Skip to main content
Logo: Te Ara - The Online Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Print all pages now.

Te Kirikūmara, Īhāia

by Steven Oliver

Biography

He rangatira a Te Kirikūmara nō Ōtaraua hapū o Te Āti Awa. I whānau ia ki Taranaki. Ko Piriraukawa tōna matua. I a ia e taitamariki tonu ana, kua mau rākau kē ia i roto i ngā pakanga a tōna iwi. Nō Noema o 1821, nō te tīmatanga rānei o 1822, ka maranga mai ko Waikato o te taiwhakararo ki Motunui. Ka whakatika atu ko Ōtaraua me Taranaki whānui tonu hei uku mō Te Rauparaha i Motunui. Ka hinga a Waikato. Nō te tau 1831, ka hiki ake te taua toto a Waikato ki te rautipu i a Taranaki. Ka pāhorotia ko Pukerangiora pā i te awa o Waitara. Heoti, waimarie i puta a Te Kirikūmara. I te Maehe o 1832, ko Te Kirikūmara tētahi o te ope ngaki mate nāna a Ngāti Maniapoto i huaki i Motutaua pā ki Mōkau. Nō te tau 1833, ka tomokia anō a Taranaki e Waikato, ka awhitia a Mikotahi pā. He pā moutere, e pātata ana ki Nū Pāremata (New Plymouth) o ēnei rā. Ko tētahi o ōna kaiwawao ko Te Kirikūmara. Kātahi ka whakahaeretia he rangaawatea, ka ū. Ko te whakataunga ia, me hari hereheretia atu a Te Kirikūmara rātou ko ērā o Taranaki ki Waikato. Ko te whakaaro i iriiritia a ia ki reira, ka tangohia e ia a Īhāia (Isaiah) hei īngoa mōna.

Nō muri mai i te tau 1840, ka riro ngā kaingārahu o Waikato me Ngāti Maniapoto i te ia o te Whakapono, ka tukuna a Īhāia kia hoki ki te haukāinga. Hei tā Te Awa-i-taia o Waikato, nā Īhāia i ārahi he tira ki Kapiti, ki Waikanae hoki. Ko te kaupapa he tono i a Wiremu Kīngi Te Rangitāke kia hoki ake ki Waitara, te wāhi, taihoa ake ka nohoia e Īhāia. I te tau 1844, ka whakamātau a Īhāia, ki te tuku whenua hei hoko ki te kāwanatanga. Ka tautohetia e Te Rangitāke, ka whakakorea te hoko. Nō te tau 1847, ka whakamātau anō ia ki te hoko, ā, pērā anō i te tau 1850. Heoti, i taua wā, ko Kāwana Hōri Kerei (George Grey) tonu te tangata i whakapā ā-kanohitia atu e ia. Ahakoa ia rā, i whakakorea katoatia.

I Mei o 1854, ka puta tētahi take i whai wāhi ki ngā piki me ngā heke o ngā mahi a Īhāia, i a ia e ora ana. I hui ngā iwi o Taranaki whānui tonu ki Manawapou i te rohe o Ngāti Ruanui. Ka takohatia e te rūnanga kia mau ki ā rātou te katoa o ngā whenua mai i Ōkurukuru ki Kai Iwi. Ko tā te Pākehā īngoa mō taua whakaritenga ko te 'rōpū pupuri whenua' (land league). I a Taranaki e hui ana ka hokona te poraka o Hua e Rāwiri Waiaua, te ngārahu o tērā wehenga o Te Āti Awa, o Puketapu. Kātahi ka tukuna e ia kia hokona, tētahi wāhanga i rohea mai i te poraka o Hua kia kaua e hokona, i te mea e kokorahotia ana e Te Waitere Kātātore. Nō te tangohanga a te kōmihana hoko whenua (land purchase commissioner), ko te whakatikatanga atu tēnā o Rāwiri me ana tāngata ki te whakarake i ngā paenga o te poraka. Kua oti kē i a Kātātore te whakaohiti rātou kia kaua e whakarakea. Nō te 3 o Ākuhata 1854, ka angaanga ngā kaiātete, ka patua a Rāwiri me te tokorima o ana tāngata. Kotahi tonu te whakaaro o te tangata whai o Taranaki, arā, e whakatutuki ana a Kātātore mā i te kaupapa here a te hunga e kīia nei ko te rōpū pupuri whenua.

E ono marama i muri mai ka whakahaua e Īhāia a Rīmene o Ngāti Ruanui kia patua. Nā tērā i moe tāhae a Hāriata, te wahine a Īhāia. Nō te marama o Tīhema, ka taiapuhia e te 300 o Ngāti Ruanui a Manaku, te pā o Īhāia, ka horo. I puta ai a Īhāia mā, he taenga ake nō te apataki a Rāwiri hei pūmanawa mō rātou. Ka taka ki Mei o 1855, ka whakatōpū te iwi o Rāwiri ki Nīnia pā, i raro i te mana o tōna whanaunga o Arama Karaka. Kātahi ka awhitia e Kātātore rāua ko Te Rangitāke. Ko ō rāua apataki o Te Āti Awa me tō rāua uku a Ngāti Ruanui ngā tuarā. Nā te mōhio o Arama e noho mōrearea ana rātou, ka tono ki a Īhāia kia haere ake ki te āwhina i a ia. Ka whakaae atu a Īhāia, ēngari, me mātua tuku mai he whenua mōna i Ikamoana, he wāhi e pātata ana ki Nū Pāremata. Rite ana ki tāna i hiahia ai, ka whakaarahia e ia he pā ki reira. Taro ake ka huakina taua pā e Ngāti Ruanui, ka taieritia mai, ko tō rātou hokinga atu tēnā ki te kāinga. I rewa tonu te rau o te patu i roto o Te Āti Awa, ā, tata pau noa te tau 1856. Nō te tōmuatanga o te tau 1857, ka mau te rongo. Na, ko ēnei ngā whakarite hei whakanoho pūmau i te maungārongo, arā, me tuku e Kātātore te whenua i patua rā a Rāwiri i runga, ā, kaua rāua ko Te Rangitāke a muri atu, e ārai i ngā hokonga whenua kore pānga ki a rāua.

Nā Tāmati Tīraurau i whati ai te maungārongo i te tīmatanga o Hānuere o 1858. Kāore i whakaaturia mai mehemea he teina, he tuakana rānei nō Īhāia, heoi anō nō te whānau kotahi. Nā Tāmati me ana tāngata tokorima te kauaeroa nāna i patu a Kātātore. I whāki atu a Īhāia ki a Te Pāriha (Robert Parris), te kōmihana hoko whenua ā-rohe, nāna i tātai te tātai kia kōhurutia a Kātātore. Ko te āhua nei nāna i tinihanga a Kātātore kia haere ake ki Nū Pāremata ki reira rāua whakahoahoa ai. Nō te matenga o Kātātore ka noho ko nga pāmu a ngā tāngata whai o Nū Pāremata te tāhuna mō ngā taua e whawhai haere ana i reira.

Ka mahue i a Īhāia tana pā i Ikamoana ka hoki ki te rohe o Ōtaraua i Waitara. Me te aha hoki, ka tū anō te riri ki reira. I te taha o te awa o Waitara, ka whakaarahia e ia a Te Karaka pā. Ko ana hoariri o Te Āti Awa ērā, ka tahuri mai ki te pakipaki i a ia. Ka haere nā ngā wiki e awhitia ana, ka tino mate kai rā tana iwi. Nā te kāwanatanga te kupu ki a ia kia tahia te tahua, ēngari, ka tūwhititia ia ki ana whanaunga i Wharekauri (Chatham Islands), arā, ko Rēkohu te īngoa ki ngā Moriori. Ka whakaparahakotia e ia te whakarite a te kāwanatanga. Ko tōna tahuritanga atu tēnā ki ōna uku o Whanganui me Waikato kia haere ake hei tuarā mōna. Ka tū mai ko Te Pāriha me te minita, me Te Waitere (John Whiteley) hei takawaenga. Ka whakaae a Te Rangitāke ki tā rāua i whakarite ai, arā, ka whakarērea te pā, ā, mā Te Rangitāke mā e tahu. Kāore anō kia tutuki te take nei ka tae ake te ope a Wiremu Te Korowhiti, he rangatira nō te taiwhakauta o Whanganui, hei whakahihiri i a Īhāia. Ka whakarērea nā e Īhāia te pā, ka mahue ake i a ia he toa mau pū ki ngā rua huna ai mō te taenga ake o Te Rangitāke mā. He aha noa rānei, ka mōhio a Te Pāriha ki taua mahi. Tere tonu tana whakaohiti atu i a Te Rangitāke. Ka taka te kauaeroa. Ka mahue te rohe o Waitara i a Īhāia, ka ahu pērā ki te raki. I te awa o Mimi ka whakaarahia e ia he pā maioro kaha mō rātou.

Ko ia anake i mōhio ki te take i tautohe tonu ai ia ki te ātete i a Te Rangitāke. Ka kitea i ana reta ki ngā nūpepa, te koi o tōna hinengaro ki ngā mahi tōrangapū. Ko te kaupapa o aua reta he whakaoho i te tangata whai, kia ātete i a Te Rangitāke. Nāna i tautoko te hokonga o ngā whenua i Waitara e Te Teira ki te kāwanatanga. I te rewatanga o te patu i Maehe o 1860, i tū tahi ia me te kāwanatanga. Nāna anō hoki i ārahi ngā hōia o Peretānia (Great Britain) ki ō rātou tūranga kia pai ai tā rātou tuki i Puketākauere pā, i te 27 o Hune 1860. Ahakoa i tino mate ngā hōia o Peretānia, ka whakanuia tonutia a Īhāia mōna i āwhina i a rātou. I te tau 1869, nāna i taritari he taua Māori hei whawhai i a Tītokowaru. Ko ia anō hoki te kaiwhakamāherehere a te kāwanatanga mō ngā take e pā ana ki te iwi Māori.

E ai ki te kōrero, he mate kohi te mate nāna a Īhāia Te Kirikūmara i turaki. Nō te 9 o Hūrae 1873 a ia i mate ai i te pā o Wakatere i te awa o Waitara. Ko te urupā o tōna iwi i Te Karaka, tōna okiokinga whakamutunga.


He whakaaturanga anō

Rārangi pukapuka

    Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives (New Zealand). 1860, E--2

    Cowan, J. The New Zealand wars. Vol. 1, 1845--64. Wellington, 1922

    Dalton, B. J. War and politics in New Zealand, 1855--1870. Sydney, 1967

    Scholefield, G. H., ed. The Richmond--Atkinson papers. 2 vols. Wellington, 1960

    Sinclair, K. 'Te tikanga pakeke: the Maori anti-land-selling movement in Taranaki, 1849--59'. In The feel of truth. Ed. P. Munz. Wellington, 1969

    Smith, S. P. History and traditions of the Maoris of the West Coast, North Island of New Zealand prior to 1840. New Plymouth, 1910


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Steven Oliver. 'Te Kirikūmara, Īhāia', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t44/te-kirikumara-ihaia (accessed 13 April 2021)