Kōrero: Parata, Tame Haereroa

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Parata, Tame Haereroa

1832–1838?–1917

Nō Ngāi Tahu; he kaingārahu, he kaiurungi, he tangata ahuwhenua, he kaitōrangapū

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e John Broughton and Matapura Ellison,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1993.

Ko te whakaaro i whānau a Tame Haereroa Parata i waenga i ngā tau 1832 ki 1838 pea, i te motu o Ruapuke i Te Ara-a-Kiwa (Foveaux Strait). Ko Kāpene Terāpu (Trapp) tōna pāpara. He kaipatu tohorā nō te wāhanga whenua o Massachusetts i Amerika. He uri whakaheke te whaea o Parata, a Koroteke nō ngā kāwai rangatira o Ngāti Huirapa hapū o Ngāi Tahu, o Ngāti Māmoe me Waitaha. E ai ki te kōrero, ka hurihia e Parata te īngoa o tōna pāpā ki a Pratt, ā, ka mōhiotia tērā i te reo Māori ko Parata. Ka mōhiotia anō a Tame Haereroa Parata ko Thomas Trapp rānei, ko Pratt rānei.

E kōhungahunga tonu ana a Tame ka mate tōna pāpā. I runga anō i ngā tikanga a te Māori ka riro nā tana tipuna, nā Haereroa a ia i whāngai, i whakatipu. I tōna taiohitanga arā ia i Waikouaiti e mahi ana i te teihana patu tohorā a Johnny Jones. Taro ake, ka whakauru atu ia ki te ope kaiurungi i te rae o Ōtākou (Otago Heads). Nā ēnei mahi āna i puta ai te rongo mōna ki a Tā Hōri Kerei (George Grey). Ka whakamātau tērā ki te hari i a Tame ki Ākarana ki reira whakaakona ai ki te mātauranga ōkawa. Nā tana korongatā ki te whakarere i tōna iwi i kore ai ia i haere. Nō te 12 o Hepetema 1855 ka moea e ia tētahi wahine rangatira, ko Peti Hurene te īngoa, i Ōtepoti (Dunedin). Ko Elizabeth Brown anō tētahi o ōna īngoa karanga. Tekau mā tahi, nui atu rānei, ngā tamariki i puta ki a rāua.

Ka tahuri a Parata ki te mahi ahu whenua. Nō te tau 1868 ka tukua tētahi whenua mōna i te rāhui o Puketeraki i te tai whakararo o Ōtepoti. Tekau tau i muri mai neke atu rānei i te 200 eka te nui o tana pāmu. O ngā whenua tāpui o Puketeraki, nōna te mea tino rahi rawa atu i reira. Meāke, ka kitea ōna kaha kaingārahu. E kīia ana i a ia ngā tohu kairangatira o te mōhio ki te tohutohu i tōna iwi. Nāna i utu tētahi Pākehā ki te ako i a ia ki te parau, kātahi ka akona e ia ōna hoa noho tata ki taua mahi. Nāna anō hoki i whakahaere ngā kaiwhiwhi pāmu o te wā kāinga ki te hoko i tētahi mīhini kokoti wīti, mīhini korohū patu wīti rānei mā rātou. Ko ia te tangata tuatahi ki te whakatipu hipi i taua takiwā.

Nā runga i te whakakīkī a Parata ka whakatuwheratia tētahi kura ki Puketeraki i te tau 1875 mō ngā ākonga, e 24 te maha. Takeo ana te roa o ngā whakariterite ki ngā mana whakahaere o te wā kāinga kātahi anō ka whakaaetia. Nāna i whakapūmau kia whiwhi āna tamariki ake ki te whakaakoranga ko te mutunga mai o te pai te rite. He tangata i tuku i te katoa o tōna ngākau ki te whakapono, ā, i āwhinatia e ia te pounga o te Hāhi Mihinare i Puketeraki.

Ko 1885 te tau i uru atu ai a Tame Parata ki te Whare Pāremata hei mema Māori mō Te Tonga. I purihia e ia taua nohanga tau noa ki te tau 1911. Atu i te tau 1912 ki l9l7, ko ia tētahi o ngā mema o te Kaunihera Ture (Legislative Council). I te wā o tōna tōrangapūtanga ka whakapaua e ia tōna kaha ki te rongoā i ngā mamae o Ngāi Tahu i whānau mai i ngā hokonga whenua o ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1800–1899. Kāore ngā whenua rāhui i kī taurangitia mō rātou i wehea, ā, ka mahue mai a Ngāi Tahu kua tata te noho rawakore. Ko te nuinga o te whenua o Te Waipounamu kua ngaro i a rātou.

Rite tonu te whakahē a Parata i ngā kāwanatanga mō te kore pono o ā rātou mahi ki te whakatau tika i ngā amuamu o te Māori. Hei tāna o te tau 1888, kei te katoa o ngā hanganga ture mō ngā whenua Māori ētahi whakaritenga houhou nā te kāwanatanga i whakamana, ētahi take rānei i mahia tinihangatia i ngā tau o mua atu. Kei tētahi inoi anō āna ki te Pāremata i te tau 1904, e kī ana tana kī ko te whenua te toto o te Māori. Mehemea kāhore he whenua o te Māori, kāhore hoki he take mōna i ora ai. Kāhore te Māori e pai kia rite tana noho ki tērā o ētahi Pākehā – ki te noho rawakore, ki te pīnono oranga mō rātou, ki te kimi mahi.

Nō runga tonu i te hokihoki atu o Parata ki te Pāremata ki te whakamahara ki a rātou he tino iti rawa ngā whakaritenga i tohua ki a Ngāi Tahu i muri mai i ngā hokonga whenua, i whakatūria ai tētahi komiti hono o ngā whare e rua o te Pāremata i te tau 1886. Kātahi ka tonoa a Te Make (Alexander Mackay), te kōmihana o mua atu mō ngā rāhui Māori, ki Te Waipounamu ki te āta tirotiro i ngā kerēme. Nō te tau 1891 ka puta tana rīpoata e whakahau ana kia whakaaetia te katoa o ngā mea i hiahiatia rā e Parata. Tata ana te hua kore o ēnei mahi a Te Make i tautokona kahatia nei e Parata. Ko te whenua i wehea mō te hunga whenua kore o Ngāi Tahu he tino moroiti rawa atu i tērā i whakahaua rā. I tua atu i tēnā, ko te nuinga o ngā whenua i whakawhiwhia ki a rātou he paenga maunga tiketike, he pākihi, ā, kore rawa atu i pai hei wāhi nohanga tangata. He roa te tāringa kātahi anō ka whakawhiwhia ngā karāti ki a rātou. I te mutunga ka tātāngia a Parata e āna kaipōti i te mea e takoto rūri kore tonu ana te whenua, ka whakapae anō hoki kāhore i te pono āna mahi ki te toko i tō rātou ora. Ko 1903 te tau i kōwhetewhetetia e Parata te kāwanatanga. Ki āna kaipōti, kei tāna, e nukarautia ana rātou e ia mō taua whenua, ā, e tuku ana ia i te kāwanatanga kia nukarau i a ia. Kāti kāore he whakaaro o te kāwanatanga i tua atu, arā, ko te kī taurangi tonu, ko te kī taurangi tonu, kia riro ai māna rātou e tautāwhi.

I whakamihia e Parata te Ture mō ngā Māori Whenua Kore o Te Waipounamu (South Island Landless Natives Act) o 1906. He whakamātau tēnei nā te kāwanatanga ki te whakatakoto i tētahi hanganga ture, kua roa kē nei e tāria ana, hei wehe i ētahi whenua mō Ngāi Tahu. Ēngari, tērā ētahi wāhanga huanga kore ki te Māori nāna i tino whakaepaepa. Ahakoa te whakaatu mai a te ture nei koia tēnei te huarahi hei whakatau tika i a Ngāi Tahu, heoti tau rawa ki te tau 1914 he iti noa iho te wāhi i oti te whakatinana. Nō te tau 1914 ka poua anō tētahi kōmihana uiui, ēngari, kīhai i kitea he whakataunga whai niho e taua kōmihana. Nō te tau 1921 kātahi anō ka whakaaetia tūturutia e te kāwanatanga ngā kerēme. E whā tau tēnei i muri mai i te matenga o Parata. Nō te tau 1921 anō ka poua tētahi tahua kaitiaki. Nā taua tahua i āhei ai a Ngāi Tahu ki te whakapai ake i āna mahi whakaakoranga, whakahauora me te whakatoko i te ora, arā, ngā whāinga nō mai rā anō e totohetia mūhoretia ana e Parata i te Pāremata.

I hinga mai a Tame Parata i Puketeraki i te 6 o Maehe 1917. Nā te kaha haere tonu o tana whakamahara atu i te kāwanatanga ki ā rātou mahi ki te tiaki i te Māori, ki ā rātou herenga, me ngā mahi hei mahinga mā rātou mā te Māori, nāna i para te huarahi mō te whakatupuranga kaitōrangapū e heke iho ana kia riro mā rātou hei whakatinana i a rātou e ora ana ngā mea kīhai i taea e ia i tōna wā. Nā te whakataunga rā anōtanga a te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi (Waitangi Tribunal) ngā kerēme a Ngāi Tahu i 1991, kātahi anō ka mōhiotia whānuitia te maha noa atu o ngā take i totohetia e Tame Parata.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

John Broughton and Matapura Ellison. 'Parata, Tame Haereroa', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1993. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2p4/parata-tame-haereroa (accessed 12 December 2019)