Kōrero: Te Waharoa

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Te Waharoa

?–1838

Nō Ngāti Hauā; he rangatira

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Evelyn Stokes,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

Ko Tangimoana o Ngāti Hauā te matua o Te Waharoa. Ko tōna whaea ko Te Kahurangi. I whakamatea a Taipōrutu, te tuakana o Tangimoana, i te kūaha o te pā o Te Kawau, e tū tata atu rā ki te ngutuawa o Tongapōrutu, i ngā tau whakamutunga o te rau tau 1700–1799. I huaina tana irāmutu ko Te Waharoa, hei īngoa whakamaumaharatanga ki tōna matua kēkē ki a Taipōrutu. I te wā i a Te Waharoa e tino tamariki tonu ana, ka pāhuatia tō rāua kāinga ko tōna whaea a Maungākawa pā e tētahi ope nō Te Arawa, i raro i a Pango o Ngāti Whakaue. E pātata ana ki Matamata te pā nei a Maungākawa. Ka mauria e Pango a Te Waharoa ki Rotorua, ka tupu ake ia i waenganui i a Te Arawa. Nō tōna taitamatanga, ka hoki a Te Waharoa ki roto i a Ngāti Hauā. I uru atu ia ki ngā pakanga i te wā i a Ngāti Hauā me ōna uku o Waikato, o Ngāti Maniapoto e whawhai ana ki a Te Rauparaha me Ngāti Toa. Ko tōna mutunga i panaia atu a Ngāti Toa me Te Rauparaha i Kāwhia i te tau 1821.

Ka tū a Te Waharoa hei rangatira aporei mō Ngāti Hauā. Nāna i ārahi tana iwi i roto i āna whawhai, i āna mahi honohono ki ētahi atu iwi hei uku mōna, kia kore ai ō rātou whenua i roto o Waikato e riro i ngā iwi e noho tata ana ki a rātou. Ko Te Tōtara pā, te tukinga whakamutunga a Ngā Puhi i a rātou e marau haere ana i roto o Hauraki i 1821. I tōna wā, e tū ana a Te Tōtara pā kotahi māero pea te tawhiti ki te tonga o Pārāwai (Thames). Nō muri mai ka whati whakaroto a Ngāti Maru mā te awa o Waihou ki te rohe o Te Aroha. I noho anō rātou i ngā tahatika o te awa o Waikato atu i Kirikiriroa (Hamilton) ki Maungatautari.

I te tīmatanga ka awhitia rātou e Waikato me Ngāti Hauā, ēngari nā te kitenga e hiahia kē ana ki te noho tūturu, ka tupu te raruraru. Ka noho te rangatira o Ngāti Maru, a Takurua, i runga i te kaha o tōna mana i tana pā i Matamata, kāhore i tawhiti rawa atu i te tāone o ēnei rā, o Waharoa, ā tae noa ki te tau 1825. I muri mai i ngā whawhai maha i waenga i a Ngāti Hauā me Ngāti Maru, ka houhia te rongo e Te Waharoa rāua ko Takurua, ka noho tahi rātou ki Matamata. Heoti, e mau tonu ana te wairua tūtakarerewa i waenga i a rātou, ā, nō te tau 1827, i a Te Waharoa e ngaro ana ki Tauranga, ka whakaekea a Ngāti Maru e Ngāti Hauā, ka patua a Takurua. I te hokinga mai o Te Waharoa, ka whakaekea anō a Ngāti Maru i Waiharakeke, takiwā ki te maunga o Te Aroha. I te mea kua panaia nei a Ngāti Maru i Matamata, ka noho ko tēnei te tino pā o Te Waharoa.

Ko te whenua ki te hauāuru i te taha o te awa o Waikato e mōhiotia ana ko Horotiu, te kāinga tūturu o Ngāti Hauā. Ko te nuinga o te rohe o Maungatautari i whakarērea e Ngāti Raukawa, i tō rātou hekenga ki te tonga ki te tūhono atu ki a Ngāti Toa i te tekau tau atu i 1820. Ka nōhia a Maungatautari e Ngāti Maru. I ngā tau whakamutunga o taua tekau tau, ka whawhaitia a Maungatautari e Ngāti Hauā me Ngāti Maru. Ka kaha rawa atu te whakaaro pūkeke o Te Waharoa ki te ā atu i a Ngāti Maru i reira. Ka tono mā ngā iwi o Tauranga me Ngāti Maniapoto ia e āwhina. I te tau 1830, ka tū te pakanga e kīia nei ko Taumatawīwī ki ngā harapaki ki te raki o Maungatautari. Ka huakina a te Haowhenua pā, ka mate a Ngāti Maru. Ko tō rātou hokinga atu tēnā ki ō rātou whenua tupu i te raki o Te Aroha. I tautokona e Te Waharoa te noho a ōna whanaunga o Ngāti Korokī ki Maungatautari, ā piri tonu tā rātou noho. I piri anō hoki ia ki tōna haumi, ki a Ngāti Maniapoto.

Ki te paenga rāwhiti o Ngāti Hauā ko te paemaunga o Kaimai me te rohe o Tauranga, arā, te kāinga o Ngāi Te Rangi me Ngāti Ranginui. Ka mate kāinga tahi, ka ora kāinga rua, te āhua o te piringa o Te Waharoa ki a rātou. Ko Tauranga te pātaka kai mātaitai mō Ngāti Hauā. I te tau 1831, i te whakawehitanga o Tauranga e te waitaua a Ngā Puhi i raro i a Te Haramiti, ka haere atu a Te Waharoa me Ngāti Hauā ki te āwhina. Ka pakangatia ki Mōtītī, ka hinga ko Ngā Puhi. I ētahi wā, ko te takiwā ki Tauranga te wāhi noho o Te Waharoa. I ētahi wā ki ngā moutere o Motuhoa me Rangiwaea; heoti, ko tana pā i Ōmokoroa tana tino wāhi noho; nō te mea, he hāngai te tāwhai atu i ngā paemaunga mai i Matamata ki reira mā te ara o Wairere.

I te toro haerenga atu o ngā mihinare o te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare (Church Missionary Society) ki Tauranga, ki Pārāwai me ngā rohe o Rotorua mai i te tau 1831 ki 1833, ka whakaputaina e Te Waharoa tana hiahia, kia whakanōhia tētahi mihinare o te Hāhi Mihinare ki Matamata. I te tau 1834, ka whakatūria he mīhana ki Te Pūriri, i te ngutuawa o Waihou. I Āperira o 1835, ka tae ake a Parāone (A. N. Brown) ki te noho ki Matamata, ā, nō Hūrae o taua tau anō, ka tae ake ko Te Wirihana (J. A. Wilson) hei hoa mōna. Ka heria e ēnei mihinare tokorua te whakaaro ki a Te Waharoa kia whakatūria he mīhana i waho tonu i Matamata pā. I tuhi a Te Wirihana ki tana pukapuka ā-rā, arā, kāhore te kaumātua rangatira rā i pai ki te utu i whakaarohia ai. He paraikete, he hāte, he hō, he kōhua rino, he toki me ērā atu momo taputapu, aua mea i whakaarohia nei kia tukuna ki a Te Waharoa hei utu. He punenga te whakautu a Te Waharoa. Hei tana, e kore e taea te whakarite te toitū o te whenua ki ngā taonga utu. Ko ngā taonga utu hoki e kore e roa kua pakaru, kua kore take, kua ngaro, ēngari ko te whenua ka mau tonu hei whāngai i ā rātou tamariki, me ngā uri whakaheke a ā rātou tamariki.

Kāhore i roa kua tū he kura ki te mīhana. Ko tētahi o ngā ākonga tuatahi, ko Tarapīpipi, te tama a Te Waharoa. He tere te kite o Te Waharoa i ngā hua taihoa ka puta ake i ngā mahi whakaako tuhituhi, whakaako kōrero pukapuka hoki a ngā mihinare, arā, hei take whakapūmau i te rongomau ki a Ngāti Maru. Nā tana tama rāua ko Parāone i tuhi ētahi pukapuka māna, ā, i te 19 o Hepetema 1835, ka pōwhiritia he ope o te takiwā o Pārāwai ki tētahi hākari hohou i te rongo.

Ki te tonga waho o Ngāti Hauā ko Te Arawa. He āhua pai tonu tā rātou noho tahi. Nō te rā o te Kirihimete 1835, ka kōhurutia te whanaunga o Te Waharoa, a Te Hunga. Ko te whakaaro nā Haerehuka o Ngāti Whakaue taua mahi. Kātahi ka rewa ngā patu, ka whawhai whakapāpā haere. Ko tōna mutunga, ka whakaekea a Te Arawa, e te ope o Ngāti Hauā, o Ngāti Korokī, o Ngāti Maniapoto me te iwi o Tauranga i te 28 o Maehe 1836 i Maketū, ka whakangaromia te whare hokohoko o Te Tāpihana (Phillip Tapsell). Ko te whakautu a Te Arawa he rautipu, he whakangaro i a Te Tūmū, te pā o Ngāi Te Rangi, i te 5 o Mei. Ko ngā rangatira whai īngoa o Tauranga i hinga ko Kiharoa rāua ko Hikareia. Ahakoa te inoi atu a ngā mihinare kia whakamutua te pakanga, ka noho rīriri tonu i ngā marama i muri mai. I te marama o Ākuhata, ka whakaekea e Te Waharoa me Ngāti Hauā te pā o Ngāti Whakaue i Ōhinemutu, ā, ka tāorongia te mīhana o te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare a Te Hāpimana (Thomas Chapman) i Te Koutu. I Oketopa o 1836, nā ēnei mahi pakanga, ka whakarērea te mīhana i Matamata.

I te wā o ēnei whawhai ka whakatau a Te Waharoa māna hei tiaki ngā mihinare, me te kī atu anō ka whakahokia atu ki a rātou ngā taonga a te mīhana. I Hānuere o 1838, ka haere a Parāone ki roto i a Ngāti Hauā i te mīhana o Te Papa i Tauranga. I mua atu, nō tōna haerenga ki Tauranga i te tau 1837, ka kite ia i a Te Waharoa i Motuhoa. E ai ki ana kōrero, i amuamu a Te Waharoa kua kore ana tama e whakarongo ki a ia pērā i mua, ēngari e tohe kē mai ana ki a ia kia houhia te rongo. Ko tana whakapae nā te karakia me ngā pukapuka tapu i pēnei ai. I a ia e noho ana ki Ōmokoroa i te tau 1838, ka māuiuitia a Te Waharoa. Ko te whakaaro ko te mate erysipelas. I tae a Parāone kia kite i a ia i te 2 o Ākuhata, i te tangi mō te wahine matua a Te Waharoa, a Rangi Te Wiwini. He pērā anō te mate o Rangi i tōna rā. He ruarua nei ngā rā i muri mai, ka whakahokia a Te Waharoa ki Matamata, ā, nō te tīmatanga o Hepetema 1838, ka mate.

I te matenga o Te Waharoa ka tuhia e Parāone he kōrero mōna ki tana pukapuka tuhi-ā-rā, arā, ko tēnei tangata he autaia, he horetītī, he kaingākau ki ngā mahi a Tūmatauenga, he whakawiriwiri, he rika ki te ngaki mate, he nanakia, he toa; otirā, ahakoa ēnei āhuatanga ōna, ko wai ka mōhio i te take i noho ai ia hei hoa ki te mīhana. Na, ko J. A. Wilson he kaiwhakawā, ā, he tama nā Te Wirihana, nā te hoa mahi o Parāone o te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare. I kī te kaiwhakawā nei i ana tuhituhi i ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau mai i 1860, ehara a Te Waharoa i te Māori noa iho nei. Ko ōna pūmanawa i wehi ai ōna hoariri i a ia, ko te toa ki te whawhai, ko te tohe kia tutuki tāna i hiahia ai, ko te hihiko hoki o te hinengaro ki te tātai kaupapa. Ki ōna uku, kāore i rerekē ake tā rātou titiro ki ana tikanga i tā ōna hoariri. He tuarā ia ki a Ngāti Maniapoto me Waikato-nui tonu, ā, he mana tōna i roto i a Ngāi Te Rangi. He tohunga nōna ki ngā mahi takawaenga i pūmau ai te kotahitanga o ēnei wāhanga kaha rawa atu e whā o te iwi Māori; ehara tēnei i te mahi ngāwari.

Ko ēnei kōrero a te Pākehā mō Te Waharoa, e whakanui ana i tōna toa ki te pakanga, me tana hautoa hei kaitakawaenga. I te mea he rangatira a ia nō Ngāti Hauā i taea ai e ia te tiaki o ō rātou whenua i ngā mahi whakatuma a ngā iwi o waho, ā, i pūmau tonu ai te mana o Ngāti Hauā i roto i a Waikato whānui tonu. Nā āna mahi tuinga i kaha ai tōna iwi ki te ārai i ngā whakawai a te pū, a te hāhi Pākehā, me ngā momo kaupapa whaioranga i puta mai i ngā kaihokohoko. Ko Te Ārahi, ko te tama mātāmua a Te Waharoa rāua ko Rangi Te Wiwini, tōna whakakapi, ēngari kāhore i roa ka riro tēnei tūranga i tana teina, i a Wiremu Tāmihana Tarapīpipi Te Waharoa.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Evelyn Stokes. 'Te Waharoa', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t81/te-waharoa (accessed 10 December 2019)