Kōrero: Rukupō, Raharuhi

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Rukupo, Raharuhi

?–1873

Rongowhakaata leader, carver

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Pakariki Harrison and Steven Oliver,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1993, and updated in October, 2017.

Nō te tīmatanga tonu pea o te rau tau mai i 1800 ka whānau a Raharuhi Rukupō ki Ōrākaiapu i Manutūkē, i te takiwā o Tūranganui-a-Kiwa (Poverty Bay). Ko ia te tama tuarua a Te Pohepohe (ko Pītau anō tōna īngoa) o Ngāti Maru, rāua ko Hinekoua o Ngāti Kaipoho. Ko tētahi taha ōna nō Ngāi Tāmanuhiri.

E tamariki tonu ana ka riro ia mā tōna matua kēkē, mā te tuakana, teina rānei o Hinekoua hei whāngai. E ai ki tētahi kōrero mōna, i tae rawa ia ki ōna whanaunga o Te Whakatōhea i te riu o Waiapu, me ērā anō hoki i te raki, toro haere ai. I a ia ka pakari, ka uru atu ki ngā pakanga a tōna iwi i Taranaki me ērā atu wāhi. E kīia ana ko ia tētahi o ngā kaiwhakairo mōhio nāna i whakairo te whare o Te Rangihaeata, i a Kaitāngata, i runga i te moutere o Mana. Ki ētahi kōrero anō, i tae rawa ia ki a Ngāti Wai i Te Tai Tokerau, noho ai.

Nō te matenga o tōna tuakana, o Tāmati Wāka Māngere, rangatira o Ngāti Kaipoho, ka hoki mai ki te kāinga a Rukupō, kua riro hoki i a ia te tūranga rangatira o te tuakana. E kīia ana hoki nō konei ka huaina tōna īngoa ko Raharuhi e te iwi kāinga, hei ritenga mō tōna hokinga mai pērā i a Raharuhi o ngā karaipiture. Ākuni pea he īngoa iriiri kē tēnei, ina hoki ko ia tētahi o ngā kaiako i te mīhana Mihingare i Tūranga (Gisborne).

E ai ki te kōrero, ko ia tonu tētahi o ngā kaiwhakairo o te waka taua e mōhiotia nei ko Te Toki-a-Tāpiri, e takoto mai rā i te whare taonga i Ākarana. E ai anō ki te kōrero, nāna i whakairo te taurapa, nā Te Waaka Perohuka te tauihu. I haere tahi rāua mā runga i tēnei waka i raro i a Paratene Tūrangi i te wā i whakaekea ai a Ngāti Porou i te tau 1843.

I te tau o mua atu, i 1842, ka tīmata tana hanga i a Te Hau-ki-Tūranga hei whare whakamaharatanga ki tōna tuakana. Ko tēnei whare te ariā ārahi i a ia i muri o te matenga o tōna tuakana, koinei hoki te whare hei whakahihiko ake i te wairua o tōna iwi. Nā tēnei whare ka puta tōna rongonui ki ngā tai katoa o te motu. Tekau mā waru katoa ngā tohunga whakairo i whaiwāhi atu ki tēnei whare. Ko Pera Tawhiti tētahi, he taina nō Rukupō. Nō te tau 1867, ka hokona a Te Hau-ki-Tūranga e Te Retimana (J. C. Richmond) hei taonga mā te motu, ka whakatūria ki te Whare Taonga o Aotearoa (Dominion Museum) i Pōneke (Wellington). Kei ngā poupou o tēnei whare me tōna hanga, e mau ana te tohungatanga o Rukupō.

I te tau 1849 ko ia tētahi o ngā tohunga whakairo o te whare karakia hou i whakatūria ki Manutūkē. He aha rā, ka tū he raruraru i waenganui i a rātau ko te mihingare nei, ko Te Wiremu (William Williams). Ki a Te Wiremu he kino ngā whakairo o ngā tūpuna e meatia ana mō te whare karakia, he tū kau hoki nā te mahi. Nā te taumaha o ngā whiuwhiu kōrero, ka tū ko Rukupō hei kaiwawao. Ka hangaia e ia he tauira whaikairo hou, whakarerekētia e ia te pakoko. Ka pērātia anō ngā kōwhaiwhai. Nō konei ka tīmataria te whakairoiro kōwhaiwhai e karangatia nei ko Te Pītau-a-Manaia. Nō te tau 1863 ka huakina taua whare karakia, ahakoa kāore i oti pai.

I te taenga tuatahitanga mai o ngā mihingare ki Tūranga, ka whakahoahoa atu a Rukupō. Ka taka te wā ka tahuri ōna whakaaro i te Pākehā. I te tau 1851 ka whakahētia e ia te tono a Te Mākarini (Donald McLean), āpiha hoko whenua a te kāwanatanga, ki te whakaara tāone ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa, ki te rapu huarahi e hoki mai ai ngā whenua e nohoia ana e te tangata whai; kāore hoki he mutunga o tana whakahē ki ngā Pākehā e noho ana i runga i ngā whenua o ōna tīpuna. Ahakoa tēnei āhua ōna, ka tū hei āteha i te whakapaunga o te tekau tau atu i 1850. Ko ia te kaiwhakawā mō ōna iwi. He tangata rumaki kai, inā anō te nui o āna māra kūmara me āna māra wīti. Nāna hoki ngā kōhatu mō te mira mahi puehu parāoa, ā, nā Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki i āwhina tōna hanganga ki Tūranga.

Ka taka ki Maehe o te tau 1865, ka tae atu ngā kaikauhau i te rongopai Pai Mārire ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa. Kāore i peia atu e Rukupō rātau ko ngā rangatira Māori, ēngari nā rātau i whakatau ngā whakaaro āwangawanga o ngā Pākehā o reira. Mea rawa ake, ka taka a Rukupō hei pononga Pai Mārire, ka noho ko ia tētahi o ngā māngai kaha ki te aki i te kāwanatanga. Nā te karawhiua mai o ngā pononga Pai Mārire o Ngāti Porou, ka āta noho a Rukupō, ēngari kāore i taea e ia te pei atu te pakanga i Tūranga. Hohoro tonu te rere a ngā toa o Tūranganui-a-Kiwa ki te āwhina i ngā Hauhau i te riu o Waiapu. Ka pūhia tana ākonga a Pita Tamaturi e Meiha Piiki (R. N. Biggs) i kō tata atu i Pākairomiromi. E ai ki te kāwanatanga, kua noho ngā iwi o Tūranga hei iwi kino. Ka whakaekea ngā iwi o tērā wāhi e ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga me ngā kūpapa a Ngāti Porou. Ka whakamātau a Rukupō mā ki te hohou i te rongo; tuku rawa i a rātau kia whakahua i te kupu oati e noho pononga ai mā te kāwanatanga. Nō te tukunga mai o te kupu whakamutunga a te kāwanatanga, ka whakahokia e Rukupō tana whakautu, arā, 270 ngā toa o tōna rohe ka kūpapa ki te aroaro o te kāwanatanga. He mate kē hoki! Kāore he mea kotahi i whai atu i a ia. Nō Noema ka ranga atu ngā hōia ki te pā o Waerenga-a-Hika. E ono ngā rā e pakanga ana kātahi anō ka horo te pā. Kotahi rau e toru tekau o ngā kaiwawao i mate, i tū ā-kiko rānei.

Ka mutu te pakanga, ka tukua ngā mauhere e whakapaetia ana he Hauhau ki Wharekauri, arā, ki Rēkohu (Chatham Islands). Ka puta anō te whakahē a Rukupō, ā, ka tahuri hoki ki te mea kia whāiti ngā whenua e murua ana. Nō te tau 1868, ka rere mai a Te Kooti i Wharekauri, ka ū ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa. I Noema ko tana kōkiritanga i Matawhero. E ai ki ngā kōrero, i tūtaki rawa a Rukupō ki a Te Kooti i ētahi rā i muri mai, ka whakawhiwhia e ia ki te tau wati hiriwa i runga i te tīni kōura. I te matenga o Te Piiki i Matawhero, ka ea te mate o Pita Tamaturi i te tau 1865. Koinei tētahi kōrero e ai ki tā te Māori titiro.

Ko te wahine a Rukupō ko Mārama. Kotahi tā rāua tama, ko Te Waaka Rongotū i mate i mua i tana pāpā. I reira e motukia ana te kāwai o Rukupō. He tamaiti whāngai anō tāna, ko Ōtene Pītau. Kāore he whakaahua o Rukupō ēngari kei roto i Te Hau-ki-Tūranga tētahi tekoteko nāna i whakairo. E ai ki te kōrero, ko ia tonu taua whakairo, ko tana tuakana rānei ko Tāmati Wāka Māngere.

I waenganui i ngā tau 1865 ki te 1873, nāna i mahi ētahi o ngā whakairo mō Te Mana-o-Tūranga whare. Koinei āna mahi whakairo nui whakamutunga. Ko ia te tohunga whakairo rongonui katoa o te rau tau 1800–1899. Nā ōna pakeke i whakangungu ki te whakakōrero i te rākau i runga i ngā tikanga tawhito. Nō te taenga mai o te Pākehā, ka whakarērea ake ngā whao kōhatu, ka tahuri atu ki ngā whao maitai. Ka noho hei tangata i whāwhā i te ao kōhatu, i te ao maitai i roto i ngā mahi whakairo a te Māori. E hia hoki ngā taonga whakarere iho nā ōna ringa i hanga, hei kai kanohi mā ngā whakatipuranga.

Nō te 29 o Hepetema 1873 ka haere ki ōna tīpuna i te pō. Nā Mohi Tūrei i nehu i te 2 o Oketopa ki te taha o te whare karakia i Manutūkē. Ko tana ōhākī ki tōna iwi kia whakapaitia te whare karakia, ā, ki te taha tonu noho ai, kia kaua e taka ki te nama, kia mau hoki ki te whenua.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Pakariki Harrison and Steven Oliver. 'Rukupō, Raharuhi - Rukupo, Raharuhi', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1993, updated October, 2017. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2r30/rukupo-raharuhi (accessed 18 August 2019)