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Te Wharepōuri, Te Kakapi-o-te-rangi

by Angela Ballara

Biography

He toa taua o Te Āti Awa tēnei tangata a Te Wharepōuri. Ko tōna īngoa tuatahi ko Te Kakapi-o-te-rangi. I whānau ia i Taranaki, i te whakapaunga o te rau tau mai i 1700.

Ahakoa ko Hōniana Te Puni-kōkupu te ariki nui o ngā hapū o Ngāti Te Whiti me Ngāti Tāwhirikura, ko tōna teina, ko Te Wharepōuri, te toa. I ōna rā he pakanga tonu te mahi a ngā iwi, a ngā hapū; ka kitea te toa o Te Wharepōuri ki te mau i ngā rākau a Tūmatauenga, te māia o te tangata, te marutuna. Ka whakatūria e tana iwi, ko ia hei amokapua mō rātou. I te hekenga mai o te waitaua nunui, arā, ko Amiowhenua, i ngā tau 1821 ki 1822, e tinga ana ko ia tētahi o ngā kaiātete. I te tau 1822, ka pakanga a ia ki a Waikato i Motunui. Ka haere te wā, ka tawhiti kē atu tana haere ki ngā pakanga a Ngāti Tama, a Ngāti Mutunga, i te haerenga tuatahi ki Te Wairarapa. I haere rawa pea rāua ko Te Whatanui ki Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay). I te tau 1828, ka tahuri ia ki te whakakīkī i a Hakirau (John Agar Love) rāua ko tōna hoa, ko Tiki Pārete (Richard Barrett) ki te whakatū i tā rāua toa hokohoko ki Ngāmotu, he wāhi o Nū Paremata (New Plymouth) o ēnei rā. Kia kore ai e mate tōna iwi ina tomokia anō, ka haere ia ki Poihākena (Port Jackson) mā te kaipuke o Pārete ko Tohorā te īngoa, ki te hoko pū, paura hoki.

I te tau 1831 i muri mai, ka hoki ake a Waikato ki Taranaki ki te ngaki i ana mate. I Pukerangiora te parekura nui. Ko te rerenga o ngā mōrehu ki a Te Wharepōuri, ka whāia e Waikato, ka pakipakia rātou i te pā o Ōtaka ki Ngāmotu. E toru ngā wiki e awhitia ana te pā. Nā te āwhina a Hakirau rāua ko Pārete, ki te whakapuru i a rāua pū ki te maitai, ki te kōhatu, ka mate a Waikato, hoki atu ana. E ai ki te kōrero, 350 te parekura.

Mōhio tonu a Te Wharepōuri tērā a Waikato e hoki mai anō ki te ngaki i ana mate. Ka tupu te whakaaro me heke rātou ki te tonga, kia tawhiti atu i te hoa ngangare. I te tau 1832 pea, ka ārahina e Te Wharepōuri ana toa, e 400, me ā rātou wāhine, tamariki, i te heke i huaina rā ko Tama-te-uaua. Ko ngā hapū o Ngāmotu, ko Ngāti Tāwhirikura, ko Ngāti Te Whiti, me ērā atu hapū o Te Āti Awa, i muri mai ka huaina ko te iwi o Ngāmotu. Ka heke rātou katoa; ka heke anō ko Ngāti Rāhiri, ko Ngāti Tū, ko Ngāti Hineuru, ko Ngāti Mutunga, ko Ngāti Tama, ko Puketapu, ko Manukorihi, ko Pukerangiora, ko Kaitangata, ko Te Whakarewa. I whai anō hoki ā rātou Pākehā, a Hakirau rāua ko Pārete me ā rāua whānau o Te Āti Awa.

Tau rawa atu ki Kāpiti, ka nuku anō ki Te Uruhi i Waikanae noho ai mō ngā tau e rua. Ko ētahi o rātou i haere ka noho ki ō rātou whanaunga o Ngāti Mutunga i Pito-one (Petone) – ko tōna tuakana tonu, ko Matangi rāua ko tana tama, ko Te Mānihera Te Toru. Nō muri mai ka heke anō a Te Wharepōuri ki Te Koanga-ā-umu – he wāhi pā tata atu ki Porirua. I reira hoki ngā māra a Te Puni. He aha rā, ka piki ki ō rātou waka, ka heke anō – ki Ōkiwi i te ākau, kei te taha rāwhiti i Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ka huri mā Palliser Bay, ka piki i te awa o Ruamāhanga ki te tuawhenua. E kimi ana, e rapu ana i tētahi kāinga tūturu, e ora ai tā rātou noho.

I ngā tau maha i mua atu, i nohoia tērā takiwā e te hunga o Ngāti Tama, o Ngāti Mutunga. Ina rā, i noho i runga i te ngākau manawa-pā, i te mea ko tērā whenua nō ngā iwi kē o Rangitāne, o Ngāti Kahungunu, o Ngāti Ira. I te auau o ngā pakanga, ka haere kē a Ngāti Tama me Ngāti Mutunga, ka neke whakararo a Nuku-pewapewa rāua ko Tūtepākihirangi i ō rāua iwi. Rokohanga atu e Te Wharepōuri me tōna tira, he whenua mahue a Te Wairarapa – he hanga noa iho ngā mea i reira e noho ana. Te mutunga iho, ka marara te noho o te hunga o Taranaki. Ēngari a Te Wharepōuri i tau tonu te noho ki Kaiwaewae, arā, ki Patumōkai (Featherston). He tangata tārai waka a Te Wharepōuri, nō reira ka whakahaungia e ia ana tāngata ki te hanga waka. He whai tohorā pea tētahi o ana mahi.

I te rongonga mai o Nuku-pewapewa kua tae anō tētahi hunga anō o Taranaki ki Te Wairarapa, ka hoki mai me tana ope taua, ka whakaekea a Te Wharepōuri i Tauwharerata. Waimarie i pahika ia, ēngari ko tana wahine ko Te Uamairangi, me tā rāua tamaiti taurima, ko Te Kakapi, i mau hereheretia. Heoi, i arohaina rāua e Nuku-pewapewa, ka tukuna. Huri tonu iho a Te Uamairangi, ka tukuna atu tana tamāhine taurima ki a Nuku-pewapewa.

Ka tonoa e Nuku-pewapewa he kaiārahi hei mau i a Te Uamairangi ki te kimi i a Te Wharepōuri. Kāti, kua tae kē ia i Noema o 1835 ki runga i a Matiu (Somes Island), he motu i Te Whanganui-a-Tara, i muri tonu iho i te maunutanga atu o te ope tuatahi o Ngāti Mutunga. E ahu ana ki Rēkohu, arā, ki Wharekauri (Chatham Islands). Ka takatū ki te haere, ka tukuna e Wiremu Piti Pōmare mā te mana o ō rātou whenua ki a Matangi rāua ko tana tama, ko Te Mānihera Te Toru. Ka pā te karanga a Matangi ki a Te Wharepōuri kia haere atu ki Pito-one, kia tangohia e ia mōna ngā whenua o Ngāti Mutunga i whakarērea mai rā i Ngāūranga. Tū tonu ake taua māia, ka panaia a Ngāti Haumia, ahakoa anō i āta whakaritea e Ngāti Mutunga he mahinga kai mā rātou ki reira.

Ka noho, ā, ka puta atu a Te Uamairangi. Tere tonu te kite o Te Wharepōuri i tētahi tikanga hei hohou i te rongo ki ngā hoariri o Te Āti Awa. Ka tiakina, ka manaakitia ngā kaiārahi mai i tana wahine; ka whakatipuria he kai hei utu i te hokinga ki Te Matau-a-Māui mā te kaipuke o te Pākehā. I haere anō hoki ia ki te tono kia tukuna mai tana whanaunga.

Ka waerea te ngahere, ka hangaia e Te Wharepōuri, e Wī Tako Ngātata mā he whare – ko Te Akitiwha – mō rātou katoa ki Ngāūranga. Nō muri mai ka whakatūria e Te Wharepōuri ko Pukeatua, hei whare mōna ake. Heoi, hokihoki tonu ai ia ki Te Wairarapa, kia mau tonu ai tana ahikā. I Āperire o te tau 1836, i te ūnga mai o te kaipuke whaiwhai tohorā, te Active, ki Palliser Bay, ka whakaraua e ia. Ko tōna hiahia he whakawhiti ki Rēkohu ki te taha o ngā mea kua tau te noho ki reira. Heoi, i rarua rātou e te kāpene o te kaipuke. E rua tekau noa iho te tira o Te Wharepōuri i heria, ka mutu, i tukuna kē atu ki uta i te takiwā o Tōtaranui (Queen Charlotte Sound).

I te tau 1839, i te ūnga mai o te Tory te kaipuke o te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Company), nāna i mau mai ngā tāngata o Ingarangi ki tēnei whenua, kua noho kē a Te Wharepōuri ki Ngāūranga. Kāore tonu i roa te taenga mai o ngā Pākehā, ka hokona e rāua ko tōna tuakana, ko Hōniana Te Puni, te whenua katoa e takoto ana mai i Rimurapa (Sinclair Head) ki Tūrakirae; atu i te tahamoana ki te tihi o ngā maunga o Tararua. Nā te māharahara tērā ka tāmia rāua e te hoariri, i mahi pēnei ai rāua. Kua mutu kē hoki te haerenga mai o ngā whanaunga o Te Āti Awa, ā, kua whakarērea e ngā mea o Taranaki te whenua nei. Āpiti atu hoki, i te nui o te utu i riro mai i a rāua, riro mai ana i a Te Wharepōuri 120 ngā pū, 21 ngā kāho paura. I tua atu i tērā, i whakaaro rātou, ngā rangatira, ka tiakina rātou e ngā Pākehā me ō rātou kaipuke, me ā rātou pū.

Kāore ia, ka tū mai anō he pakanga, i te whakatakariri o Ngāti Raukawa kua whai rawa a Te Āti Awa i tā rātou hokonga i te whenua i tukuna atu hei nohoanga noa iho mō rātou, ēhara i te tuku whakarere. E toru ngā wiki i muri iho o te hokonga, ka pakanga rātou i Te Kūititanga. Kāore a Te Wharepōuri i reira, ēngari ka tae atu ia – i te ono o ngā rā – ki te āwhina i ōna whanaunga. Nō te marama o Noema ka houhia te rongo.

Ka haere te wā, ka takatū a Te Wharepōuri ki te haere ki Heretaunga ki te tono kia whakahokia mai tana tamāhine taurima, a Te Kakapi. Tae rawa atu, kua ngaro kē a Nuku-pewapewa – i toremi; ka waiata a Te Wharepōuri i tana tangi. Ka riro nā Tūtepākihirangi i whakatau i te tono a Te Wharepōuri. He pounamu tāna i tuku ai, ēngari kāore i whāwhātia mai; me whakahoki ko ngā whenua o Te Wairarapa, kātahi ka ea. Ka whakaae a Te Wharepōuri me tōna rahinga. Ka whakaritea ko te paemaunga o Tararua hei rohe. Ko Ngāti Kahungunu, ko Hāmua o Rangitāne me ērā atu o Te Wairarapa ki te taha rāwhiti; ko ngā iwi o Taranaki ki te taha ā-uru. I whakatūria rawahia he kōhatu, hei tatau pounamu. I whakatūria ki te ākau, ki te taha rāwhiti i Whakataki.

Ahakoa anō ngā whakamārama a Wairaweke (William Wakefield) mō te tira Pākehā kei te haere mai; i te taenga mai, ohorere ana a Te Wharepōuri, i te tino maha rawa e whia rau kē! I hua ia ka taea noa atu e ia te whakahaere i raro i tōna mana, i tōna maru; kāti ia, nō tana hokonga atu i te whenua, i tukuna pōhēhētia, he tuku whakarere tonu atu. Iti rawa nei te wāhanga i mahue mai ki a ia. I mea rawa ia ki te hoki ki Taranaki, kore noa iho; mau tonu iho ki Pōneke (Port Nicholson, Wellington). I te 29 o Āperira 1840, i te heringa mai o te Tiriti o Waitangi ki Pōneke, ka whakamaua e Te Wharepōuri tōna tohu.

Atu i tēnei wā, ka noho pōuri te kaingārahu nei – ngā mea e noho ana i Kumutoto, i Pipitea, i Ngāūranga, e taukumekume ana mō ō rātou whenua; mō ngā moni i riro mai mō ngā mea i hokona; mō ngā rāhuitanga i mau tonu i a Te Wharepōuri me tōna iwi. Ki ērā i Te Aro, he mea takoha noa te utu mō ō rātou whenua i te tuahine o Te Wharepōuri. Ka heke te mana o te koroua nei; ka mahue rāua ko Te Puni i ā rāua Pākehā. I taki heke kē ki tētahi takiwā anō o Pōneke, ki Britannia e mōhiotia ana i nāianei ko Thorndon. Tērā anō ngā āpiha o te Kamupene i te whakawai i a Te Wharepōuri, ēngari mōhio tonu iho ia – me ētahi atu o ngā Māori – kua tino heke kē tōna tipu. Kua tupu te whakaaro o te kāwana me ana kaiwhakahaere, ko Te Wharepōuri he nanakia, he mea i hokona ai te whenua o te tangata kē.

Na, kātahi ka kitea he tangata Māori kua hemo i muri atu o te pā i Te Aro, ka puritia e Te Wharepōuri te tūpāpaku kia kauaka e riro kia tirotirohia. Ka whakapaengia e ia nā ngā Pākehā kua tau te noho, i kōhuru taua tangata. I runga i tēnei āhua, ka noho āwangawanga ngā Pākehā, kei tū mai he riri a ngā Māori, ka kōhurutia ko rātou. Ka karangahia ngā pirihimana kia tū mai hei tiaki i a rātou. Ēngari, ka noho pai noa iho.

Ka noho tēnā koroua, ka pēhia e te ngākau pōuri; ka tū ko te anga anake; he haurangi tonu te āhua; ka whēwhēngia te māhunga ā, ka mate ki Ngāūranga,i te 22 o Noema 1842. Ka mahue mai ko Te Uamairangi rāua ko Te Kakapi me ana tungāne, tuāhine hoki. I tanumia ki Pito-one, ka whakaarahia tētahi wāhanga o tana waka hei tohu i tōna rua. Ko tana ōhākī ki tana tuakana ki a Hōniana Te Puni-kōkopu, 'Kia pai te manaaki i ō tāua iwi, i ngā Māori me ngā Pākehā.'


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

Ētahi whakaaro puaki, takenga

    Dieffenbach, E. Travels in New Zealand. 2 vols. London, 1843

    McNab, R. The old whaling days. Christchurch, 1913

    Polack J. S. New Zealand. 2 vols. London, 1838

    Smith, S. P. History and traditions of the Maoris of the West Coast, North Island of New Zealand prior to 1840. New Plymouth, 1910

    Smith, S. P. Wars of the northern against the southern tribes of New Zealand in the nineteenth century. Wellington, 1904

    Wakefield, E. J. Adventure in New Zealand. 2 vols. London, 1845


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Te Wharepōuri, Te Kakapi-o-te-rangi', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t85/te-wharepouri-te-kakapi-o-te-rangi (accessed 5 July 2020)