Kōrero: Pere, Wiremu

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua

Pere, Wiremu

1837–1915

Nō Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki, nō Rongowhakaata; he kaitōrangapū, he kaiwhakahārau kararehe

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Alan Ward,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1993.

I whānau a Wī Pere i te 7 o Maehe i te tau 1837 i Tūranga (Gisborne). Ko Thomas Halbert (Tāme Poto) tōna pāpā, he kaihokohoko i Tūranganui-a-Rua (Poverty Bay). Ko tōna māmā, ko Rīria Mauaranui he wahine tino rangatira ki tēnei o ōna hapū ki Te Whānau-a-Kai o Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki. He pānga anō hoki ōna ki a Rongowhakaata. Ko ia te wahine tuawhā a Tāme Poto. Ko te īngoa iriiri o Wī Pere ko William Halbert, ēngari ko te īngoa karanga ko Wiremu Pere (William Bell). Ko ia tētahi o ngā tamariki o te whānau taumata rau i puta i ngā wāhine Māori tokoono a Tāme Poto.

I tipu ake a Wī Pere i raro i ngā akoranga a tōna māmā me tōna whānau. Nā Pere tonu te kōrero nā tōna māmā a ia i whakamahi ki te wawao i ngā raruraru i waenganui i ōna iwi, i Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki me Rongowhakaata. Ko te āhua nei i kakari ki a Te Kooti i te tau 1853. I taua wā ko Te Kooti te kaiārahi o tētahi rōpū ririhau, he whānako hōiho, he mate wahine ngā mahi. Noho ana tēnei rōpū hei kiriwetitanga mā ngā Māori me ngā Pākehā o reira.

Kāore e kore i tae rawa ia ki te kura Mihingare o tōna takiwā. Ko te reo ako he Māori, ā, kāore hoki a Pere i eke ki ngā taumata o te reo Pākehā; ka noho tēnei hei whakararu i āna mahi pāremata i ngā tau o muri mai. Nā te koi o tōna hinengaro, ka whakaaria e te Hāhi Mihingare hei kaiārahi ā tōna wā. He mema hoki nō te komiti whakahaere tuatahi i te pīhopatanga o Waiapu. I whakangungua e ōna kaumātua o Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki ki ngā kōrero tuku iho me ngā whakapapa o tōna iwi i te whare wānanga o Maraehinahina. Koia nei te pūtake o tōna mana ki te kōrero i ngā take whenua i te Kōti Whenua Māori i te tekau tau atu i 1870. Ka moe i tana wahine, i a Arapera Mātenga Toti i te tau 1856 i Waerenga-a-Hika. Kāore i ārikarika te mana o Arapera i roto i ngā take whenua e pā ana ki Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki.

I te taenga atu o ngā kanohi o te hāhi Pai Mārire ki Tūranganui-a-Rua i te tau 1865 i mau tonu a Pere ki te Hāhi Mihingare i te nuinga o te wā. Otirā, me pēhea hoki e rere ai, arā tana rahi o Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki e tautoko rā i te Pai Mārire. I muri mai i te pakanga o Waerenga-a-Hika i Noema o taua tau anō ko ia tētahi o ngā rangatira o te wā kāinga i whakahē ki te mahi a te kāwanatanga e hari rā i ngā Māori o Tūranganui-a-Rua ki Wharekauri, arā, ko Rēkohu (Chatham Islands) mauhere ai, ā, kāore e whakawākia. I te tau 1868, ka tautokona e ia te pitihana e whakahē ana i te murunga o te whenua hei utu mō ngā hara tautoko o tōna iwi i te Pai Mārire. E kīia ana hoki nōna tētahi o ngā moko i runga i te reta a ngā rangatira o Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki ki te kāwanatanga, e taunu ana i āna mahi tono i a Te Kooti kia kaua e mau tonu ki te hoari, arā, kia tukua e ia āna rākau i tōna taunga ki Whareongaonga mai i Wharekauri.

I te whakaekenga o Te Kooti mā ki Tūranganui-a-Rua i te marama o Hūrae 1868, i patua ngā āpiha a te kāwanatanga, ngā tāngata whai, me ngā Māori (ki tō rātau whakaaro) e pūaroha ana ki te kāwanatanga; e ai ki te kōrero a Pere, e pāihi ana a Te Kooti ki a ia i te mea he Mihingare, ā, he pūaroha pea ki te Pākehā. I whakaaro rawa a Wī Pere ki te hūnuku me tōna whānau, arā, tana wahine me ā rāua tamariki tokotoru, ki tētahi wāhi noa atu noho ai, ēngari he māmā ake ki a ia te takanga ki raro i te mana o Te Kooti me tōna iwi i Pātūtahi, ā, ka haere i ō rātau taha i te wā e kounu ana ki te tuawhenua. Tāria rawatia kia tae ki Wharekōpae, ka pahika a Wī Pere me tōna whānau, ka whakarērea a Te Kooti mā. Nāna hoki i āwhina ētahi o tōna iwi ki te rere mai i te rōpū a Te Kooti. Ka uru atu ia hei matataua mā te ope hōia a te kāwanatanga ki te whaiwhai i a Te Kooti rāua ko Kereopa Te Rau i roto o Te Urewera. Ahakoa he kaiwhaiwhai i a Te Kooti, mau tonu te pūaroha, ā, kōrero putuputu tonu ai rāua i te wā e whakaruru ana a Te Kooti i roto i te Rohe Pōtae.

I ngā tau 1870 ka whakahēngia e ia te murunga a te kāwanatanga i ngā whenua o Pātūtahi me ērā i te poraka i Te Muhunga (Ormond), i meatia rā hei wāhi noho mō ngā hunga hōia, ka pōhiritia te kaiārahi o te Rōpū Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua (Repudiation Movement), a Hēnare Matua, kia haere atu ki te whakatutū ki te Kōmihana o Tūranganui-a-Rua i whakatūria rā i te tau 1869, hei whiriwhiri i ngā whenua muru me ngā kerēme a ngā tāngata whai o mua atu i te tau 1860. Ka tū hei māngai mō te Rōpū Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua i Tūranganui-a-Rua. Ko te hua o ēnei mahi āna ko te whakaitinga o ngā whenua i kerēmetia e ngā tāngata whai. Nā ēnei mahi, āpiti atu ki ōna whakaaro kia kaua e riro mā te tangata kotahi e hoko, e rīhi rānei te whenua, ēngari mā te whānau, mā te hapū rānei, ka noho ko ia te tino rangatira Māori tūmatanui o taua takiwā.

Nā te Rōpū Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua, ka tūtaki ngā Māori o Te Tai Rāwhiti ki ngā kaitaupua pāremata a Hōri Kerei (George Grey), me te tino tangata rā, me Te Riihi (W. L. Rees). Nā Wī Pere i pōhiri ki Tūranganui-a-Rua i te tau 1878. Nā ā rāua mahi ko Te Riihi, i riro ai ngā whakaaro o te nuinga o ngā Māori i tā rāua kaupapa, ā, mea atu hoki rāua hei kaitiaki mō ngā poraka whenua. I te tau 1880, ka whakaaratia e Te Riihi te Kamupene Whakanoho Whenua o Te Tai Rāwhiti (East Coast Native Land and Settlement Company) – i muri mai ka karangatia ko te Kamupene Whakanoho Whenua Māori o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Native Land Settlement Company – ka tukua ngā poraka whenua ki raro i tēnei kamupene mō ētahi tiwhikete whai pānga. Ko tōna tikanga, mā ngā Māori hei tuku ngā whenua ki raro i te kamupene kaitiaki mā ngā toa kaipakihi hei whakangao te moni, ā, mā te kamupene hoki e tō mai ngā tāngata whai.

I tukua he moni punga ki tēnei kamupene, ā, torutoru noa nei ngā tāngata whai i tae mai ka kore hoki i taea e Te Riihi rāua ko Wī Pere te tuku te mana taitara ki a rātau ahakoa te whakatau a te kōti ki te tino mana o te kamupene ki te whenua i tua atu i te mana kaitiaki. I roto i ēnei uauatanga, kei te utaina hoki ngā utu rūri, ngā utu ture me ētahi atu utunga ki runga ki ngā whenua. Ka āpiti atu hoki ki ngā tūpuhitanga ohaoha o te wā, me te pukuriri o te tōrangapū, ka kaha kē atu ngā uauatanga, ā, ka kore e taea te kōkiri tētahi hanganga ture e taea ai te whakahaere ngā whenua i raro i te mana o ngā Māori nō rātau rā aua whenua. Ka hē kē atu te kamupene, ka tono heahea noa a Wī Pere ki ngā hapū kia whakatakahia mai ō rātau whenua ki raro i te mana o te kamupene. E 250,000 eka pea te rahi o ngā whenua i whakaaetia, mai i Te Māhia ki te Whanga-o-keno (East Cape). Ka rere ki Rānana, ki Ingarangi ki te tono moni punga kia puta ai te ihu o te kamupene, kāore i taea te aro nā te kupu taraweti tūmatanui a te kāwanatanga a H. A. Atkinson i raru ai. Ka whakakorea te kamupene kātahi ka tukua ngā whenua ki raro i te mana kaitiaki o Wī Pere rāua ko Timi Kara (James Carroll). Kāore a Timi Kara i tino rata atu ki tēnei kaupapa.

Ka hinga te kamupene, ēngari ko ngā whenua ake o Wī Pere me tōna whānau ka piki kē atu te whai hua. Nāna hoki i wehe mai te nuinga o ō rātau whenua i te kamupene whakanohonoho i mate rā, ka whakatikaia ki raro i tōna īngoa. Ka piri rāua ko tōna whanaunga tata ko Peka Kerekere, ka puta a Wī Pere hei rangatira whakahārau kararehe; 18,000 āna hipi i te tau 1894. Kāore hoki i ngaro i te huhua o te iwi o te wā kāinga me te hunga tōrangapū whānui tonu, te rerekētanga i waenganui i ngā mahi pakihawa a Wī Pere ki ō rātau whenua i raro i te kamupene i pakaru rā, me āna mahi ki te whakanui haere i ōna whenua me ōna tōnuitanga. Rere ana ngā patapatai a ngā mema Māori o te Pāremata. Ēngari ehara i a Pere anake te hē i pakaru ai te kamupene. Nā tōna kaha ki te whakahē i ngā mahi hoko whenua Māori ka taea te kī kāore ia i whakatū i te kamupene hei mahi moni māna anake, ā, kāore hoki i hiahia kia riro te mana whakahaere o ngā Māori i ō rātau whenua. I muri mai ka puta tana kōrero mō tana rīhitanga i te 60,000 eka o ōna ake whenua ki te Pākehā, e 20,000 eka i puritia e ia mō te hunga nō rātau te whenua. Kāore i tukua e ia te mana whakahaere ki ōna whanaunga taitamariki, kei kaipukutia, kei hokona te whenua kia whiwhi moni ai, pērā i ngā Māori o ētahi atu takiwā.

Nā te kaha o āna mahi āwhina i te Māori ki te pupuri i te whenua mā rātau anō e whakahaere, ka tautokona e te tokomaha, ka uru hei mema pāremata mō Te Tai Rāwhiti i te tau 1884, ko ngā Ringatū me ngā iwi o Mātaatua ana tuarā. Uru ana ki te Pāremata, kua ara tonu tōna mana. Ko te take nui e kōrerotia ana i taua wā, ko te huaki i te Rohe Pōtae o te Kīngitanga ki te rerewē, ki ngā tāngata whai hoki. Ka haere a Wī Pere rāua ko Te Paraihe (John Bryce), minita mō ngā take Māori, kia kite i a Kīngi Tāwhiao. Ka pā ki ngā take whenua, taumaha ana tana kōrero i roto i te Whare Pāremata ki te whakahē i te Kōti Whenua Māori me te hoko whenua a te tangata kotahi. Tautoko anō hoki i te tauira o Te Tai Rāwhiti e pōti komiti poraka ana hei whakahaere i ngā whenua. I tautoko hoki ia kia rīhitia, kia hokona rānei te whenua i runga i te hoko ka whakataetaea e te hunga tūmatanui. Whakahētia ana e ia te riro o ngā whenua mā te Karauna anake hei hoko, nā te iti o tana utu.

I te tau 1886 ka noho ia hei mema tautoko i a Te Paranihi (John Ballance) me tana Ture Whakahaere i ngā Whenua Māori (Native Land Administration Act) i hangaia rā i runga i ētahi o ngā tauira whenua o Te Tai Rāwhiti. Kāore e whakaaetia te tangata Māori kotahi ki te hoko atu i te whenua, ā, kāore hoki e āhei ngā tāngata whai ki te hoko whenua mai i ngā Māori. Ēngari e taea ana e te Māori te hoko atu ki te Karauna, te tuku rānei i ngā whenua kia riro mā ngā kōmihana hei hoko i runga i te hoko whakataetae i waenga i te hunga tūmatanui. I tino whakahētia e Timi Kara, tētahi anō o ngā aporei o Te Tai Rāwhiti, tēnei ture. Ki a ia me tōna iwi tautoko, ka riro tonu atu te mana o te whenua mehemea ka whakawhitia ki ngā kōmihana, ki ngā komiti whenua rānei. Koinei te take nui o ngā pōti mō Te Tai Rāwhiti i te tau 1887. I Pēpuere, ka huihui mai ngā Māori me ngā Pākehā, 4,000 te tokomaha, ki Pākirikiri ki te pā o Ōtene Pītau, tuakana o Wī, ki te whakarongo ki a Timi Kara rāua ko Wī Pere e tautohe ana. Areare ana ngā taringa i te pai o tā rāua wānanga i ia rārangi o te ture. Ka puta i a Timi Kara te pakarutanga o te kamupene whakanohonoho a Te Riihi rāua ko Wī Pere hei tauira; he take tēnei kāore anō kia wareware i te iwi. Ka riro i a Timi Kara te tūru Māori o Te Tai Rāwhiti, kei raro a Pere e putu ana.

Ko ia tētahi o ngā rangatira tokowhā o te takiwā o Waikohu i pōhiri i a Te Kooti kia hoki atu ki te kāinga, arā, ki Tūranganui-a-Rua. Kua unuhia kētia e te kāwanatanga te hara o Te Kooti i tēnei wā. Ka hangaia te wharenui ātaahua nei a Rongopai i kō paku atu i te kāinga o Wī i Waituhi, hei hokinga atu mō Te Kooti; ko Rīria rāua ko te tama a Wī, ko Te Moanaroa, ngā kaiwhakahaere o ngā mahi. Ka tata ki te wā e hoki atu ai a Te Kooti, kāore anō kia kātata te oti o te whare, ka whakahautia e Rīria ngā taitama tāne kia peitatia te hanga o ngā whakairo, he roa rawa ki te riro mā te whao me te toki. Ka noho tēnei tauira whakairo hei taonga whakahirahira, ko tētahi o ngā tino mounga o te motu. Kei tētahi o ngā whakairo he mea peita a Wī Pere i roto i ana kākahu o te pāremata, ko tana whaea, ko Rīria kei runga i tōna pakihiwi, anō he ruru mōtoi. Nō te mau pūtanga a ngā Māori me ngā tāngata whai ki te aukati i a Te Kooti, ka ara te kāwanatanga a Atkinson ki te hopu i a Te Kooti, kia kore ai e rere te toto. Mā runga hōiho a Wī Pere rāua ko Meiha Poata (T. W. Porter) riro atu ai i mua o te ope hōia a te kāwanatanga, ā, i te taha o Te Kooti e noho ana i Ōpōtiki i te taenga atu o te rōpū hopu.

Nā te haere tonu o te tautoko a ngā Ringatū i a Wī, ka uru anō ia ki te Pāremata i te tau 1894. I taua tau kua uru a Timi Kara hei mema mō te tūru mō te hunga whānui o Waiapu, kua wātea te tūru Māori o Te Tai Rāwhiti. I nāianei, kua uru atu ia ki te Rīki Whakatika i ngā Ture Whenua Māori (Native Land Laws Reform League) i whakatūria ai e Te Riihi rātau ko J. C. Firth me ētahi atu kaiwhakangao Pākehā, hei whakaāhei i ngā kaiwhiwhi Māori, taitara huhua nei tō rātau, ki te whakahaere i ō rātau whenua i raro i te tikanga kaporeihana. Nui atu i tēnei, kua uru atu a Wī Pere ki te kaupapa a te Kotahitanga whakatū pāremata Māori. Mā tēnei kaupapa ka ōrite te Māori ki te Pākehā, ka tū motuhake hoki i runga i ētahi take. Ka tautokona e ia te Pire Tikanga Māori (Native Rights Bill) a Hōne Heke i kōkiritia ai hei whakaū i ngā tūmanako o te kaupapa a te Kotahitanga. Ka karangatia e ia te iwi kia kaua e haere ki ngā whakawākanga a te Kōti Whenua Māori, kia mutu hoki te rīhi me te hoko i ngā whenua. Ka whakamātauria e ia he pire hei whakamana i ngā komiti Māori ki te whakatau i ngā taitara whenua, ki te rīhi me te mōkete i raro i ngā tikanga e kore e taea te ue. Kāore he mutunga mai o āna tono kia whakaaetia he pūtea nui mā ngā Māori i raro i te hanganga ture tuku moni a te kāwanatanga, kia taea ai e ngā Māori te ahu ō rātau whenua.

I hinga te nuinga o ēnei take, ēngari koakoa ana ki a ia te tautoko i te Ture Rāhui Māori o te Takiwā o Te Urewera (Urewera District Native Reserve Act) o 1896 a Timi Kara. I raro i tēnei ture, ka āhei a Tūhoe ki te whakatau taitara me te whakahaere whenua i raro i ngā komiti ā-iwi; kāore e riro mā te Kōti Whenua Māori tēnei mahi. Ka tohe a Pere kia whakakorea te mana hoko whenua o taua pire, kāore i tutuki. I te tau 1898 ka tū te pire a Te Hētana (R. J. Seddon) ki te whakawhānui i te tauira o Te Urewera ki te motu katoa. Ka uru atu a Wī Pere ki te wāhanga o te Kotahitanga e tautoko ana i tēnei pire. Koinei hoki te hunga i whakahē i te pāremata mana motuhake Māori o te Kotahitanga. Nō te tau 1900 ka tautokona e ia te Pire Kaunihera Māori me te Pire Whakahaere i ngā Whenua Māori (Māori Lands Administration Bill) a Timi Kara. I te tau o mua atu, tata tonu ia ka hinga i ngā pōti pāremata mō te mema mō Te Tai Rāwhiti, ko te wāhanga wāwāhi tahā o te Kotahitanga tōna hoa whakataetae.

Nō te ao kōhatu tōna āhua amorangi, pakō ana te kupu ki te rae i a ia e tohe ana ki te tāwharau ngā Māori i ngā hiahia o te Pākehā kia noho hei rangatira mō rātau. Kore rawa i nekeneke i tana pakanga mō tana tauira whakahaere whenua. Ēngari kāore i a ia ngā mōhiotanga ki te taha ture me te hōhonutanga o te taha whakahaere. Kāore hoki i a ia ngā pūkekotanga o ngā mahi tōrangapū. Tae noa ki te mutunga o tana mahi i te Pāremata, whakawhirinaki tonu ai ki ngā kaiwhakamāori hei whakamārama i ngā kōrero a ngā mema. Nā konei i iti ai tōna tū ki te kauhau i roto i te Pāremata. I aua wā, mā te hinengaro kua pūkekotia, mā te aro mūrere, me te kaha o te ngākau e puta ai ki te ao mārama. E matatau ana te rohe pōti Māori o Te Tai Rāwhiti ki tēnei āhua. Nō te tau 1905, ka uru atu ko te pūkenga taitamariki nei, ko Āpirana Ngata, ka hinga a Wī Pere.

Nō muri mai ka whakatūria e te kāwanatanga Rīpera hei mema mō te Kaunihera Ture i te tau 1907. Puta ana tōna whakahī i te mea ko ia anake te Māori o taua kaunihera ahakoa ko Mahuta Te Wherowhero – te Kīngi tuatoru – tētahi, ēngari i whakahipa ia i ngā mahi. Heoi, hua kore noa āna taupatupatu ki te kaunihera. Nāna i tautoko te Pire Whakanohonoho Whenua Māori (Native Land Settlement Bill) a Timi Kara, ēngari kore rawa i tohea e Wī Pere ngā wāhanga whakatautohetohe o taua pire me ngā tukunga i ākina kia whakaaetia e te minita Māori kia eke ai ki te hiahia o te nuinga. Ka ākina e ia te kāwanatanga kia whakapaua he moni mō Te Tai Rāwhiti, tae atu hoki ki te hanga huarahi ki Maungapōhatu, te kāinga o Rua Kēnana. Ēngari i tautokona e ia te Pire Whakamutu Tohunga (Tohunga Suppression Bill) 1907, a Timi Kara i hangaia rā hei tāmi i a Rua Kēnana.

Mea ake nei, ka huri hei tangata tautoko i te emepaea o Ingarangi, ā, ka tuku i a ia hei kaiārahi mō te ope Māori ki te pakanga i Āwherika ki te Tonga i te tau 1899–1902. Tae atu hoki tana tautoko i te pūtea mō te taua moana, me te whakahau kia akona a Aotearoa katoa, tāne, wāhine, ki ngā mahi a Tūmatauenga. He kaha ki te aki i tōna mana ake ki ngā mema e tāmi ana i āna kōrero, ā, i tētahi wā ka mea kia unu i āna kōrero i puta ai tōna hiahia kia pakaru i a ia te ihu o Ōmana (J. D. Ormond) te tautōhito o Te Tai Rāwhiti, ki te kore e manaakitia e Ōmana ngā Māori. I te tau 1912 ka taka iho i tana tūranga i te Kaunihera Ture. Nā tētahi tikanga ture a ia i taea ai te pana.

Kāore i mutu āna mahi mō te whenua. I te tau 1896 i whakamātau ia ki te whakatū pire mema tūmataiti ki te kimi i ētahi mana whānui atu hei whakaora ake i ngā whenua i raro i te kamupene whakanohonoho o mua. Hei āwhina i taua take anō nāna i tautāwhi te waihangatanga i tētahi pire ā-rohe i te tau 1898. Ka piki ngā nama i runga i aua whenua, ā, nō te tau 1902, ka tangohia e Te Waari (Joseph Ward) tēnei take i a Timi Kara rāua ko Wī Pere, ka whakatakahia ki raro i te Kaitiaki Māori o Te Tai Rāwhiti. I mau tonu i a Pere ngā poraka o Mangatū mō ana hapū, ēngari i kainga hoki e te nama i raro i tōna mana whakahaere. I te tau 1917 i muri iho i tōna matenga, ka taka aua poraka ki raro i te kōmihana mō Te Tai Rāwhiti. Ahakoa ngā makenu o tana whakahaere i ētahi atu whenua, ka puta tōna rongo mō te whakahārau kararehe i runga i ōna ake whenua. Ko te Kaitiaki Pānga Whenua (Trust Estate) o Wī Pere tētahi o ngā whenua tino momoho rawa atu o Aotearoa, i muri nei.

I mate a Wī Pere ki Tūranga i te 9 o Tīhema i te tau 1915. E 78 tōna pakeke. Ka mahue iho ko tana pouaru ko Arapera, ko ā rāua tamariki tokorua, me te tini mokopuna. I Manutūkē e tangihia ana, nō muri ka tāpukena ki Waerenga-a-Hika. Ko āna tama te pāpātanga o ngā taha e rua o ngā whakaaro o Wī Pere i a ia e ora ana; ko te mātāmua, ko Hetekia Te Kani i noho hei Mihingare, ko te teina, ko Te Moanaroa i huri hei Ringatū. I te matenga o Pere ka puta he raruraru mō tētahi whenua i whakaaetia hei tūnga mō tōna kōhatu whakamaharatanga i Tūranga. Nā ngā kaiwhakahē i kōkiri he pitihana ki te kaunihera takiwā tāone i runga i te whakapae mō te tautoko a Wī Pere i a Te Kooti i te tau 1868. Nā ngā kōrero a tana tama, a Te Kani rāua ko Timi Kara ka whiua mai te pitihana, ka whakatūria te kōhatu a Wī Pere.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Alan Ward. 'Pere, Wiremu', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1993. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2p11/pere-wiremu (accessed 21 August 2019)