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Tikao, Hone Taare

by Tipene O'Regan

Biography

Nā Teone (Hōne) Taare Tīkao te kōrero ki a Herries Beattie, kaituhi kōrero tawhito, i whānau a ia ki Hakaroa, Horomaka rānei (Banks Peninsula), i te tau 1850. E rua tau tēnei i mua atu i te hokonga a te Karauna i Ngā Pākihi‑whakatekateka-o‑Waitaha (Canterbury) i a Ngāi Tahu; kāore hoki i roa tōna whānautanga ka tae mai ngā tāngata whai Pākehā. E taea ana e Tīkao te whakaheke ōna whakapapa mai i ngā hapū 21 o Ngāi Tahu, ēngari ko Ngāi Tūāhuriri me Ngāti Irakehu ngā hapū e whakahuahua nuitia ana e ia. O ēnei hapū e rua, tūturu iho tōna pūmau ki a Ngāti Irakehu, he hapū i whai pānga hoki ki Te Wairarapa ki te tonga i Te Ika‑a‑Māui.

I mua atu i te whānautanga o Taare, he karawhiutanga a Hakaroa nā ngā pū tiripapā a Ngāti Toa i ngā tau whakamutunga o te tekau tau atu i 1820; anea ana a Ngāi Tahu i te tau 1830 i te haere whakapoapoatanga o Tama-i-haranui ki runga i te Elizabeth, ka patua atu. Ka mau hereheretia te matua o Taare, a Tāmati Tīkao rāua ko Hōne Tīkao – he teina, he tuakana rānei nō Tāmati. Kawea ana rāua ki Te Ika‑a‑Māui whakarau ai. I te unuhanga i te here i runga i a Hōne, ka haere ia hei hēramana i runga i tētahi kaipuke whai tohorā. Pau te ao i a ia. Nōna hoki tētahi o ngā tohu i utaina ki runga ki te Tiriti o Waitangi, ēngari ko John Love kē tōna īngoa i whakairotia atu ki te Tiriti. Nōna anō hoki tētahi o ngā tohu i taea ai a Waitaha te hoko atu ki te Karauna i te tau 1848. Ko Tāmati tēnei. E hia nei rā ōna tau ki Te Wairau. I reira ka uru atu ki ngā mahi a ngā mīhana, ka mōhio ki te tuhituhi. Te takanga hei Karaitiana ka noho hei kaikauwhau i ngā painga i heria mai e tērā rongopai.

I te kitenga o te huarahi hoki ki te kāinga ki Hakaroa, ka noho a Tāmati ki Wairewa (Lake Forsyth). Ka moe i a Rāhera, ka puta ko Teone Taare Tīkao (ko Hōne Taare Tīkao, ko John Charles Tīkao ētahi o ōna īngoa). Ka whakatūria e Tāmati he wharekura Māori ki Wairewa. Ko Hōne i Wakaroa (Pigeon Bay) e noho ana. Ka pakari a Taare, ka noho ki te āwhina i tōna matua ki te ahu i tō rātou whenua; ka haere hoki hei kaimahi mā ngā tāngata whai Pākehā. Nō te 22 o Hune 1878, ka moe a Taare i tana wahine tuatahi, i a Maraea Tīhau (ko Toitoi tētahi o ngā īngoa), he whanaunga tata ki a ia. Ko te Whare Karakia o Pita i te kāinga o Akaroa te wāhi mārena. Nō konei te rerenga atu o Taare i te kōhanga o ōna mātua, ka haere rāua ko tana wahine ki Wainui noho ai. Ka noho nā, neke atu ana i te 30 tōna pakeke.

I te matenga o Maraea me ā rāua tamariki tokorua o tērā moenga, ka moe anō a Taare i a Martha Hana Toku Horomona (Hannah Solomon‑Score) o Koukourarata (Port Levy), ā, ka noho rāua i runga i ngā whenua o tana wahine. Tekau mā whā rawa ā rāua tamariki, tokoono ngā mea i mate. Nō waenganui i te tekau tau atu i 1880 ka hiki te whānau ki Rāpaki, kia tata ai ngā tamariki ki te kura i whakatūria e Te Koti Te Rato, he mihinare Wēteriana nō Ngāti Kahungunu.

I a Taare e taitama tonu ana, ka tukua e tōna matua kia whakangungua e Koroko rāua ko Tūauau, he pōua tohunga nō Ngāi Tahu. Tekau tau a Taare e akona ana. Nā konei i mōhio whānui ai a Taare ki ngā kōrero o Ngāi Tahu e pā ana ki te whare wānanga me te kete ō a Waitaha. (Nō muri mai ka whakataha a Taare i ngā kōrero tūpuna mō te taha tonga o Ngāi Tahu.)

Nā te noho i te taha o ngā tohunga nei, āpiti atu ki ngā akiaki a ōna mātua kia ako i te reo Pākehā me te tuhituhi, ka pū te koi o te hinengaro o Taare. Ko ia te kaituku kōrero ki a Hēmi Kāwana (James Cowan), ki a J. W. Stack me Herries Beattie; nā te tokotoru nei i tā ngā kōrero tuku iho me ngā kōrero tūpuna a Ngāi Tahu. Nā tōna matatau ki te reo Pākehā me tōna ngākau atawhai ki te whakawhitiwhiti mōhio i māmā ai tāna whakapiripiri ki ngā Pākehā rangatira o Waitaha. He putuputu tana kauhau i ngā tikanga Māori; he putuputu hoki tana whakamanuhiri i ngā Pākehā i ōna kāinga i Rāpaki me Koukourarata.

Mai anō i a ia e tamariki ana maumahara tonu ia ki ngā whare whakairo o Hakaroa me ērā anō o Ngāi Tahu haere atu i te pukerae e tū ana, ka whakapaua e ia tōna kaha ki te whakaara whare mō te iwi. Ko ia tētahi o ngā mana i tū ai te whare karakia i Ōnuku, arā, i Te Kāika (The Kaik). Nāna hoki i ārahi ētahi kaupapa hanga whare; ka tū a Tū-te-huarewa whare i Koukourarata me Te Wheke whare i Rāpaki. Me te aha, noho ana ko ia te rangatira o tōna iwi o Rāpaki.

I whāia nuitia ngā rangatira tikanga rua e pūkenga ana ki te whakatakoto kaupapa ki te ao Pākehā, ā, kua kitea ake rā tōna ātārangi i te motu. E taka te wā, mā ōna mātauranga tonu tohu ai i tōna rongo. Nō te tau 1849 i tīmata ai ngā kerēme a Ngāi Tahu kia whakatikatikaia ngā tinihanga a te Karauna i roto i te hokona o ngā whenua o Te Wai Pounamu. Nō te wā e puta haere ana te rongo o Taare, ka kaha kē atu ngā kerēme. Ko ia tētahi o ngā kaikōrero mō Ngāi Tahu ahakoa tōna taitamariki atu i ētahi o ngā rangatira. Ko ia te poutāhū o te pakanga kia rāhuitia ngā wāhi mahinga kai o Ngāi Tahu. Nō tēnei pakanga ka hua ōna mōhiotanga ki ngā kōrero o te taiao, arā, o te kete ō. Noho tonu ia ki te tuhi i ngā kōrero a ngā pōua e mahi tahi ana i tōna taha, ā, ka riro māna hei tuhi ngā tukunga kōrero ki te Karauna.

Te urunga atu o Ngāi Tahu ki te Kotahitanga ‑ he rōpū whakatū pāremata Māori motuhake ‑ ka riro anō i a Taare te kupu i te hui i Waipatu, i Heretaunga i te tau 1892. I ngā tau 1893, 1894, ka tū ko ia hei tiamana mō te Rūnanga Nui. He māngai kōrero hoki ia mō tētahi wā. He ngāwari tana tū i roto i ngā kōrero a te pāremata, pērā anō hoki tā Hēnare Tomoana me ētahi atu. I a ia te kupu nui i te takanga o Ngāi Tahu ki raro i te Kaunihera Māori i te Takiwā Māori o Mahunui. He wā a ia e noho ana hei tiamana mō taua kaunihera.

Nā te Kotahitanga ka tūtaki a Taare ki ngā rangatira o te wā. He wā roa rātou ko Nēpia Pōhūhū me Hoani Te Whatahoro Jury e kōrero ana; he tauira ēnei nō te mātauranga, he kaituhi hoki i ngā kōrero a ngā tohunga. Nā Te Whatahoro ‑ ko ia te hoa whakawhitiwhiti tikanga Māori o Taare ‑ i tuhi ngā kōrero a Te Mātorohanga. Nā Te Mātorohanga pea, i kaha ai te whai a Taare i ngā kōrero mō Io hei atua runga rawa.

Arā atu ngā kaupapa e kauhautia ana e Taare ki te marae. Nā te tauira o tana moe i āna wāhine ka puta tana kore e pai ki te moemoe tonu iho a te Māori i ōna whanaunga tata. He tikanga Māori hoki tēnei kia kore ai e puta atu ngā whenua. Nā te koi o tōna hinengaro me te nui o ōna mōhiotanga, tae noa ki tōna rika ki te whakamoe i ngā tikanga tawhito ki ngā tikanga o te ao hou, ka noho hei mea mīharo mā te tini. He kōrero tonu tana mahi kia whāia te mātauranga, kia whakaoratia te toi o te Māori. Tōna kaha ki te whakapiki i te toi o tōna iwi o Ngāi Tahu. He tangata kura māhorahora, kāore e aro atu ki ngā ngutungutu ririki a te rūnanga, a te hapū rānei. Otirā, he pae whakariaki e rere iho ai ōna wai hei inumanga mā ngā whakatipuranga, e inu tonu nei, e inu tonu nei.

Nō te tau 1924, ka moe a Hana. Nā te mate rāua ko Taare i wehe, nā te mate anō i hono i te moenga o Taare i te 11 o Hune i te tau 1927, i Rāpaki. Mahue iho tā rāua pā harakeke, tokorima ngā wāhine, tokotoru ngā tāne.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

Ētahi whakaaro puaki, takenga

    Obit. Dominion 13 June 1927

    Obit. Press. 13 June 1927

    Tikao, T. T. [H. T. Tikao]. Tikao talks. Ed. H. Beattie. Dunedin, 1939


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Tipene O'Regan. 'Tikao, Hone Taare', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1993. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2t43/tikao-hone-taare (accessed 4 July 2020)