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Te Awa-i-taia, Wiremu Nēra

by Gary Scott

Biography

Nō te tata mutunga o te rau tau 1700–1799 pea i whānau ai a Te Awa-i-taia. Ko Parehina tōna whaea, ko Te Kata tōna matua. E ai ki ngā kōrero, tokoiwa āna wāhine. Ko Rangihikitanga, ko Hinu, ko Kararaina, ko Pirihira, ko Raimipaha ngā īngoa o ētahi o rātou.

He rangatira a Te Awa-i-taia nō Ngāti Māhanga. I te awa o Waipā te kāinga o tōna iwi. Kei te taitāhae tonu, ka arahina e ia he taua ki te pana atu i a Ngāti Koata i Whāingaroa (Raglan Harbour), ki te tonga ki Kāwhia. Ka nōhia e ia te whenua, ka whakatūngia tōna kāinga ki Ōhiapopako, i waenga o Te Mata me Ōkete. He tino hoa, ā, he hoa mau rākau ia nō Te Waharoa o Ngāti Hauā, rāua ko Te Wherowhero o Ngāti Mahuta, ngā tino toa o Waikato. He karanga whanaunga anō hoki a Te Awa-i-taia rāua ko Te Wherowhero.

I te wā he whawhai whakapāpā tonu te mahi i Waikato, ka kitea te toa o Te Awa-i-taia ki te mau taiaha (kei te whare pupuri taonga o Whāingaroa tana taiaha i nāianei). Nō te tau 1820 pea te whawhai a Waikato ki a Te Rauparaha i Kāwhia, ā, nā Te Awa-i-taia i ārahi tētahi wāhanga o te taua i urutomo mai mā te moana. I taua pakanga anō ki a Te Rauparaha i Te Kakara, i whai wāhi a Te Awa-i-taia i te patunga o Raparapa, he toa rongonui nō Ngāti Tama, mō te kaha o tōna whirikoka.

Takina ake e Te Awa-i-taia te taua nāna i whai a Te Rauparaha i tōna hekenga ki te tonga mā Taranaki. Nō te tata paunga o te tau 1821, nō te tīmatanga rānei o 1822, arā ia i Motunui, wāhi o Taranaki ki te taiwhakararo, e whawhai ana i a Waikato. I reira, ka patua a Waikato; ko tō rātou tauitanga atu tērā ki te tuaraki. I te tau 1824, kia kakarihia ai a Ngāti Ruanui ki Waitara, ka tono a Ngātata-i-te-rangi o Te Āti Awa ki a Waikato kia whanake. Ko rātou i haere ake ko Te Awa-i-taia, ko Te Waharoa me tana tama a Tarapīpipi. He ope matarahi tonu. Nō te tau 1831, kei Taranaki anō a Te Awa-i-taia rāua ko Te Wherowhero. He ngaki i te matenga o Waikato i Motunui te kaupapa. Ko Te Ao-i-te-rangi o Ngāti Tama i hinga ki a Te Awa-i-taia. I te tukinga o Pukerangiora, i te mātotorutanga o te riri a ia e ngārahu ana.

Nō te tau 1833, 1834 kē rānei, tōna pānga ki te Rongopai. Nō tōna huringa ki te Whakapono ka whakamātau ia ki te hohou i te rongo i waenga i a Waikato rāua ko Ngāti Ruanui, arā i Te Ruaki, e pātata atu rā ki Te Hāwera, e kakari ana i taua wā. I tōna hokinga atu ki Whāingaroa, ka taka ia ki raro i te awe o te mihinare Wēteriana rā, o William White. I te takutai a White e whakatūtū mīhana haere ana. Ka noho ko Te Awa-i-taia hei kaitiaki mō te mīhana i Kāwhia. He mīhana me hanga ki runga i ngā whenua o Ngāti Māhanga. Nō te 17 o Hānuere 1836, ka iriria a Te Awa-i-taia e te mihinare Wēteriana, e Te Wārahi (James Wallis), ka tapaina ko Wiremu Nēra (William Naylor). I meatia, nā te kaha o te whakamanawa o Te Awa-i-taia, i puāwai ai te Rongopai ki roto i a Ngāti Māhanga o Whāingaroa.

I noho pono a Te Awa-i-taia ki ngā tohutohu o te Rongopai i tōna hurihanga ki te Whakapono. Ko ia te kaiwawao o te mīhana i ngā mahi whakatuma a ngā iwi o reira anō. Nāna anō hoki i hanga te whare karakia tuatahi i Whāingaroa. Nā ngā whakahau a te Hāhi, ka tukuna e ia te tokowaru o āna wāhine tokoiwa. Nō te tau 1837, i whai wāhi ia ki te tukunga o ngā pononga o ngā tukinga a Waikato, i a Taranaki. Ka taka ki te tau 1840, ka whakamātau ia ki te wao i a Ngāti Tūwharetoa rāua ko te iwi o Waitōtara arā i Pātoka pā e riri ana. Ko tāna he uruuru atu kia mau te rongo, heoti, i a ia ka tūturi ki te karakia, ka pūhia e Ngāti Tūwharetoa te tokorua o ngā toa i reira e tū tōpū ana.

Nō te 11 o Āperira 1840, ka waitohua e Te Awa-i-taia te Tiriti o Waitangi; he mea hari ake nā te mihinare o te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare (Church Missionary Society) rā nā Te Mānihera (Robert Maunsell) ki Whāingaroa. Nā Te Awa-i-taia te kupu whakamaherehere ki ētahi kia haina. Nō te marama o Mei 1844, ka hui ngā rangatira ki Remuera. I reira, ka kōrerotia anō e ia tōna ngākau pono ki te Kuini, ki te kāwana hoki. Heoti, he kupu āhua pukuriri āna mō te mahi akiaki a te tangata whai kia hokona atu he whenua, ēngari, kīhai rātou i pai ki te utu i ngā moni e tika ana.

Ko 1854 te tau i haere tahi atu ai a Te Awa-i-taia rātou ko Te Waitere (John Whiteley) o Kāwhia, ko Te Mākarini (Donald McLean), te Kōmihana Tumuaki Hokohoko Whenua, ki Taranaki. E pupū ake ana te riri i tērā takiwā nā te mea he mea kōhuru a Rāwiri Waiaua nā Te Waitere Kātātore. Ka whakatūpato a Te Awa-i-taia i a rātou, ka hoki kotahi ake a Ngāti Māhanga me ērā atu o Waikato ki te wawao i te hunga Pākehā o Taranaki menā ka tūkinotia rātou. Ko te kī a ngā Pākehā e mātau ana ki a Te Awa-i-taia, i tua atu i te awe o Te Wherowhero, nōna te awe tino kaha rawa atu o ngā rangatira o Waikato. Ka tonoa ia kia tū mō te Kīngitanga, ēngari, kore rawa ia i aro atu ki taua kaupapa. Ko tāna, he kaupapa mataku ki tōna ngākau pono ki a Kuini Wikitōria (Victoria) menā ka tautokona e ia. I te tau 1857, i te hui i Paetai wāhi, e tata atu rā ki Rangiriri, ka whakahēngia e ia te kaupapa o te Kīngitanga. Hei waitohu i te kaha o tōna mana, kīhai he tangata i hamumu i te mutunga o āna kōrero, ā, pau noa te hāwhe hāora. Ka whakatika ake ko Iwikau Te Heuheu Tūkino III. Ko tāna he pei atu i ngā Pākehā i Aotearoa nei. Kātahi ka tīterehia e Te Awa-i-taia rāua ko Waata Kūkūtai, ka whakakīkītia atu kia noho. Ka tono a Te Awa-i-taia ki a Te Wherowhero kia kaua e whakaae hei a ia te Kīngitanga. Tērā pea e whakarongo a Te Wherowhero mehemea kīhai ā rāua rīriri mō ngā whenua i te takutai moana. Ko Te Awa-i-taia tētahi o ngā rangatira i haere ki Tāmaki-makau-rau (Auckland) kia tūtaki ki a te kāwana, ki a Thomas Gore Browne. I reira, ka tohe tahi te apataki a te Kīngi me ōna hoa tauwhāinga, kia whakapūmautia tūturutia te mana motuhake Māori me te tono anō hoki he Pāremata motuhake mō rātou.

I tohea e Te Awa-i-taia te hiahia noho o Te Wherowhero ki Ngāruawāhia. Hei tāna, he nohonga taua whenua nō Ngāti Māhanga nō tua whakarere mai rā anō. Ko ia tētahi o te rūnanga kāwanatanga o Ngāti Māhanga, ā, nāna i tautoko kia whakatūria ko F. D. Fenton hei noho ki Waikato hei kaiwhakawā takiwā. Ki a ia, ko rāua ngātahi ko Fenton ngā kaiwhakapūmau i te ture me te āta noho. Na, ko tētahi o ōna i hopukina, i whakawāngia, ā, i haria ki te whare herehere o Tāmaki-makau-rau. Ka noho tēnei hei kaupapa amuamu māna ki te kāwanatanga mō te mātua kore kimi whakamaherehere i a ia.

I te hui i Ngāruawāhia i te marama o Mei 1860, ka puta te taraweti ki a Te Awa-i-taia mō tōna piripono ki te kāwanatanga. Ka whakamātauria ki te whakamanioro i a ia. Ka meatia atu kia kaua e tū ki te kōrero, ēngari me hoki ki te kāinga. Ko ētahi anō i tohe kia noho iho, me te kī taurangi ake ka āta whakarongohia āna kōrero. Ko āna kōrero o Paetai i whakapuakina anō e ia heiwhakatūpato i a Tarapīpipi, arā, i a Wiremu Tāmihana, me Ngāti Hauā kia kaua e uru atu ki ngā kaupapa whakararuraru i te āta noho a te motu. Nō Ākuhata, ka hui rātou ko ngā ngārahu Māori ki Kohimaramara (Kohimarama). He rūnanga nā te kāwanatanga i karanga.

E hia kē nei ngā tau o te mahi hoko whenua a Te Awa-i-taia ki te kāwanatanga. Nō te Maehe o 1851, ka hokona atu e ia he whenua e 30 ngā māero tapawhā te rahi, arā, 19,200 eka, i Whāingaroa; he tūrunga nō te tāone o Whāingaroa i nāianei. Ka taka ki te tau 1859, ka hokona e ia te whenua mai i Waitetuna, ka rere ki Waipā awa, kia mutu ki te take paemaunga ki Waikato awa. I te tau 1859, ka tīmata a Te Awa-i-taia rātou ko tana iwi ki te hanga rori ki runga i ō rātou ake whenua, mai i Whāingaroa ki Whatawhata i te awa o Waipā; kia taea ai te pū o Waikato e te kāwanatanga tōna kaupapa. Ehara koa, ka ātetehia e ērā atu o Waikato tā rātou mahi. E hia kē nei ngā huinga o rātou i whai pānga ki te whenua e mahia nei te rori. Na, ka whakaritea te rā e tīmataria ai te tope rākau i te rāwhiti o te paemaunga. Nō te tīmatanga ka ara mai he taua i Kihikihi ki te aukati i ngā tāngata a Te Awa-i-taia. Nō te taenga atu ki Whatawhata ka aukatia mai te taua e tētahi reta whakaohiti nā Tāmihana, e kī ana, he wero kia tukia a Waikato e Ngāti Hauā mehemea ka pakū te pū ki te uku o tōna pāpā. Heoti, nā te whanaunga tata tonu o Te Wherowhero, nā Te Paea, i kumekume ake ngā tīrau rūri o te rori. Nā te kore mōhio o Te Awa-i-taia menā ka taea e te kāwanatanga te kī taurangi he hōia hei tuarā mōna, ka hangā e rātou ko tōna iwi te rori ki runga whenua Karauna i Whāingaroa; he whakataunga e pai ana ki ngā hoa tauwhāinga.

Ko tā Te Awa-i-taia ki a Kāwana Hōri Kerei (George Grey) i te tau 1863, he whakahē i ngā kaupapa here a te kāwanatanga, e pā ana ki te tū a Wiremu Kīngi Te Rangitāke, arā, mō tōna kore hiahia hoko i ngā whenua o Waitara. Ahakoa rā, i whakaae ia ki te urunga mai o te kāwanatanga ki te pakanga i Taranaki. Ko ia te takawaenga mō te kāwanatanga i muri i te urutomokanga o Waikato i ngā hōia o te Karauna i te tau 1863. I ātehatia ia i raro i te Ture Whakarite Kōti Māori (Native Circuit Courts Act) 1858. I hinga a Ngāruawāhia ki ngā hōia o te Karauna, ka whetakina i Tīhema o 1863. Nō muri mai ka haere a Te Awa-i-taia ki Maungatautari, ki Pikopiko, ki Pāterangi, ki te tono ki a Waikato rāua ko Ngāti Maniapoto me mutu te whawhai. Ki tōna whakaaro i hiahia tonu a Waikato kia houhia te rongo, ēngari nā te āwangawanga kei whakamatea a Tāmihana rāua ko Tāwhiao, te whakakapi o Te Wherowhero hei Kīngi, te kore ai e tuku i ā rātou rākau.

Ahakoa kāore i whakatumahia a Whāingaroa i te wā o te pakanga, i whakamaurākautia e Te Awa-i-taia ētahi o ana tāngata hei āwhina i te ope wawao a te kāwanatanga i te haukāinga. Nāna anō i whakarato he tāngata hei kaiārahi hei kaiāwhina hoki mō Rūtene Tianara Duncan Cameron, ā, menā e hiahiatia ana, he tāngata āna hei parahau mō Tāmaki-makau-rau. Ahakoa kīhai ia i whawhai, i whakawhiwhia ki a ia te tūranga meiha me te hoari whakahōnore (Sword of Honour). I mate ia ki Whāingaroa i te 27 o Āperira 1866. Ko Rangihikitanga rāua ko Hinu te tokorua o ana wāhine e ora tonu ana i tōna matenga. O ana tamariki tokoono, tokotoru e ora ana ina mate nei ia. Ko tōna whakakapi hei ngārahu mō Ngāti Māhanga, ko tana irāmutu ko Hetaraka Nero.


He whakaaturanga anō

Rārangi pukapuka

    Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives (New Zealand). 1860, F--3

    Kelly, L. G. Tainui. Wellington, 1949

    Smith, S. P. History and traditions of the Maoris of the West Coast, North Island of New Zealand prior to 1840. New Plymouth, 1910

    Vennell, C. W. & S. Williams. Raglan County. Auckland, 1976

    White, J. The ancient history of the Maori. Vol. 6. Wellington, 1890


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Gary Scott. 'Te Awa-i-taia, Wiremu Nēra', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t26/te-awa-i-taia-wiremu-nera (accessed 24 July 2021)