Nekepapa, nō Te Āti Awa, māna kē te tāne, ka whakataetae ki a Topeora. Ka oma tahi atu rāua ki tā rāua tāne. Ko Topeora i tae tuatahi atu, ka ūhia e ia a Te Rātūtonu ki tana kahu kurī, ka riro i a ia te tāne. Ahakoa tonu, kāore i mau te rongo. Nō muri kē mai, ka whiriwhiria, ka tukuna kia mārire noa rātou i roto i te pā. Nō konei i kitea, ahakoa e taitamāhine tonu ana anō, kua pakari, kua mārō kē te tū o Topeora.

Ko ngā iwi whakaheke ki Te Ūpoko-o-te-Ika, i whawhai tonu i waenga i a rātou. I tua atu, i rewa anō te rau o ā rātou patu ki te iwi kāinga. I tēnei wā, ko Rangi Topeora tonu e takatū ana i waenga i ngā iwi. Ka whakarērea a Te Horo i te tuawhenua, ka whakawhiti a Ngāti Tama ki Kapiti noho ai. Nō ngā tau whakamutunga o te tekau tau atu i 1820 ka kakari ki a Ngāti Toa rāua ko Ngāti Raukawa. Ka matemate a Ngāti Tama, ka tonoa mai te tamāhine a tō rātou rangatira a Pehitaka, hei whakarite i te rongo ā whare. Nā Topeora i whakatau mai, ka kōrerorero rāua ko tana pāpā, ko Te Rauparaha, ka tonoa ko tana tama, ko Mātene Te Whiwhi hei hohou i te rongo. Ko te hokinga tēnā o Ngāti Tama ki tuawhenua.

Ko Mua-upoko o Horowhenua tētahi iwi i kaha te whawhai atu ki ngā taua whakaeke mai o te raki ki te tango i tō rātou mana ahikā. Tokotoru ngā tamariki a Te Rauparaha e mōhiotia ana nā rātou i patu. Nā tēnei mahi ka puta te taha kaitaua o Rangi Topeora. Ka āta noho a Topeora rāua ko tana whaea ko Waitohi, ka whiriwhiri me pēhea te ngaki i ēnei mate. Ko te mutunga iho, ka whāia a Mua-ūpoko, ka patua, tinitini ana i mate.

Ki tētahi kōrero ā Ngāi Tahu, nā Rangi Topeora tonu i tū ai te pakanga o te tau 1829. I te takakinohanga a Te Kēkerengū o Ngāti Ira i a Topeora, ka mataku kei patua a ia e Te Rangihaeata, ka rere ki ana whanaunga ki Ngāi Tahu i Kaikōura. Nō muri ka puta atu a Ngāti Toa, ka pēnei a Ngāi Tahu he haere pai noa iho, ka āwhina atu ki te tō mai i ō rātou waka. E mauria mai ana ngā waka, e patua ana a Ngāi Tahu e Ngāti Toa. Kātahi ka haere a Ngāti Toa, ka whakaekea a Kaiapoi, ēngari kāore i taea.

Ko Topeora tētahi o ngā wāhine tokorima i haina i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Nāna i haina te tauira o te Tiriti i heria atu e Te Karu Whā (Henry Williams) ki Kapiti, i te 14 o Mei 1840. Ahakoa tana haina i te Tiriti, nō muri rawa mai a ia ka rata ki te nohonoho mai a te Pākehā. E ai ki te kōrero a tētahi hōia Pākehā o ērā rā, i te tau 1846 ka whakahēngia e Topeora te noho a te Pākehā. Riri tonu atu ia, i te kore āwhina atu o te hunga o Ōtaki i te pakanga a Te Rangihaeata ki ngā Pākehā. Nō konei ka tātātia ia e tētahi kaumātua, ka whakanōhia ki raro, ka taunutia atu. Ka whiua ngā kōrero, arā, ko ia rawa te tuahine heahea o tana tungāne heahea kē ake i a ia, ā, he kūao kurī te ritenga o Topeora. Ka kī anō te kaumātua nei, mā te rongomau ka whai poaka, ka whai rīwai, ka whai tupeka ai te tangata, ā, ka pāinaina i ngā ahi kāinga. Ko tā te pakanga, ko te hūhi ko te poautinitini. Whai noa te iwi i tā te koroua rā.

He wahine whai rawa, whai whenua hoki a Topeora. I kōrerohia, i a rāua ko tana tama ko Mātene Te Whiwhi te nuinga o ngā whenua i Katihiku, i te wahapū o Ōtaki. I rīhitia e ia te whenua ki ngā Pākehā. Ko ētahi i meatia hei hoko. Ahakoa kāore a Te Rangihaeata rāua ko Te Rauparaha i whakaae, ka whakawhiwhia tonu e Topeora a William Mayhew, he tangata whaiwhai tohorā, ki tētahi whenua. Ēngari i riro anō i a Te Rauparaha mā he wāhanga o te utunga mai a Mayhew.

He wahine tino rangatira a Topeora, he wahine toa, he momo hoki nō tōna whaea nō Waitohi. He pū kōrero i tono, ā, i āhei ki te tū i ngā hui, he reo reka e hiahiatia ana hei kīnaki whaikōrero, he kaitito waiata, he wahine remurere. Kei Ngā mōteatea (I, 70), kei tētahi o ana waiata, ana kōrero mōna anō:

E hira hoki au
I aku tūmanako
E kai nei te aroha, ī.

I tōna iriirihanga ki Ōtaki i te 2 o Mei 1847, whai tonu ia ko te īngoa 'Te Kuini' hei īngoa mōna. Ko tētahi o ana tāne i tapaina ko Arapeta, ko te īngoa tēnei o te tāne a Kuini Wikitōria. Ki tōna rohe, i karanga tonutia a Topeora ko 'te Kuini o te Taitonga'. Ka taipakeketia ia ka panipania e Gottfried Lindauer tōna whakaahua, he wahine purotu, he wahine whakahirahira, kore rawa ia i mau kākahu Pākehā. Nō te wā atu i 1865 ki 1873 ka mate tēnei wahine rongonui, ki Ōtaki.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Teremoana Sparks and W. H. Oliver. 'Te Rangitopeora', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990, updated April, 2012. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t103/topeora-rangi-te-kuini (accessed 22 October 2019)