Kōrero: Tohu Kākahi

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Tohu Kakahi

1828–1907

Nō Te Āti Awa, nō Taranaki; he kaiārahi, he matakite

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Ailsa Smith,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1993.

Kāore a Tohu e kōrero nuitia ana i roto i ngā tuhinga a ngā kaiwhao kōrero tawhito, ēngari nā rāua ko Te Whiti‑o-Rongomai III, ka puta te rongo o Parihaka hei tohu i tā te rangimārie ātete i te kāwanatanga mō āna mahi hao whenua. He whakahekenga ia nō Ngā Pōtikitaua rāua ko Te Rangiāpitirua, rangatira o Te Āti Awa, i Pukeariki e noho ana. Kua ngaro te tūranga nei ki te wāhi e tū ana a Nū Pāremata (New Plymouth) i te rā nei. Ko tōna pāpā ko Te Toamai, ko Kiekie tōna whaene. He huānga tata rāua ko Te Whiti; ko te pāpā o Te Whiti, ko Hōne Kākahi, he irāmutu nā Te Toamai. Nō reira ka noho pāpā a Tohu ki a Te Whiti. Rāua tahi he puninga nā Taranaki me Te Āti Awa.

He iti ngā kōrero mō te wā e taitama ana a Tohu, ēngari ko te kōrero a ōna huānga whakaheke, i whānau ia ki Puketapu i te 22 o Hānuere i te tau 1828. Ki ētehi, i whānau kē ia ki Waimate, ki Kaikaiā rānei, i te takiwā e mōhiotia nei ko Normanby. I a ia e taitamariki ana, ka neke tōna whānau ki Waikanae, ā, e ai anō ki tētehi kōrero, i tahawhenua haere i te tonga o Taranaki, kia hipa ai i ngā pū okaoka a Waikato. Nō taua wā pea i herea ai te taura ki a Ngāti Ruanui, ina hoki, koia nei ētehi o āna pononga i ngā rā o Parihaka. Nō muri mai i te tau 1842, ka pū te noho ki Wārea, i raro i tō rātou karangatanga o Te Patukai; ko ō rātou amorangi ko Pāora Kūkūtai rāua ko tana irāmutu, ko Āperahama Te Reke.

Ko ōna īngoa i a ia e taitama ana, ko Hōne, ko Hēmi rānei (koia nei tōna īngoa iriiri). Ko te whakapae, nā Minarapa Rangihatuake – he tangata nō Taranaki i mau taurekareka i a Ngā Puhi, kātahi ka tukua – i ako tuatahi ki te Karaitianatanga. Ko Minarapa hoki te tangata nāna i wawao te pakanga e kīia nei ko Te Kūititanga, i Waikanae i te tau 1839. I muri iho ka noho hei kaikauhau i Rāhotu mai i te tau 1842 ki te tau 1860. Ākuanei i uru rawa a Tohu ki te Tikanga Hou, he māramatanga i Wārea. I haere tahi rāua ko Te Whiti ki te kura mīhana a Johann Riemenschneider i Wārea. Ēngari nā te pau o te kaha o Riemenschneider ki ngā tāngata whai Pākehā, ka tahuri a Tohu rāua ko Te Whiti ki te ako i ngā Māori ko rātou tētehi o ngā iwi ngaro o Iharaira (koinei anō hoki te ako a Te Mātenga (Samuel Marsden) i Te Hokianga i te tau 1819). E ai ki a Tohu rāua ko Te Whiti, nā konei ka nui kē atu tō rātou mana i tō te Pākehā e hao rā i ō rātou whenua.

E ai anō ki te kōrero, kua whakaaritia kētia te ara mō Tohu rāua ko Te Whiti e Pōtatau Te Wherowhero i mua i tōna matenga i te tau 1860. Kei te whakapaetia hoki nā Tohu i whakawahi te tama a Pōtatau, a Tāwhiao hei kīngi, ā, ko ia te tohunga me te kaitohutohu a Tāwhiao mō tētehi wā, ēngari nā ngā whakaaro tōrangapū o taua wā, ka whakahokia tēnei mahi mā Waikato. Nō muri, ka tonoa mai e Tāwhiao tana Tekau-mā-rua hei ringaringa mō ngā poropiti o Parihaka, mō Tohu rāua ko Te Whiti.

Ki ngā Pākehā, he ngākau whakatū pakanga tō Tohu. Nāna hoki a Pīhopa Herewini (G. A. Selwyn) i whakarau i Noema o te tau 1861, i te wā e whakawhiti ana tērā i te rohe o Taranaki. I taua tau anō me te tau o muri mai, ka tukua e Tohu rāua ko Te Whiti ā rāua reta whakahē i te kāwanatanga ki ētehi atu Māori me te kāwanatanga anō hoki. I waenganui o te tekau tau atu i 1860, ka whai rāua i te māramatanga Pai Mārire, Hauhau rānei o Te Ua Haumēne. I whai wāhi hoki rāua ki te kōkiritanga a ngā Hauhau i te pā o ngā Pākehā i Te Mōrere (Sentry Hill) i te marangai o Taranaki, i te tau 1864. Nā Tohu hoki i ārahi ngā kōkiri Hauhau i Te Puru i Hune o te tau 1865, me Waikoukou i Pēpuere o te tau 1866.

I Tīhema o te tau 1865, ka whakatapua e Te Ua Haumēne a Tohu, a Te Whiti me Taikōmako – he teina nō Te Whiti, ēngari he whaea, he pāpā kē rānei tōna – kia pai ai tā rātou kawe i te māramatanga a Te Ua. Ko Waikoukou te whakamutunga o te pakanga i Taranaki, ā, ka neke a Tohu rāua ko Te Whiti ki a Taikōmako i Parihaka. E kīia ana i puta atu te piriniha rangimārie o te Paipera, a Merekihereke, ki a Tohu ki te whakamana i a ia hei amorangi mō te māramatanga i Parihaka. Ki ngā uri o Tohu, nā te Wairua Tapu i whakapūmau te mana o Tohu; ko te ariā o tēnei mana he toroa nui. Koia nei hoki te īngoa o tōna marae, ko Toroanui.

Nā runga i ngā tohutohu Karaitiana, ka tiria e Tohu rāua ko Te Whiti, tō rāua māramatanga i runga i te whakapono mō te haerenga tuaruatanga mai o Te Karaiti ā tōna wā. Ka kauhautia e rāua tēnei māramatanga i ngā huihuinga maha; ka muia rāua e te tangata. I taua wā, e wātea ana a Parihaka ki te Pākehā ahakoa kāore e whakaaetia te ako i te mātauranga Pākehā ki ngā tamariki o Parihaka, nā te kore i pai o rātou ki ngā uaratanga a te Pākehā. Ka kaha haere ake tā rāua whakahau i ngā pononga kia haere ki te tāwari i te kāwanatanga, i te wā e whakapaitia ana ngā whenua muru hei pūwhenuatanga mō ngā Pākehā. Ka kumekumea ake ngā pou rūri, pērā i tā Ngāti Toa mahi i te tau 1841. Ka parautia hoki ngā whenua e whakaarotia ana nō rātou ake; ka taiepatia ngā huarahi e haere ana mā runga i ā rātou mahinga kai.

Ko Tohu te kaiwhakahaere i ngā mahi parau me ngā mahi whakatūtū taiepa i te tau 1879 ki 1880. Ko tō rāua tūmanako, ka riro mā ēnei mahi hei whakamātautau i te ture e raupatu ana i ngā whenua. Ko tana kaupapa, he totohe i runga i te rangimārie, ēngari ahakoa te rangimārie, mārō tonu tōna āhua, i a ia e tohutohu ana i āna pononga, i a ia e mihi ana ki ngā pononga i puta mai i te whare herehere i Te Waipounamu. Koia nei ngā pononga kāore i whakawākia. I whakamātau hoki ia ki te noho hei kaiwawao i muri iho i te kauhau a Te Whiti i te 17 o Hepetema, te tau 1881. E ai ki tā te Pākehā, he kauhau whakatorotoro pakanga tēnei.

E kīia ana, ko Tohu te kaiwhakahaere i Parihaka mai i Maehe ki Hepetema o te tau 1881; i ngā wā hoki o te noho anipā me te mate. I te wā i whakaekea ai a Parihaka e Te Paraihe (John Bryce) i te 5 o Noema i te tau 1881, ka whakaemihia e Tohu tōna iwi ki runga o Toroanui hei whakawhāiti i ngā hōia ki te wāhi kotahi. Kāore hoki i tukua te tikanga manaaki ki ngā hōia i haere mai mā muri kē o te marae e noho ringakore rā.

Ki ngā Pākehā he nui ake te mana o Te Whiti tēnā i a Tohu nā te mea ko Te Whiti tō rāua kaikōrero mō rāua; ēngari whakaputa kē ai i ōna whakaaro anō nei ko ia anake (i runga anō i tā te rangatira tikanga). Ēngari e ai ki tētehi o ngā uri o ngā kaihautū e rua, nō te Tuhituhinga te tauira mō te āhua o Tohu rāua ko Te Whiti. Ko Ārana te kaikōrero mā Mohi, nō reira ka noho hoki ko Te Whiti hei māngai mō Tohu. I a Tohu kē te mana. Hei tuarā mō tēnei whakapae, ka whakapuakina ko te mahi whakahuahua tuarua a Tohu i ngā take nui anake o ngā kōrero a Te Whiti. Nā Tohu ētehi o ngā kupu whakaari ēngari nō muri nei ka kīia nā Te Whiti kē. I hua mai tēnei āhuatanga i runga i te whakapae a ngā Pākehā, kāore e taea e Tohu ngā kōrero pērā te hōhonu, i runga rānei i te taukumekume o ngā pononga a Te Whiti ki ngā pononga a Tohu.

Ko ngā Māori hoki ētehi i whakawaia e ngā whakaaro o te Pākehā i tuhia ki roto i ngā nūpepa. Ēngari i te tāwaitanga matawhawhatitanga i ā rāua kaupapa i Ōtākou (Otago) i te 10 o Hune o te tau 1882, nā Tohu kē i whakautu aua kōrero. Nō muri iho ēnei tāwai i tō rāua mau hereheretanga e kīia ana mō te whakatutū i te puehu te take. Kua kitea kētia te tokatūmoana o Tohu i a ia i whakahē ai i te hiahia o Te Whiti ki te tuku i a Te Whetū kia whakaraua e te kāwanatanga i Maehe o 1867. Ko te hara o Te Whetū, ko te patunga i a John Brady. I a rāua ko Te Whiti i Te Waipounamu, mau tonu a Tohu ki tōna kore e pai ki ngā tikanga Pākehā, hāunga a Te Whiti i whakatōngā ia.

Nō te tau 1879 ka kitea tō rāua tōtara wāhi rua, ēngari nō te hokinga mai i te whakahekenga i Te Waipounamu ki Parihaka i te tau 1883, ka tawhiti kē atu tō rāua wehe. Kua tīmata hoki tā rāua whakaora anō i Parihaka ki ngā moni āwhina a Rāniera Erihana (Ellison) o Ōtākou. Ko te hiahia o Te Whiti he whakauru mai i ngā taputapu papai a te Pākehā i kite ai rāua i Te Waipounamu. Ko Tohu i te hiahia tonu mā te Māori anō ia e kuhu.

I Hūrae o te tau 1886, ka whakahaua e Te Whiti kia ātetetia anō ngā mahi taunaha whenua a te Pākehā; ka hopukia ka heria ki te herehere i Pōneke (Wellington). Kāore a Tohu i mauheretia, ēngari i ākina ngututia a Te Whiti e ia mō tana kimihanga i te aituā mō tōna iwi. Nō te tīmatanga o te tau 1887 ka tukua a Te Whiti, ka tīmata tana whakahou haere i Parihaka. Nā Taare (Charlie) Waitara, he rangatira whai moni, whai whenua, whai wāhi paku nei ki a Te Āti Awa i Te Awakairangi (Hutt Valley), ngā moni āwhina. Nā te kore i piri pono ki te kaupapa, ka mahue a Te Whiti i ētehi o āna pononga, ka tahuri ki te whai i te kaupapa a Tohu. Haere kē ai ngā Pākehā ki te wāhanga hou o Parihaka ki te kōrero ki te 'rangatira' o Parihaka. Kāore e haere ana ki a Tohu nā te tawhito o tōna kāinga.

Ko te īngoa o ngā pononga a Tohu ko ngā Pore (he kau kua tangohia ngā pīhi) nā te mea kāore rātou e mau i te raukura toroa. Koinei hoki te tohu o ngā pononga a Te Whiti. Ka tahuri ngā rangatira o ngā iwi e haere atu ana ki Parihaka, ki te whakakotahi i te tokorua nei, kāore i tutuki. Ahakoa te tōtara wāhi rua, nā rātou tahi i whakatakoto te huarahi kōhatu ki Parihaka i te tau 1896. Mau tonu hoki a Tohu ki te aukati atu i te wai piro i Parihaka, ki te whakahē hoki i ngā tāke e whakapaetia ana e ia i whakapīkau hētia ki a rātou.

He tangata hanga nui a Tohu, he nui ōna kōiwi, pohū ana te reo, he tūturu Māori te āhua. Nā konei pea i aro kē ai te Pākehā ki a Te Whiti; he rite atu hoki tōna āhua ki a rātou. Pērā i a Te Whiti, he mutu tētehi o ngā ringa o Tohu. Pērā hoki i a Tītokowaru, he kāpō tētehi o ōna kanohi. Pōhēhē ai te maha o te tangata ko Tītokowaru tonu a Tohu. I moe ia i a Wairangi (ko Mohia tētehi o ngā īngoa), he teina, he tuakana rānei ki te wahine a Te Whiti, ki a Hikurangi. Tokotoru ā rāua tamariki tāne, ko Te Toamai, ko Rangikōtuku (ko Nohoangapani rānei), me Te Kakapi‑o-te-rangi. Tokorua ngā tamāhine ko Pūkohu rāua ko Parekauri. He tangata ngahau ia i ētehi wā, ēngari he tere ki te whakatau i tōna mana, ā, ka kaha kē atu i a ia ka pāhaketia.

I whara te himu o Tohu i ngā tau i mua atu i tōna matenga i Parihaka, i te 4 o Pēpuere 1907. Kāore ōna kāwhena i tōna tanumanga; koinei hoki ngā tikanga i akona e ia. Kāore he tohu whakamahara o tōna wāhi takoto; kāore i pērā i tō Te Whiti, inā anō te nui o tōna tohu whakamahara.

I muri mai o tōna matenga, ka pōtitia e āna pononga kia noho wehe tonu rātou i a Te Whiti. Ka tapahia te here ki Parihaka, ka taki haere ki Ketemarae i te tonga o Taranaki, ki reira whakatū ai i ā rātou tikanga. Ko ngā marae o te awa o Whanganui ētehi o ā rātou huinga. Kei reira tonu e mau ana ngā tikanga a Tohu.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Ailsa Smith. 'Tohu Kākahi - Tohu Kakahi', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1993. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2t44/tohu-kakahi (accessed 19 October 2019)