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Te Paea Tīaho

by Angela Ballara

Biography

I whānau pea a Te Paea (Sophia) Tīaho o Ngāti Mahuta i te tīmatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1820 ki Waikato. Ko Pōtatau Te Wherowhero, te Kīngi Māori tuatahi, tōna matua. Kāore i te mārama ko tēwhea o ngā wāhine a Pōtatau te whaea; ko te wahine mātua, ko Whakaawi pea; ko tētehi kē rānei o āna wāhine iti, ko Raharaha. Ko ētehi o tōna tātai, ko Matutaera; taro ake ko ia a Kīngi Tāwhiao i te matenga o tō rāua matua. Ko tō muri iho ko Tīria ko Te Otaota tētehi o ngā īngoa. Noho nei ka mōhiotia ko Mākareta.

I te wā tonu e kōhinehine ana a Te Paea ka puta ōna tohu rangatira. Arā a Waikato e pakanga rā ki ngā iwi o Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay) me Heretaunga. Te mutunga atu ka hinga ngā iwi o reira i te tau 1824. Ka noho, ka noho, ehara, ka whai pū a Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti me Ngāti Kahungunu whānui i te tekau tau atu i 1830. Ka tīmata te tāoro haere i ōna ito, ko Te Pareihe te pakihiwi kaha. Ko ngā rangatira ēnei o Waikato ka noho māharahara i runga i te whakaaro tērā e taka te wā, ka hurihia atu aua pū ki a rātou. Hei patu i tēnei whakaaro, ka whakahautia a Te Paea rātou ko ngā tamāhine a Wahanui Huatare rāua ko Wiremu Tāmihana Tarapīpipi, kia haere ki a Te Pareihe hei takoha maungārongo.

Ka haere te tokotoru nei ki Tāmaki-makau-rau (Auckland), ā, mā runga kaipuke atu i reira ki Nukutaurua i Te Māhia. Te taenga atu, ka mahara te iwi o Te Pareihe he kaipuke whai tohorā tēnei, ka whakaaetia te hunga ki runga kia tau. Kātahi ka whakahuia e Te Pareihe ōna iwi. Te huinga, ka whai kupu a Te Paea ki a rātou, ka whakatakotoria te hiahia o Waikato ki te whakatū tatau pounamu. Ahakoa te whakahē a ētehi o ngā rangatira, ko te kupu mana i a Te Pareihe. Whakaaetia ana e ia te tono a Waikato. Kāore hoki i mau hereheretia a Te Paea mā, ēngari i tukua kia hoki ki te kawe kōrero ki a Waikato mō te whakaaetanga o Te Pareihe ki te tatau pounamu.

Kāore he kōrero mō Te Paea, kia neke rawa a ia mai i Māngere ki Ngāruawāhia. Ko te tau kāore i te mau. Ka noho te Kīngitanga ki Ngāruawāhia, ka puta te pūmanawa o Te Paea ki te ārahi i te iwi. Tae rawa tōna rongo ki a Erenora Taratoa o Ngāti Raukawa. I roto i te waiata a Erenora ko ēnei kupu:

Ngā ia tuku ki Waikato
Ko Kīngi Pōtatau, ko Te Paea,
Ko Matutaera e tāoro nei
I te nuku o te whenua
Hei aha rā?
Hei mana mō Niu Tīreni
Pōtaea!

Otirā, ko te kōrero a Te Paea ki te minita, ki a Arthur Purchas i te tau 1863, i te haerenga o tōna matua ki Ngāruawāhia i te tau 1858 kia whakawahia hei kīngi, i noho tonu a ia ki Māngere i runga i te tohutohu a tōna matua, ā, kāore hoki a ia i kite i tōna matenga i Hune o te tau 1860.

 

Ko te kōrero a Te Koohi (J. E. Gorst), i te matenga o Pōtatau Te Wherowhero he uaua te whakatau ko wai hei rae tiparetanga mō tōna karauna. I whakahua rawatia a Wiremu Tāmihana Tarapīpipi o Ngāti Hauā. Pērā anō hoki a Matutaera, tama a Pōtatau. Ka whakahuatia ko te tuahine ko Te Paea. Ki te whakapae a Te Koohi, kua 35 pea te pakeke o Te Paea i taua wā, he toka-tū-moana, he hinengaro kokoi. Kāore i paingia a Wiremu Tāmihana e ngā iwi o te Kīngi, nā runga i tōna hiahia ki te noho i runga i te rangimārie me te Pākehā. Ahakoa tōna ngākaurua i te tīmatanga, hīpokina iho ana e Wiremu tana tautoko ki runga ki a Matutaera, ka tangohia ko tā Te Paea tono.

I te tekau tau atu i 1860, he nui ngā take ārahi i te iwi i utaina ki runga i a Te Paea. I te tau 1862, ka whakamātauria e Wiremu Nēra Te Awa-i-taia, tētehi huarahi mai i Whāingaroa ki te awa o Waipā. Noho kōpapa ana te Kīngitanga ki tēnei huarahi, kei noho hei takahanga waewae mō ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga e hiakai mai rā ki ngā whenua o Waikato. Nā runga i te tata o Te Paea ki a Te Awa-i-taia, ka whai wāhi atu a ia ki ēnei raruraru. Nā ōna ringaringa tonu i kukume haere ngā pou rūri e tohu ana i tēnei huarahi.

Ko te ngākau o Te Paea e hinga atu ana ki te taha ngāwari. E rua ngā kaupapa i eke ai ngā mano o te Kīngitanga. Tuatahi ko te tūmanako o te kāwanatanga ki te whakatū kura i Te Awamutu, hei ako i ngā taitama tāne ki ngā mahi e noho pononga pai ai rātou mā te kāwanatanga. Tuarua, ko te hiahia o te kāwanatanga ki te hanga tima kiri-maro ki te matā, hei mānu i te awa o Waikato. Ki te Kīngitanga, he tino whakatete tēnei. I tupu te raruraru i te hokonga mai o ngā rākau mō te kura. Ka whakatika atu tētehi wāhanga o Ngāti Maniapoto, ka heria. Tutū ana te puehu! Ko Te Koohi te kaiwhakawā takiwā mō tērā rohe i taua wā. Ki tāna, me whakahoki aua rākau. Tūpono, i reira a Te Paea, i Kihikihi. Ka tonoa e ia kia kohangia atu aua rākau rā ki a ia. Kāore hoki e taea te whakahē te tono a te rangatira. Nō te rironga o ngā rākau i a ia, ka hoatu e ia ki a Te Koohi. Ka tau te puehu mō te wā poto, anō nei ka mau te rongo ki roto o Waikato.

I taua wā anō, ka tōtara-wāhi-rua te Kīngitanga. Ko te Hāhi Katorika te take. Ko tētehi wāhanga i whakaae kia taka te Kīngitanga ki raro i ngā Katorika nā te mea kāore he pānga atu o tēnei hāhi ki te Kuini o Ingarangi. Ko Te Paea kei tētehi taha e whakahē ana. Tau ana ki tā Te Paea. Muri iho, ka whakatūria e rātou ko ētehi o ngā rangatira o Waikato he hākari mā ngā Pākehā o Rangiaowhia, hei whakanui i te ekenga o te Kīngi ki tōna ahurewa. Rā rua mai, ka haere a Te Paea ki Te Awamutu. Ko te hua o tēnei haere, ko te rerenga o te pōhiri ki te Kāwana kia haere atu ki Waikato.

Ka tata mai te pakanga ki te ihu o Waikato, ohorere ana te tū a Kāwana Hōri Kerei (George Grey) ki Ngāruawāhia i ngā rā tuatahi o Hānuere i te tau 1863. I te haere kē a Kīngi Tāwhiao, ka riro nā Te Paea a Kerei i whakamanuhiri. Ka werohia e Te Paea ki te pātai he aha tē turakina ai e ia te pou haki a te Kīngi hei whakaoti i tāna haere ohorere mai, e kore hoki e whakahēngia e ia tāna i pīrangi ai. Taka rawa ki Āperira ka puta te kōrero a Te Paea ki a Rewi Maniapoto i Kihikihi, kua ūwhia e ia te teihana mihingare i Te Awamutu ki tōna kākahu, ā, kia tau rā anō te maungārongo. I te hiahia rā hoki a Rewi ki te muru i ngā whare, ēngari nō te putanga o te kupu a Te Paea, ka koropiko a Rewi. I Ngāruawāhia, ka tū te rūnanga a ngā rangatira o Waikato. Ko te take ko Te Awamutu anō. Arā a Ngāti Maniapoto e hiahia rā ki te tāoro. Tautohengia ana e Te Paea ngā taniwha kia mau te rongo.

Ahakoa te ngana o Te Paea rāua ko Pātara Te Tuhi, kaitohutohu a te Kīngi, kia mau te rongo, he aha te aha. Whakatika atu, ka kōrerotia e rāua a Te Koohi me ētehi atu āpiha, ngā tāngata whai me ngā mihingare, kia taki wehe atu i Waikato, e kore e taea e Tāwhiao te kaupare atu a Ngāti Maniapoto. Ka hiki papa te nuinga i ngā rā whakamutunga o Hune i te tau 1863. Ko te hiahia o Te Paea, he hoki ki Māngere noho ai. Koia rā hoki tā te matua i ōhākī ai. Ēngari ko tana kōrero ki a Purchas i Āperira, kua meinga a ia kia noho. Me pēhea hoki, arā a Waikato e pōraruraru rā. Ēngari ki te takahia tonutia te kōrero a Pōtatau, kia noho tahi me te Pākehā i runga i te rangimārie tērā ia te hoki ai ki Māngere. Nā te pakarutanga o te riri i Hūrae, i ārai te hokinga o Te Paea.

Kāore he kōrero mō Te Paea i ngā tau o te riri Pākehā, he iti hoki ngā whakahuanga a te Pākehā mōna i te wā i mua atu i tōna matenga. Otirā, kei te mōhiotia ko ia tētehi o ngā pou tokomanawa o te Kīngitanga i Kāwhia, ā, i tōna kāinga noho i Te Kūiti. Ko te kōrero a Te Wheoro, rangatira o Waikato i te tau 1870, i a Te Paea te mana ki te whakaae, ki te whakakāhore rānei, kia huakina te papa kōura i Ōhinemuri. Tou tohu tō te tapairu. Ko 'Princess Sophie' tonu tōna īngoa ki ngā Pākehā. Nō te 22 o Hānuere i te tau 1875 ka mate te uri ariki nei. I tangihia ia i te marae kāinga o Tāwhiao i Waitomo, i Te Kūiti. Ka wharengaro atu.


He whakaaturanga anō

Rārangi pukapuka

    Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives (New Zealand). 1863, E–1

    Gorst, J. E. The Maori King. London, 1864


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Te Paea Tīaho', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1993. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2t24/te-paea-tiaho (accessed 13 April 2021)