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Te Pareihe

by Angela Ballara

Biography

Ko Te Pareihe te kaihautū o Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti i roto i ngā pakanga i te tīmatanga o te rau tau 1800–1899. Ko ētahi o ngā īngoa o Te Pareihe, ko Kai-a-te-kōkopu, ko Hōri. Kāore e tino mārama ana ōna mātua; kei ngā kōrero, ko Ngārangikapuahu, ko Tiaki, me Te Ikahuahua ētahi īngoa e whakahuahuatia ana. Heoi, ko te kōrero mōna, hei mokopuna ia mā Tapuhara rāua ko Hikawera. Nō te kuia nei nō Tapuhara, te īngoa kei te karangatanga hapū o Ngāi Tapuhara. He tama a Hikawera nā Te Whatuiāpiti, te tino tupuna o tērā iwi.

I a ia e ora ana, ka tūpono a Te Pareihe ki ngā raruraru i waenganui i a rātau anō, arā, ki a Te Hāpuku rāua ko Kurupō Te Moananui. Ko ēnei tokorua, he uri nō Te Wāwāhanga, te mātāmua a Te Whatuiāpiti, nōna nei te mana ki ngā whenua, ki te iwi hoki o Heretaunga. Ahakoa hei karangatanga pāpā ia ki te tokorua nei, kore rawa rāua i aro nui ki a ia. Ka waihotia e ia tēnei āhuatanga hei taki i ōna whakaaro. He tangata mātau ia ki te whakatakoto tikanga, he mōhio ki te whakaputa kōrero, he mārama hoki ki te titiro whānui. Mai iho, he whakataetae tonu a Te Pareihe ki ngā rangatira whai mana nui atu i ōna. I kitea ōna hua, nō te matenga; kātahi ka hoki ngā mahara mōna e tiaki rā ia i a rātau, me te mana o ō rātau whenua i Heretaunga. Kei ngā kerēme ki te Kōti Whenua Māori, he whakahuahua tonu ngā uri i tōna toa i ngā whawhai.

I te tīmatanga o te rau tau 1800–1899, he maha ngā pakanga a Te Pareihe rāua ko tana tuakana, ko Tūteiwirau ki a Rangitāne o Te Wairarapa ki raro, ahu atu ki te tonga o Heretaunga. E ngana ana a Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti ki te pupuri i ngā taonga o te taiao i aua rohe. I taotū ia i te pakanga i Mangatoetoe, ka amohia e ōna whanaunga ki tētahi wāhi whakaruru. Ko te pakanga nei, he ngaki i te mate o tō rātou rangatira, o Kaiwaru. Ko te kaiārahi ko Te Ringanohu. I hinga rātau i a Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri. Ko tētahi tēnei o ngā pakanga maha i waenganui i ēnei iwi e rua mō te mana o Heretaunga.

I ngakia te mate o Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti i Mangatoetoe i te pakanga i Pukekaihau i roto o Waipukurau. Nā Whakarongo rāua ko Te Pareihe rātau i taki. Nō te toanga, ka tukuna e Te Kaihou, te tuahine o Te Ringanohu, te mana o tōna tungāne ki a Te Pareihe rāua ko Whakarongo. E rua tau i muri mai, ka horo i a Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri te pā o Te Aratipi i Waimārama, kei te takutai moana. Nō taua wā ka puta ngā rongo o Te Pareihe ki te taki ope taua. Kātahi ka whakarewaia tana ope taua, ka hinga a Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri i Te Matau i te takiwā ki te 1821.

I roto i ngā tau e rua o muri mai, ka kōkiritia a Heretaunga e ngā iwi o te hauraro; he mau pū katoa. Ko Te Hurakohukohu o Ngāti Awa ki Te Mānuka Tūtahi o Whakatāne me tōna ope; i parekura ki Te Pakake, he pā kei te motu i Ahuriri (Napier). Hei ngaki i tōna mate, e rua ngā pakanga o muri nei, nā Te Waru rāua ko Tūpaea i taki mai. I aratakina mai hoki e Te Whatanui o Ngāti Raukawa tētahi ope taua; ka hangaia he pā mōna ki Puketapu. Kua kitea tonutia, kei te tauapohia te whenua mō Ngāti Raukawa. Kātahi ka whakaekengia, ka hinga. I uru a Te Pareihe ki te nuinga o ēnei pakanga.

Nō te tau 1823, ka tae a Te Wera Hauraki o Ngā Puhi ki roto o Te Tai Rāwhiti, ka noho pūmau ki Nukutaurua i Te Māhia. Ka whakahoahoa rāua ko Te Waikōpiro o Mōhaka; ka whakakotahi i ō rāua ope, kātahi ka aratakina e rāua ki te kōkiri i ngā iwi o Heretaunga me Te Wairarapa. Na, i Te Kauae-o-Māui (Cape Kidnappers), ka kite atu a Te Wera i ngā ahi a Te Pareihe me tana iwi, e mumura mai ana i Waimārama. Ka puta te whakaaro me huaki a Te Pareihe, ēngari kāore ngā iwi o Ngāti Kahungunu ki Te Wairoa i whakaae. Ko tō rātau hekenga tērā ki te pā o Tānenui-a-Rangi, kei te awa o Ngaruroro i Whakatū. I Waimārama, kua mōhio kē mai a Te Pareihe kua tau mai te ope taua o Te Wera. E ai ki te kōrero, kua puta kē te matakite a te tohunga, a Ngoi, tērā e noho tahi a Te Pareihe rāua ko Te Wera i runga i te rangimārie. Nā runga i ā rāua kōrerorero, mea rawa ake, kua piri rāua kia rāua.

Nō taua wā nei, kua hoki mai a Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri ki Heretaunga ki te ngaki i ō rātau mate o mua. Ko Mananui Te Heuheu Tūkino II o Ngāti Tūwharetoa, te kaihautū o tō rātou ope taua; he whanaunga hoki i runga i ngā moemoe. Ko tō rātau kāinga noho ko te pā i te motu i Te Roto-a-Tara. Nā Te Pareihe i arataki te ope taua a Ngā Puhi, me Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti me Ngāti Kahungunu ki Te Wairoa. Ka hinga a Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri rāua ko Tūwharetoa i te puta o Te Whiti-ō-Tū, i Tikokino. Ka riro anō i a Te Pareihe te pā.

I reira tonu rātau ka hoki mai anō a Mananui me tana ope taua, ka pāhautia te pā i Te Roto-a-Tara mō te rua marama. He kore waka nō rātau, ka hangaia he arahanga he whakawhiti ki te motu. Ka oti, ka whakaaro a Mananui kia tino pāhorotia te pā. I te whakawhititanga atu e tū mai ana a Te Pareihe rāua ko Tiakitai me ētahi atu o ngā rangatira, e tatari mai ana. Ka ākina mai, ka whati te ope a Mananui. I mate ki reira a Te Ārāwai, tētahi o ngā rangatira o te ope whakaeke. Ahakoa whakarērea e Mananui te pakanga nei, kāore i taea te kī i toa a Te Pareihe rāua ko Tiakitai. Ko te take, he maha ngā tāngata i mau hereheretia e Mananui. Ko te tamāhine tonu a Te Pareihe tētahi, ko Patu-kaikino. Nō muri mai ka tukuna e Mananui.

Poto nei te wā i tau ai te rangimārie. Ā, ka mahara anō a Te Pareihe, he nui ngā mate o Ngāti Raukawa, o Ngāti Maru, o Ngāti Awa me Ngāti Tūwharetoa me ētahi o Heretaunga, kāore anō kia ea. Na, ka kawea mai e te hau, ki te tohunga ki a Ngoi, he kōrero whakatūpato i a Te Pareihe. Kei te haere mai a Waikato. Ka mea atu a Ngoi, me haere a Te Pareihe ki te tiki i te toki i a Te Hauwaho, nō te mea he tino toki rawa tērā, he toki matakite. Ka tonohia e Te Pareihe te toki rā, ka kī atu hoki kia taki heke katoa rātau ko tana iwi i Nukutaurua. Kāore i arongia atu e Te Hauwaho. Ka kī atu a Te Pareihe, 'Kāti e noho, kia mate ai koe i ngā iwi i parekuratia i Te Whiti-o-Tū.' Whakautua atu e Te Hauwaho, e hinga ai ia, e hinga ana i runga i ōna oneone anō.

Ka ārahina atu e Te Pareihe ngā iwi o Heretaunga ki te whakaruru i Nukutaurua. Hangaia rawatia he pā mōna ki reira, ko Ōkūrārenga te īngoa. Kāore i roa i muri i a rāua, ka patua ko Te Hauwaho, ko Te Hāpuku, ko Te Moananui, ko Tiakitai me te hunga i taki noho atu i Heretaunga, i hinga i a Waikato i Te Pakake.

He wāhanga nui tonu o Waikato i taki rere ki te whai i a Te Pareihe, ka huakina te pā i Ōkūrārenga. Ka hono atu hoki a Mananui me tāna ope o Ngāti Raukawa, o Ngāti Whiti, me Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri ki a Waikato. Nā te whiwhi pū o Ngā Puhi, ngā hoa o Te Pareihe, ka roa rātau e karapotihia ana. Ka pau ngā kai o te pā, kātahi ka huri ki te kai uku; koirā i karangatia ai taua pā rā ko Kaiuku. Kāore te pā i hinga. Ka houhia te rangimārie; e ai ki te kōrero, he rongo ā whare, nā te tamāhine a Mananui, nā Te Rohu.

Nō taua wā nei, ka tae mai ngā Pākehā patu tohorā, hoko harakeke, ki Te Māhia. Ka whakamahia e Te Pareihe tana iwi ki te hāro harakeke, ki te whakatupu kai hei hoko ki te Pākehā kia riro mai ai he pū. Nā tōna ngāwari ki te toha i ngā pū, ka mene katoa mai te tini o te tangata ki a ia, tae atu ki te hunga i rere mai i Waikato. I haere rawa mai ētahi i Te Wairarapa me Heretaunga ki a ia noho ai. I te tokomaha o tana iwi, mātotoru ana te tū a tana ope taua.

Ka hua te whakaaro i a Te Pareihe, me matika ia ki te whakaātete ki ngā iwi kē. Ka āwhinatia e ia a Rongowhakaata ki te ngaki mate ki a Ngāi Tai rāua ko Te Whakatōhea. I āwhina anō ia i a Ngāti Porou ki te pakanga ki a Te Whānau-a-Apanui. Nōna ka hoki mai ki Te Māhia, ka rongo he mea patu e Ngāti Raukawa a Te Wakaūnua, nō Ngāti Hineuru o te takiwā ki Tarawera kei uta o Mōhaka. Ka whakaarahia e Te Pareihe rātau ko Te Wera me Nuku-pewapewa, he rangatira nō Te Wairarapa, ā rātau hokowhitu – 1,600 te kaha – ka whakaekengia te pā o Ōmakukura kei te taha uru-mā-raki o Taupō. I te horonga, he nui o Ngāti Raukawa i mau hereheretia. Kātahi ka whakatika a Te Pareihe ki te huaki i te pā o Mananui i Waitahanui, kei te taha rāwhiti o te moana o Taupō. Ko te hiahia o Mananui, kia whakarērea te pā i te pō, ka puritia e Te Rohu.

E whakatata atu ana te ope a Te Pareihe ki te aroaro o te pā, e tū mai ana a Te Rohu me tana rākau. Whakamihi rawa atu a Te Pareihe ki te māia o te wahine nei, koirā ka takoto tāna kupu, kia houhia te rongo. E hoki ai ērā manaaki, kātahi ka whakatūpato atu a Mananui, aua rawa ia e whakararuraru i a Waikato; ko te take, he tokomaha nō rātau ka tahi, he nui nō ngā pū ka rua. Ēngari me hoki ki Heretaunga, ki te whakatahi i a Te Momo-a-Irawaru i Te Roto-a-Tara. Whai atu hoki, e kore ia e whakapōrearea i a Te Pareihe, ki te pakanga ia ki a Ngāti Raukawa, e hanga whakaaro rā rātau mō te whakaeke i a Heretaunga.

Tēnei ake anō tētahi kōrero: kia hoki kē a Te Pareihe ki Te Māhia, ka rongo kua tae a Te Momo ki Heretaunga me tōna ope taua o Ngāti Te Koherā. He iwi tēnei, ko ōna takenga mai, nō Ngāti Raukawa me Ngāti Tūwharetoa. Ka haere atu a Te Pareihe rāua ko Te Wera Hauraki i Te Māhia ki te pana. E noho ana a Te Momo i te pā o Kahotea kei te taha rāwhiti o Te Roto-a-Tara. Ko ōna haumi o Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri, i raro i a Te Motumotu, kei te motu. Ka hoea e Te Pareihe rāua ko Te Wera ō rāua waka mā te awa o Tukituki, kātahi ka tōia mā uta ki te moana. E kohi kai ana a Te Momo i waho o te pā, ka kitea, ka patua. Ko ia te mātāika. Nō konei, ka hinga te pā i te moana. He nui ngā mea i patua, he nui anō i mau hereheretia. Ka tapaina tēnei whawhai ko Te Roto-ā-Tara Tuarua. Nō muri mai, ka titoa e Ahumai, te hunōnga a Te Momo, he waiata tangi mōna, he kaioraora mō Te Pareihe.

Kotahi, e rua rānei ngā whakatetetanga a Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri, kātahi ka wehe atu i Heretaunga; noho kē mai ētahi ki Taupō, ētahi ki Te Manawatū, ētahi ki Kapiti. E kore rātau e hoki ake mō te 20 tau. Ahakoa i toa, ka tahuri a Te Pareihe ki te hari i tana iwi i a Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti rāua ko Ngāti Kahungunu ki Te Māhia noho ai; takitahi i mahue ki muri, noho mohoao ai.

Nā te ngarongaro o te tangata, ka tau te rangimārie i Heretaunga mō tētahi wā roa. I noho tonu atu a Te Pareihe ki Nukutaurua. Nā te ngakinga rawa i te mate o Paeroa rāua ko Kūtia i mate i te whawhai, ka nuku atu ia i reira. He whaea a Paeroa nō Kurupō Te Moananui, te ariki ihorei o Ngāti Hāwea, he karangatanga hapū o Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti. Ka rewa te ope taua rā ki te patu i a Ngāti Raukawa ki Te Manawatū; ka tūpono atu i te huarahi ko Rangitāne, te haumi o Ngāti Raukawa; ka kōkiritia. Ko te pakanga o Te Ruru, ka hinga a Ngāti Mutuahi rāua ko Ngāti Pakapaka. Kātahi ka hoki atu anō a Te Pareihe ki Nukutaurua.

Nō waenganui o ngā te tekau tau mai i 1830, ka taetae mai ngā kaiwhakaako Karaitiana ki Te Māhia. E taki kauwhau ana i te rangimārie; kia whakamutua te tao tangata; kia whakakorehia ngā mahi whawhai. Ko ngā kaiwhakaako tuatahi, nō Te Arawa; ēngari ko te hunga nāna te kōrero hōu nei i whakaū ki a Te Pareihe, ko Pāora Pōmare o Ngā Puhi. Ahakoa te aroha o Te Pareihe ki te hāhi Karaitiana me ōna āhuatanga, i tū tonu ia i te taha o tana iwi ki te ārai atu i a Waikato i Kihitū.

Nō te tau 1838, ka ūnga atu e Te Pareihe ana tāngata ki te hohou i te rongo ki a Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri, ki te inoi atu hoki, kia hoki mai ki Heretaunga noho ai. Ākuanei pea, i pēnei rawa ai tōna aroha ki a rātau, he whakatūpato nōna ki a Te Hāpuku. I whakapaetia nāna tētahi o ngā tamariki a Te Pareihe i mākutu. E hia nei ngā huihuinga, i whiriwhirihia ai te kōrero mō te hohou rongo. Nō te tatūnga, ka whakamoea ētahi hei taura here. Nō taua wā nei anō pea, a Te Pareihe i moe i a Te Rohu, te tamāhine a Mananui. Ki ētahi atu kōrero anō, ko Te Moananui kē tana tāne.

Tokotoru ngā tamariki a Te Pareihe; ēngari kāore e mōhiotia ana te whaea, ngā whāea rānei. Kotahi te mea tāne, tokorua ngā mea wāhine. He tamāhine i noho i te kāinga o Te Koreneho (William Colenso); e waru ōna tau ka mate i te tau 1848. Ko Ani Patu-kaikino, e ora tonu ana i te matenga o Te Pareihe.

I roto i ngā tau o muri mai, hokihoki ai ngā iwi o Heretaunga ki reira noho ai i raro i te maru o Te Pareihe. I Awapuni tōna kāinga, arā, kei Clive o ēnei rā.

Nō te tau 1844, nō mua tata atu o te waihangatanga o Te Koreneho i te mīhana i Waitangi, e tata ana ki Awapuni, ka mate a Te Pareihe. Ka waiatangia e Ani Patu-kaikino, tētahi waiata rongonui ki runga ki a ia. Nō te marama o Āperire 1846, ka hahua te tūpāpaku, ka haria ngā kōiwi ki te ana o Parewanui, e tata ana ki Pakipaki. Nā ōna kaha i tūrere ai ngā iwi whakaeke i Heretaunga. Nāna i toitū ai te whenua mō ngā whakatupuranga. Nā reira, ka maumahara tonu tana iwi ki a ia – ka whakamihi, ka whakanui, ka whakahīhī ki a Te Pareihe.


He whakaaturanga anō

Rārangi pukapuka

    Lambert, T. The story of old Wairoa. Dunedin, 1925

    McEwen, J. M. Rangitane. Auckland, 1986

    N.Z. Native Land Court. Minute books: Napier, 1866--1902. Micro MS Coll. 6. WTU

    Te Atahikoia, M. 'Ko tenei korero no Hawaiki ranoa'. MS Papers 1354. WTU

    Wilson, J. G. The founding of Hawke's Bay. Napier, 1951


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Te Pareihe', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990, updated September, 2011. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t54/te-pareihe (accessed 11 August 2020)