Kōrero: Pio, Hāmiora Tumutara Te Tihi-o-te-whenua

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Pio, Hamiora Tumutara Te Tihi-o-te-whenua

1814–1901

Nō Ngāti Awa, nō Ngāti Tūwharetoa; he tohunga, he pūkorero

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Hirini Mead,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1993.

Nā ngā mahi a Hōne Waiti (John White) rāua ko Te Peehi (Elsdon Best) i mau te īngoa o Hāmiora Tumutara Pio o Ngāti Awa me Ngāti Tūwharetoa ki roto i ngā rārangi pukapuka. Ko te mahi nui a Hāmiora Tumutara he tuhituhi i ētahi mātauranga pū iwi mā te tokorua nei, ehara i te mea nā tōna aroha nui ki te tuhi i ngā hītori me ngā taonga tuku iho a tōna iwi, ēngari nā te mea koinei tētahi huarahi mahi moni i aua wā, he tuhituhi mō ngā kaimātau tikanga tangata. Toru tekau ngā pukapuka tuhituhi i kī i a ia ki te kōrero pūrākau, ki te hītori, ki ngā pepeha, ki te karakia me te whakapapa. He nui tonu ngā kōrero i tuaruatia e ia nā te mea i utua a ia mō ia pukapuka. I ēnei wā ka puta mai he māramatanga i roto i ēnei kōrero nā te mea ka taea te whiriwhiri ngā kupu e ōrite ana, ā, ka taea hoki te whakaara ake ētahi pitopito kōrero whai kiko.

Ki tā Tumutara ake kōrero, i whānau ia i te tau 1814, ēngari ki a Te Peehi nō te tau 1823 kē ia i whānau ai. Ko Paeaka tōna matua, ko Tapuika tōna whaea. I te wā i iriiria ai ia e te Hāhi Katorika ka tapaina ia ki te īngoa Karaitiana, ki a Hāmiora. I moe ia i a Te Whakahoro (ki ētahi ko Maria Taka), o Ngāti Tūwharetoa, o Ngāti Kahungunu. E ai ki ngā pukapuka whakapapa a te whānau, tokowhā ā rāua tamariki: ko Tangiwai (ki ētahi ko Hūhana Hōriana), ko Hoani Pāpita Te Whārangi, ko Eru (i tū a Eru Tumutara hei Pīhopa, hei Pou Tikanga mō te Hāhi Ringatū), ā, ko Hōri Te Karekare.

I taupatupatu ngā ao e rua o Hāmiora Tumutara, arā, te ao Karaitiana o ngā mihingare me te ao tūturu o ōna tīpuna. I mua i ngā pakanga mō ngā whenua ko tana mahi nui he kaiako takahi whenua mō te Hāhi Katorika. I te wā o ngā pakanga i noho ia i Taupō Moana tae noa ki te tau 1869, ā, nō taua wā i huaina ai te īngoa o Pio Tuaiwa (Pius IX) ki a ia. Mai i te 1880 ka kaha tana huri ki tōna ake ao Māori. I te tonotanga a tētahi pirihi ki a ia kia hoki ki te Hāhi ka pēnei tana whakahoki: 'He atua tipuna anō tōku. E mau koe ki tou atua tipuna, ka mau tonu ahau ki tōku…Ko Rangi tōku atua tipuna, ko ia te pūtake mai o te iwi Māori. He moni tōu atua tipuna.'

I roto i ngā mahi a Te Kōti Whenua Māori i Whakatāne i ngā tau mai i te 1880, ka whakapau a Tumutara i tōna kaha ki te kōrero i ōna mātauranga e pā ana ki ngā tikanga me ngā hītori o tōna iwi, ā, i ēnei wā he taonga nui ki a Ngāti Awa me Ngāti Tūwharetoa āna kōrero ki te kōti. I pakanga ia mō Ngāti Awa, ā, ko tōna hoa pakanga nui mō ōna whenua ko Te Arawa. I tū a Hāmiora Tumutara ki te whakatakoto kupu i te wāhanga i ngā whenua o Pūtauaki, o Matahina, o Pōkohu, o Kaingaroa, o Te Haehaenga. Nā te nui o āna pakanga mō ngā whenua i roto i te whare kōti ka whakaroahia ake e ia tōna īngoa ki a Te Tihi-o-te-whenua. Kāore e kore i tautokona e tōna iwi tēnei whakaaro ōna. Ko ia tētahi o ngā tino tāngata whakatakoto kaupapa mō Ngāti Awa i tōna wā.

E rangona ana te rongo o Tumutara mō āna mahi tohunga tūturu Māori. Ko ia tētahi o ngā tohunga i tonoa kia haere ki te tā i te kawa o Rauru, he whare whakairo i Te Whakarewarewa. I te tīmatanga i hangaia tēnei whare hei whare rūnanga, ēngari nō te tau 1897 ka hokona e te rangatira o Ngāti Whaoa, e Te Waru ki a Charles Nelson, he māngai nō te kamupene o L. D. Nathan. Kātahi ka utua ngā tohunga whakairo rongonui o Ngāti Tarāwhai, a Ānaha Kepa Te Rāhui, a Neke Kapua, a Tene Waitere hei whakaoti i ngā whakairo. Ka whakatuwheratia te whare i raro i ngā tikanga Māori, ēngari e rua ngā tānga o te kawa hei whakatau tōpū. Mutu kau ana ka hokona ngā whakairo ki tētahi whenua kē, ā, kei reira tonu i tēnei wā.

I te marama o Maehe i te tau 1900, ka tāngia te kawa e ngā tohunga rongonui o Waiariki. Ko Te Rangitāhau o Ngāti Tūwharetoa tētahi, ā, ko Hāmiora Tumutara Pio tētahi. Nā tētahi o ngā tohunga whakairo, nā Tene Waitere, he tangata whai pānga ki a Ngāti Awa, nāna i tono mā Tumutara e whakatuwhera i te tuatahi te whare nei, ā, ko te rākau a Tumutara, he rau rātā, te rākau tapu o Mātaatua. Nā te mea nā Tumutara i whakatuwhera tuatahi te whare nei, ka āhua raru a Te Rangitāhau; nā ko tana rākau karakia he kawakawa. Kāore ēnei mahi i hāngai ki ngā tikanga ake a te Māori, nā te mea e tautohetohe ana rāua, kāore i te mahi tahi. I tae atu a Tumutara Pio me tana ope nui tonu o Ngāti Awa, ā, i haere atu hoki a Te Rangitāhau me tana ope tautoko o Te Arawa. Ki ngā whakaaro o ngā tohunga, e takahi ana tētahi i tētahi, ā, ka tau te kōrero he aituā, ko te utu he mate. Na, ka whakaaro rāua tahi mā te mate rawa o tētahi e ea ai.

Mai i taua wā kei te takiwā o Mātaatua, ka puta mai i roto i ngā uri o Tumutara ētahi tohunga rongonui o te Hāhi Ringatū. Ēngari anō a Tumutara he tohunga tūturu Māori; i hikitia e ia ngā karakia tā i te kawa o te whare, ngā karakia whakarewa waka, whakatapu māra kūmara me te whakawātea i ngā aituā whakamate tangata. I taea katoatia e ia ngā karakia mō te ora, mō te mate, arā, mō te whakawhānau, mō te tapa īngoa ki te tamaiti, mō te nehu tūpāpaku, mō te ārai hoki i ngā āhuatanga kino o te ao Māori e pā ana ki te tūpāpaku. I tata ngaro ēnei mahi a te tohunga, ā, nō tēnei wā tonu i kitea ai he tangata nui whakaharahara a Tumutara, arā, me āta titiro anō āna tuhituhinga. Nā ngā tuhituhinga a Tumutara ka kitea ko te karakia tētahi taonga nui a Ngāti Awa i mua, ā, koia nei te take i kaha ai te piri mai ki a Ngāti Awa, o te rohe mai i Pūtauaki ki Matatā, o ētahi tīpuna tino rongonui pēnei i a Tūhoe, i a Tangiharuru, i a Apa-hāpai-taketake, i a Tūhourangi, i a Tūwharetoa hoki. I whakarērea ake e Tumutara ētahi iringa kōrero mō te hunga rangahau kōrero o ēnei wā. Nō reira he koha nui tāna mō te kaupapa whakahoki mai i ngā mātauranga tuku iho e ngaro nei.

I mate a Tumutara i Te Teko i te 12 o ngā rā o Ākuhata i te tau 1901, e ai ki a Te Peehi. E taupatupatu ana rā tōna matenga nā te mea e maumahara ana ētahi ki te whakatuwheratanga o Rauru, me ngā aituā i pā ki ngā tohunga e rua. I ai ki ētahi, nō muri tonu mai i te whakatuwheratanga, arā, i tōna taenga atu ki te kāinga, i taua rā tonu, i mate ai a Tumutara; i mate rānei i te rā i nehua ai a Te Rangitāhau nō te rā tonu i muri mai i te whakatuwheratanga. Ko ēnei momo kōrero he whakarekareka i te taringa. Ka mau tonu te īngoa o Tumutara Pio i roto i ngā hinengaro o ngā uri e noho iho nei i Kawerau, i Whakatāne.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Hirini Mead. 'Pio, Hāmiora Tumutara Te Tihi-o-te-whenua - Pio, Hamiora Tumutara Te Tihi-o-te-whenua', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1993. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2p18/pio-hamiora-tumutara-te-tihi-o-te-whenua (accessed 12 December 2019)