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Te Houkāmau, Iharaira

by Steven Oliver

Biography

Nō te iwi o Ngāti Porou tēnei tangata rongonui a Te Houkāmau. Ko tana matua ko Whakataha-te-rangi. Ko Kākahutangohia tana whaea. I heke mai a Te Houkāmau i a Te Rangi-i-pāia, i a Tūwhakairiora rāua ko Ruataupare anō hoki. Nō ngā tau tōmua rawa pea ia o te rau tau 1800–1899 i whānau ai. E taitama ana ka uru atu ki ngā pakanga a te iwi. Tirohia ngā tuhinga mō Te Rangi-i-pāia, kei reira ngā tātai mō Te Houkāmau.

Hai ārai i ngā ope taua a Ngāpuhi ka huihui a Ngāti Porou ki ō rātau pā huhua i te riu o Waiapu. I te mutunga o ngā whawhai ki a Ngāpuhi i ngā tau mai i 1830 ka haere ngā iwi o Ngāti Porou ki wētahi atu kāenga hou noho ai. Nā te mea i te tahatai kē te nuinga o ngā mahi hokohoko o aua wā, he maha rātau i neke ki te tahamoana noho ai. Ko Te Houkāmau i noho kē mai i Te Hekawa, pātata atu ki Te Kawakawa (inarā ko Te Araroa). He tūtata atu hoki tērā kāenga ki ngā kaipuke kawe taputapu hai hokohoko. I reira ka mōhio a Te Houkāmau ki ngā kōrero o te karaipiture me te kaupapa Karaitiana. I te tau 1838 ka manaakingia e ia ngā mihinare a Te Wiremu (William Williams) rāua ko Te Koreneho (William Colenso) i te taenga atu ki tērā rohe.

I te tau 1840 ka puta atu anō a Te Wiremu. E mau atu ana i te Tiriti o Waitangi ki a Ngāti Porou kia whakamaua ō rātau tohu. I te 4 o Hune ka pōwhiritia e Te Houkāmau te mihinare nei ki tana kāenga kōrerorero ai rāua. Ahakoa tonu kore rawa a Te Houkāmau e haina i te Tiriti. Nā te mea ko ia tonu tētahi o ngā tino kaihautū o tērā rohe, kāore a Te Houkāmau i pīrangi kia kitea mai a ia e te iwi e whakahoahoa ana ki a Te Wiremu, ki tana tauira rānei mō tērā rohe, ki a Hoani Timo. Ēngari i puta tonu tana hiahia kia whakaakona a ia ki ngā mahi a ngā mihinare, ki ngā karaipiture.

He aha te aha! Noho kē ana a Te Houkāmau ki te taki i tana iwi he kaupapa kē. Whakarērea ana e rātau ngā tohutohu me ngā mana Karaitiana. I te marama o Ākuhata 1848 ka puta ngā amuamu a Te Wiremu mō tērā mahi pōhēhē a Te Houkāmau. He tau i muri tonu mai ka tono a Te Houkāmau kia iriirihia tētahi o wana wāhine. Me ia anō hoki! Mehemea ka whakaae a Te Wiremu ki te iriiri, ka whakawāteatia e ia tana wahine tuarua. Tuhia rawa tana reta whakamana i tana whakawāteatanga i taua wahine. Ū tonu hoki tana whakaaro.

Na, i te tau 1853 ka whakaritea e ngā mihinare ko Rota Waitoa hai māngai mō rātau i Te Kawakawa. Nō Ngāti Raukawa tērā tangata. Nā reira ka whakahē a Te Houkāmau. Kāore hoki i tika mā te rāwaho e tohutohu, e whakatikatika a Ngāti Porou. Heoi ka haere te wā, ka noho pōuri ia mō tana whakahēnga. Ko te kōrero, i haere ia ki a Waitoa ka inoi atu kia tukuna 'māna e tahitahi te whare karakia, māna e whakatangi ngā pere o te Whare a Te Ariki'. I noho pūmau ai a Te Houkāmau hai pou mō te Hāhi. Anā, nā Rota Waitoa tonu ia i iriiri ka tapaina ko Iharaira.

Ko Te Houkāmau ko Mōkena Kōhere ko Hēnare Pōtae ngā tāngata tautoko āwhina i te kāwanatanga. I te tau 1862 ka kōrero a Te Houkāmau mō te haere ki ngā iwi o Ōpōtiki me wētahi atu rohe ki te kauhau, ki te whakamārama, ki te tautoko i ngā ture a te kāwanatanga. Ka pakari ngā whakahaere Pai Mārire i roto o Waiapu i te tau 1865 ka neke a Te Houkāmau ki tērā taha o Wharekahika (Hicks Bay) ki Matakaoa. Ka hangaia he pā hou ko Makerōnia. I mea ia māna e aukati atu te poropiti Pai Mārire a Pātara Raukatauri ki Whangaparāoa. Ehara koa, i uru tonu mai te ope a Pātara ki te rohe o Waiapu. Kātahi ka tū te pakanga i Mangaone ka hinga te iwi kāenga. I Makerōnia ka āia ngā Hauhau, ka rere patiko. Nā te hoahoa o Te Houkāmau mā ki te kāwanatanga ka tukuna e te āpiha a te kāwanatanga, e Te Mākarini (Donald McLean) he pū, he kariri ki a rātau. Āpiti atu hoki ko ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga hai āwhina i a rātau ka tino hinga ngā Hauhau.

E toru ngā wāhine a Te Houkāmau. Ko te wahine matua ko Mere Raiha Hineitukua. Tokorua ā rāua tamariki, ko Iritana, ko Pētera. Tuarua ko Hāriata, ko Apikara tā rāua. Tuatoru ko te taina o Mere, ko Rīpeka Paiātehau. Ko Te Hatiwira, ko Wingara, ko Tipiwai ā rāua nei tamariki. I tū tonu a Te Hatiwira i te taha o tana pāpā i te whakaekenga i te pā o ngā Hauhau i Te Māwhai i te kokorutanga o Tokomaru i te marama o Hepetema 1865. I taua wā i te ngaro kē a Hēnare Pōtae te rangatira o tērā marae. Ka riro nā Te Hatiwira me te puni wahine i pare atu te hoariri. I muri mai ka moea e Te Hatiwira tētahi o aua wāhine, a Mere Arihi Te Pana hai wahine māna. I te mutunga o ngā pakanga i roto o Waiapu ka riro a Te Hatiwira i roto i te ope hōia a te kāwanatanga ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa (Poverty Bay). I tae rawa ki Te Urewera ki te whai i a Te Kooti. I whakatūria ko ia hai kaihautū mō te ope o Ngāti Porou i tonoa e te kāwanatanga ki te whawhai i a Tītokowaru i Taranaki.

I tua atu i tērā ka mahi a Te Houkāmau mā kia mau tonu ngā whenua o Ngāti Porou ki te iwi. I te tekau tau mai i 1870 ka whakaaengia e rātau kia hangaia ngā rori. Nā te kāwanatanga i waitohu ngā Pākehā hai rūri i te whenua, hai whakatakoto i te huarahi, hai whakahaere i ngā mahi. Heoi anō, nā ngā Pākehā i tuku ngā mahi ki te iwi kāenga, ā, i oti ai. Kāti tonu, i whai moni ai rātau, i ngāwari ai tā rātau kōpikopiko i waenga i ngā rohe. I anga tonu a Te Houkāmau ki te āwhina ki te tautoko i te kāwanatanga. I te tau 1874 ka tū tana hākari nui. Ka whakatūria tana pou haki. Ka whakatarengia te tiaki o Ingarangi. Ka takoto te kupu a te iwi ka noho pūmau tonu rātau ki te Kuini o Ingarangi me te kāwanatanga.

I mate mai a Te Houkāmau i Te Kawakawa i te marama o Hānuere 1875. Ko te kōrero mōna, i whakapaua e ia tana kaha ki te hora i te rangimārie i waenga i ngā iwi katoa.


He whakaaturanga anō

Rārangi pukapuka

    Mackay, J. A. Historic Poverty Bay and the East Coast. Gisborne, 1949

    Neal, K. S. 'Maori participation in the East Coast wars, 1865–1872: local politics and greater commitments'. MA thesis, Auckland, 1976


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Steven Oliver. 'Te Houkāmau, Iharaira', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t35/te-houkamau-iharaira (accessed 13 April 2021)