Kōrero: Tūhawaiki, Hōne

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Tuhawaiki, Hone

?–1844

Nō Ngāi Tahu; he amorangi, he kaipatu tohorā, he kaumoana, he kaihokohoko

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Atholl Anderson,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

Ko Tūhawaiki i tū hei rangatira amorangi mō Ngāi Tahu ki Murihiku i te matenga o Te Whakataupuka i ērā wā i te tau 1835. E whakaarohia ana nō te tīmatanga o te rau tau mai i 1800, ka whānau ia ki Murikauhaka kāinga i Tauhinu (Inch Clutha). Ko Ruapuke tōna wā kāinga i a ia ka pakeke. Heoti, ko te rohe o Ngāi Tahu puta atu hoki ki ērā atu wāhi ōna takahanga waewae.

Ki te takina mai ōna kauwhau i ngā kāwai rangatira ka kitea ōna hononga ki a Ngāi Tahu, ki a Ngāti Māmoe. Me tīmata mai i a Tūrākautahi. Nāna ko Kaweriri, he toa rongonui i mate ki Murihiku. Me waiho i konā. Nā Manawa rāua ko Paroparo ko Te Kaihaere matua o Tūhawaiki. Ko Te Kaihaere he uri nō Kaweriri.

Kia huri ake ki tōna kōkā, ki a Kura, ko Kukure rānei. Ko te rangatira o Ngāi Tahu nāna i whakapūmau te rongo taketake a Ngāi Tahu ki a Ngāti Māmoe, ko Te Hau-tapunui-o-Tū, uri o Tūteahunga nāna ko Honekai, i moe rā i a Kohuwai, kia puta ki waho ko Kura. Ko Kohuwai he mokopuna nā Raki-ihia uri o Tūtemakohu o Ngāti Māmoe. He hoa kakari ērā toa a Tūtemakohu rāua ko Kaweriri.

Ko ngā īngoa e mōhiotia ana tēnei tangata, ko Hōne, ko John Tūhawaiki; ki ngā kaipatu kekeno i Te Ara-a-Kiwa (Foveaux Strait) ko 'Bloody Jack'. E mōhiotia paitia ana ōna tūpuna, ēngari kei te hapa ngā kōrero mō ngā torotoronga o tōna whānau, tae atu ki te rārangi o āna tamariki. Na, me huri ki a Hōnekai, te pāpā o tōna whaea. Ko tōna tuahine ko Te Wakarawa, nāna ko Wakaka, kia puta ko Takaroa, tētahi o ngā wāhine maha a Tūhawaiki. Tokorima ā rāua tamariki. Ko tētahi anō o āna wāhine ko Te Uira, he mokopuna nā Te Ruahine tungāne o Kohuwai. He tamāhine tā Tūhawaiki rāua ko Te Uira. I tōna matenga, ka whakaarohia he wahine tuatoru tāna, ko Irikautoa, ko Kirihaukau rānei.

E ai ki a Te Hōtereni (Edward Shortland), i runga i ngā kōrero a Tūhawaiki ki a ia, ko Kīhau rāua ko Poko he tama nā Tūhawaiki rāua ko Te Uira. Nō te tau 1830 pea i whānau ai a Kīhau, ka iriirihia ko John Frederick. Ko tētahi kōrero anō ko Tahawaiwai – kē te whaea o Kīhau – ko Touari anō tētahi o ōna īngoa. Heoi, ka tae ki tōna wā, ka tukuna te mana ki a Kīhau hei tū i te tūranga o tōna matua. Ko tana wahine ko Madeleine Kurukuru, tokotoru ā rāua tamariki. Ko Alfred Frederick, ko John, me Ellen. Nā rātou anake ngā tākerekere a Tūhawaiki e mōhiotia ana i tēnei rā.

I te tau 1827, ka tūtaki te kaipatu kekeno rā, a John Boultbee, ki a Tūhawaiki i waho i te ngutu awa o te Mata-au, arā, ko te Matāu (Clutha) o ēnei rā. Ki tōna whakaaro e 34 pea ngā tau o Tūhawaiki i taua wā. Ko te rite hoki o tōna āhua ki tōna matua kēkē ki a Te Whakataupuka. Ki a Boultbee he teina, tuakana ngā tokorua nei. Mai i te tau 1820, i te hemonga o te nuinga o ngā rangatira o Murihiku, ko Te Whakataupuka te whakakapi o Tūpai hei rangatira matua mō Murihiku. Ka topatopa te haere o ngā mahi momoho a Te Whakataupuka, ka piki haere te tohungatanga ā-iwi o Tūhawaiki.

Āpiti atu hoki, ko ngā tukinga a Ngāti Toa i Kaikōura, i Kaiapoi, i Ōnewa i Akaroa. Tuarua ko te kōhurutanga o te rangatira o Ngāi Tahu, o Tama-i-hara-nui i Kapiti. Tuatoru, ka whati te tini rerenga i ngā pakanga a Te Rauparaha. Nā konei ka neke te mana ā-iwi o roto i a Ngāi Tahu ki te taitonga. I ngā waitaua rautipu a Ngāi Tahu ki a Ngāti Toa, ka rangona te māia o Tūhawaiki, me te mūrere hoki ki te ārahi taua.

I ngā rā e potapotae ana ki 1833, ka uru atu a ia ki te waitaua tuatahi e ahu whaka-te-raki ana. Ko ngā kaiārahi ko te tama a Tama-i-hara-nui, ko Tūtehounuku, ko Tangata Hara o Wairewa (Lake Forsyth) me Mākere o Murihiku. Ka tae ki Kāparatehau (Lake Grassmere), ka heipū ohoreretia atu te ope o Ngāti Toa i tātahi. I te nōnoketanga i ngā kare o te moana, ka rarautia atu a Te Rauparaha e tētahi o rātou. Ka pahuhutia e ia tōna kākahu, kātahi ka ruku, puta atu ana! He maha ngā pūrongo e kī ana ko te tangata nāna i rarau te rangatira whakahirahira o Ngāti Toa – ahakoa mō te wā poto noa – ko Tūhawaiki. Kātahi ka rere tāwhāinga ngā taua nei mā Te Koko-a-Kupe (Cloudy Bay) me te ahu whakapapa haere atu ki Kurateau (Tory Channel).

Ka taka ki te tau 1834, ka hiki atu tētahi hikutoto a Ngāi Tahu ki Te Koko-a-Kupe i raro i a Taiaroa rāua ko Te Whakataupuka. Ko te āhua nei kāore a Tūhawaiki i uru atu ki taua waitaua. Ēngari i muri tata tonu i tōna tūranga hei amorangi i te tau 1835, ka takuna mai he mate ki te wā kāinga, ki Ruapuke. Ko Te Pūoho-o-te-rangi te haere ana me tōna marau iti o Ngāti Tama mai i Te Taitapu ki Te Tai-o-Poutini (West Coast). Ka tāwhai atu i Tīoripātea (Haast Pass) ki roto o Murihiku. Kua tae tēnei ki ngā rā tōmuri o 1836. I tae atu te pūrongo ki a Tūhawaiki i Awarua. Rere tonu atu ia ki Ruapuke ki te whakahiato i āna toa, ka hoki ki te huaki i a Ngāti Tama i Tūtūrau. Ka pūhia ko Te Pūoho, ka mau hereheretia tōna apataki.

I Hānuere o te tau 1838, ka hanepī te eneene riri a te waitaua o Ngāi Tahu ki a Ngāti Toa i Te Koko-a-Kupe. Kāore e tino mōhiotia ana mehemea i reira a Tūhawaiki. I te tata paunga o te tau 1839, nāna i arataki te waitaua whakamutunga ki te tai whakararo. I Wairewa, ka rokohanga atu ngā kaimahi patu tohorā a George Hempleman. Nō Ngāti Toa ētahi o rātou. Kotahi i kōhurutia. E kore hoki e taea te pātari mai a Te Rauparaha i Kapiti. Ka whakatauria kua ea i te ika o Waiwera. Haere ake nei ka whakarērea e ia tērā mahi,te kawe a riri.

Ka huri ki te mahi hokohoko. Ka hokona atu e ia he whenua i Hakaroa (Banks Peninsula) ki a Hempleman; ko te utu he poti iti mō te takutai moana, ko Mary Ann te īngoa. I hoki a ia mā runga i tana poti ki tana kāinga ki Ruapuke. Ehara tēnei i tana hokonga tuatahi i te whenua. I te tau 1832, ka hokona e Te Whakataupuka a Rakituma (Preservation Inlet) ki a Peter Williams, he tangata patu tohorā anō. Nō Tīhema o 1835 rā anō ka whakamanaia e Tūhawaiki taua hokonga. Atu ki Hepetema 1838, ka hokohokona anō e ia ētahi maramara whenua i te takiwā ki Te Ara-a-Kiwa ki ngā kaipatu tohorā, patu kekeno i reira e noho ana.

Ka whakapau ngā rā o Hepetema 1838, ka rere a Karetai rātou ko Taiaroa, ko Tōpi Pātuki, ko Haereroa me Tūhawaiki ki Poihākena (Sydney) mā runga i te Magnet. I reira, ka tahuri rātou katoa ki te hokohoko i ngā whenua o Murihiku, tata tonu ki te rua miriona eka i hokona i te marama o Oketopa. Ko te utu, iti iho i te £500 me ngā rawa tāpiri. I te hokinga mai, ka hokohokona anō ngā whenua rahi tonu mō te utu iti noa iho. Ko ētahi o ngā rangatira o Murihiku i pērā anō te ngākau nui ki te hoko whenua.

I Hānuere o 1840, ka hoki anō a Tūhawaiki ki Poihākena. I reira, ka tūtaki atu ki a George Gipps, te kāwana. I ērā wā, ko te kāwana i Poihākena te kaitiaki i ngā ture i Aotearoa nei. Ka whakamātau tērā ki te taupare i ngā mahi hokohoko whenua. Ka kī atu ka āta tirohia ngā hokonga whenua katoa e te ture i te 14 o Hānuere. Nā reira, ka whakahaua e ia me mutu te hoko noa o ngā whenua, ēngari me hoko ki te Karauna anake. Tē whakatoatoa ai a Tūhawaiki mā ki ērā kōrero. Te taki tūnga ake, ka hokona te katoa o Te Waipounamu me Rakiura ki a Johnny Jones rāua ko W. C. Wentworth i te 15 o Pēpuere. Ka hainatia e Tūhawaikite pukapuka hoko, ko tōna īngoa ko 'John Towack, King'. Ka utua tonu mai ki a ia £100, āpiti atu ko te utu ā-tau ā muri atu, e £50.

Me pēhea anō hoki e mana ai tērā tuku i ō rātou whenua? Ruarua noa nei ngā pukapuka tuku i whakamāorihia kia mārama ai ngā kaihoko; ko ngā roherohenga i hauwarea noa iho te tohungia. Hanga noa iho ka tuhia he tātai o te takoto o te whenua. Ko ētahi o ngā whenua e inaki ana; ko ētahi anō e hia kē nei ngā hokonga. Nā reira kāore ngā kaitango i ngākaurua menā e mana ana ā rātou take; ā, ko ētahi i tere tonu te wāwāhi i ō rātou whenua, ka hokohokona tuaruatia. I te tirohanga i ngā whenua i kokorahotia, tē taea te whakamana te nuinga. I te tau 1840, ka whakatūria e Gipps he kōmihana i raro i a Kānara Edward Godfrey hei whakawā i ngā mahi hokohoko whenua. He tino pono rawa atu ngā kōrero a Tūhawaiki i te aroaro o taua kōmihana. E ai ki tā Te Hōtereni i mīharo a Godfrey ki te mārama o te whakatakoto kōrero me te tohungatanga o tērā rangatira ki te tohu i ngā paenga o ngā whenua.

Tutuki rawa ngā mahi hokohoko a Tūhawaiki i ngā hua o āna mahi hoko whenua. I tōna hokinga mai i Poihākena i Maehe o 1840, ahakoa kāore kē ia i whai i ngā mahi pāmu, nāna i mau mai ngā kau tuatahi ki Ruapuke. I te mea kua āhua waia ia ki ngā mahi patu tohorā, koia rā kē tāna i whai ai. Ka whakahaerengia e ia he teihana i te kokorutanga o Awarua (Bluff Harbour). He maha ana kaimahi Pākehā. Heoti, ka huakore te patu tohorā, ka kimihia e Tūhawaiki me ngā rangatira o Murihiku he mahi kē anō mō ā rātou poti, arā, he mau i ngā tāngata, he kawe taputapu, ki ngā takiwā o te motu. He maha ōna kaipuke. Ko te Mary Ann; ko te Levin nō rātou ko Tōpi Pātuki mā; ko te Perseverance he kaipuke whaiwhai kekeno i waihangatia houtia hei kawe taputapu. Ki a Johnny Jones, he kaipuke hauā; ēngari ka riro mā Tūhawaiki e whakarere, pai noa iho. Mahue ake i a ia ētahi o ngā waka.

Nō te marama o Hune 1840, ka mauria te Tiriti o Waitangi ki Ruapuke mā runga i te kaipuke, te Herald. Ka hainatia e Tūhawaiki tōna īngoa, ko John Touwaick. Ko ngā kōrero mōna i tōna ekenga atu ki te kaipuke, whakahirahira ana ōna kākahu o te hōia āwhina āpiha tūranga teitei o te hokowhitu o Peretānia (Great Britain). Ko ngā maurua o tōna tarau he kōura. Ko tōna pōtae tapa toru i tiaria ki te kura. Me tana tūmau, he Māori anō, me ngā kākahu e tika ana mō tōna tūranga.

I tēnei wā, he whare papa tō Tūhawaiki, e rua ngā rūma. Ā, kua tau ki te katoa ko ia te amorangi o Ngāi Tahu. E rua tekau te kaha o tōna pouturiao, rite tonu ki ō ngā hōia o Peretānia ō rātou kākahu me ā rātou rākau. Waihoki, ka whakaaro pūkeke ia kia tino riro mai i a ia ngā painga e ahu mai ana i te kirimina hou o te Tiriti. Kāore i ngaro i ngā Pākehā te pakari o āna mahi hokohoko; tōna mātau ki te kōrero, ki te pānui, ki te tuhituhi hoki i tō rātou reo. Kua waia hoki ia ki ngā āhuatanga mō te mahi moni, tae atu hoki ki te pēke moni. Kia haere ki āna kaipakihi, kua mau i tōna hūtu, me tōna koti roa, koti mā; tae atu hoki ki tōna wati mau tīni. Ka mau te wehi!

Heoi rā te mātakitaki a ngā tāngata haere i te ao, pērā anō i a ia rā! Ēngari ngā mihinare, ko ētahi i pohewa he tino kino āna mahi i mua. Kei ngā tuhituhi a te minita, a J. F. H. Wohlers, te kōrero i rite kē a Tūhawaiki ki te kaihoko hōiho; 'he tangata pīnono, he nanakia, he tītipa hoki…nā ērā mahi i waenga i ngā Pākehā i whiwhi ai ia i tōna tūranga whakahirahira'. Ka whakahāweatia hoki mō tōna kaingākau ki te waipiro, te wāina, te parani me te rama.

Ahakoa ehara ia i te tangata whakapono, i pono tonu tōna hiahia kia noho he mihinare ki Ruapuke. He inoi tonu tana mahi ki a Te Wātikena (James Watkin), te mihinare Wēteriana i Waikouaiti, kia tukuna mai he mihinare Pākehā. Ehara i te kaiwhakaako Māori tāna i hiahia ai. Kua tae kē anō hoki a Tāmihana Te Rauparaha o te Hāhi Mihinare, rāua ko Horomona Pōhio o te Hāhi Wēteriana ki te torotoro i ngā iwi o Ruapuke. Nō te tōmuatanga o te tau 1844, ka rere tahi atu a Pīhopa Herewini (G. A. Selwyn) rāua ko Tūhawaiki mā runga i te Perseverance. Ka mauria e Tūhawaiki ki tōna kāinga noho ai. Ahakoa e whakapono ana ki ngā tikanga a ngā hāhi i whati mai i te Hāhi Katorika, kāore i te mārama mehemea i iriirihia rawatia a Tūhawaiki.

Heoi, ka tae a Wohlers hei kaiwhakaako i Ruapuke, i Mei o 1844, kua pahemo kē mai a Tūhawaiki ki te heri i a Te Herewini ki Akaroa. Kātahi ka rere ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara (Wellington Harbour); ka mauria ki te aroaro o Kāwana Pitiroi (Robert FitzRoy). I muri iho ka hoki ki te whakahaere i te hokonga o te whenua i Ōtākou (Otago) ki te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Company). Nā tēnei take ka kumea mai ngā rangatira aporei ki Ōtākou i Hune. Ka āta tirohia mārikatia e ia ngā rūri me ngā whakamāramatanga i tuhia ki te kirimina. E ai ki a Hōri Karaka (George Clarke), anei tāna mōteatea wahapū:

Tēnei mātou ngā mōrehu kua poharatia;
Taro ake nei tē kite ai te Pākehā i tōku ngaromanga ki te korehāhā!
I ōku nei rā he iwi kaha he iwi tini mātou…
Ēngari ko te hoariri kino kē atu i a Te Rauparaha, ko ia rā tēnei,
Ko te toronga mai o te Pākehā me āna waipiro, me āna mate kikino.
Ki ō koutou whakaaro ko te mutunga mai o te kino mātou.
Titiro ki te hunga weriweri o Poihākena,
Ngā utanga kaipuke i kawea mai ki tēnei takutai
Ki te patu tohorā, ki te patu kekeno.
Nā rātou i mau mai ngā mate urutā, ngā mate tauhou,
Kāore nei i mōhiotia e ō mātou mātua, hei pēhi i ā mātou, ā
Ngaro noa i te mata o te whenua.

Nō te 31 o Hūrae 1844, ka hainatia te tukunga o te whenua i Ōtākou. Ko te wāhanga ki a Tūhawaiki e £900. Ko te nuinga i tukuna ki Pōneke (Wellington) ki a David Scott hei hoko mai i tētahi poti anō me ētahi taputapu. I noho tonu a Tūhawaiki ki Ōtākou ki te whakatikatika i ngā tautohetohe mō ngā utu ki ērā o ngā rangatira, ki te whakahaere hoki i āna nei take.

I ngā rā tōmua o Oketopa 1844, ka rere whaka-te-raki ia i roto i tētahi kahupapa waka itiiti. Nō tō rātou taenga ki te kūrae o Paparoa (Tūhawaiki Point) i te 10 o Oketopa, ka ākina e te au tuke, ka tahia atu a Tūhawaiki ki te moana. Ko te whakaaro nā te hoe ākau pea ia i āki. Ka haere te wā, ka pae ki te raki, ki Mutumutu. Ka haria kia tanumia ki Te Wai-a-Te-Ruatī. He pā tawhito tēnei e tautiaki ana i te pito tonga o Ngā Pākihi-whakatekateka-a-Waitaha (Canterbury Plains), kei heipū ka hoki mai anō a Te Rauparaha. Nō konei ka whakarērea taua pā, ka whakatapua hoki te poti, ka whakahokia ki Hakaroa pirau ai. Nō Ākuhata o te tau 1846, ka whakahokia e Tōpi Pātuki ngā kōiwi o Tūhawaiki ki Ruapuke āta tanu ai.

Ko Tūhawaiki tētahi o ngā rangatira whakahirahira o Te Waipounamu. Ā, he tino pakari tōna awe i te taenga tuatahitanga o te Pākehā ki tērā motu. Hāunga anō tōna kāwai rangatira, ka tāpiri atu hoki te pahekotanga o te hinengaro punenga ki ōna pūmanawa ki ngā mahi hokohoko, tōna māia, me te āhuareka tonu o te tangata. He aituā tino nui te hinganga o Tūhawaiki i te wā e tū ana mai te ope matua o ngā Pākehā me he ngaru whati mai.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Atholl Anderson. 'Tūhawaiki, Hōne - Tuhawaiki, Hone', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t110/tuhawaiki-hone (accessed 16 December 2019)