Kōrero: Tōia, Hōne Riiwi

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Toia, Hone Riiwi

1858–1860?–1933

Nō Ngā Puhi; he matakite, he amorangi whakapono, he kaitohe

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1993.

I whānau a Hōne Riiwi Tōia i te takiwā pea i ngā tau atu i 1858 ki 1860 ki Te Waimate i Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands). Ko te īngoa o tana tupuna tāne ko Riiwi (Levy), he kaihokohoko Hūrai. Ki ētahi o ngā kōrero tuku iho a te whānau, nāna i whakarere te kaipuke i runga a ia i Te Hokianga, ā, oma ana. Ki ētahi kōrero anō, he māhita kaumoana mau tiwhikete a ia nō tōna ake kaipuke, arā, i Te Hokianga e hokohoko haere ana. I moea e ia a Rena o Ngā Puhi i Te Hokianga. Ko tā rāua tama ko Hīmi Riiwi Tōia te matua o Hōne Tōia. Ko te whaea o Hōne ko Maraea, he wahine nō Te Māhurehure hapū o Waimā. Tērā atu anō tētahi wahine a Hīmi Riiwi Tōia ko Mihiārangi te īngoa. Ka puta he teina mō Hōne me ngā tuāhine tokorua. He ngare anō nōna a Ngāti Korohue.

E kīia ana he tangata mōhio a Hōne Tōia, ā, e mātau ana ki te reo Pākehā. Tau rawa ki te tekau tau atu i 1890 ko ia tonu te rangatira o tāna ake toa hokohoko. He tangata purotu, hanga pūngerungeru. E taitama tonu ana ka haere a ia ki Parihaka ki te toro i a Te Whiti. I whakatupuria mai a ia i roto i te Hāhi Mihinare, ēngari, kaumātua ana ka riro i a ia tētahi tūranga whai awe i waenga i te iwi o tōna whaea, ko te tokomaha he Wēteriana. Nā te hau o tōna rongo mō tōna āhei ki te kōrero ki ngā wairua o ngā tūpuna, ā, he matakite, he poropiti rānei, tupu ana tōna mana.

I noho a ia hei amokapua mō te hāhi e kīia ana i ētahi wā ko Te Huihui, ko Te Huihuinga rānei, he rōpū i whati mai i te Hāhi Wēteriana. I te tīmatanga, i tū ngā hui mō ngā take hāhi i te 16 o ia marama ki Tāheke, ki Ōmanaia, ki Waimā rānei. Nā te karakia i whakatuwhera ngā hui, ā, i ētahi wā e toru, e whā kē rānei ngā wā karakiatanga i te pō. Kātahi ka kōrerorero rātou mō ngā take tōrangapū. He tokomaha tonu ngā Pākehā i kī he tangata māminga a Hōne Tōia. Ko te kī a ētahi, e whai wāhi ana āna hui ki te kaupapa Hauhau. Ko te kī a ētahi anō, ko te mahi a ngā hui nei i roto i ngā whare rūnanga i te pō, he whakapā atu ki a rātou o te ao wairua. Ko Whiowhio te īngoa o taua hāhi ki te Māori, nō te mea he whio te hū e puta mai ana i ngā wairua; ko te Nākahi anō tētahi o ngā īngoa, i tapaina ki te momo whakapono o Papahurihia, te poropiti o Te Hokianga o ngā tau o mua tata atu.

Ki tā te rōpū nei kua wehe kē atu rātou i te Kotahitanga (te rōpū whakatū pāremata mana motuhake Māori); ēngari, e ōrite ana ā rātou whāinga ki te kāwana i a rātou anō ki ērā o ngā whāinga a ngā amorangi o te Kotahitanga. I tangohia anō hoki e rātou ētahi wāhi o ngā tikanga a Te Whiti mā rātou. Ko tō rātou hiahia he noho i tā te Māori nei tūturu tikanga noho; kia kaua rātou e raweketia, ā, ki te whakamahi i ā rātou rawa tuku iho i taurangitia mai rā ki a rātou e te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ko ētahi o ngā amuamu i āta waitohutia ko ērā e pā ana ki ngā whakawhāititanga i te wā o te mahi patu manu; ki te tāke whenua (ngā whenua mau nā te karauna karāti, kīhai i matara atu i te rima māero i te huarahi ā-iwi), ki te tāke wīra (mō ngā waka kua whakaritea te whānui o te taea hei tāketanga), me te tāke kurī, arā, i raro i te tāke nei ka hokona e ngā mana whakahaere ā-takiwā he kara raihana e rua hereni me te hikipene te utu mō ia kurī a ngā kaiwhiwhi kurī. Tērā pea nō tētahi hui pō a Hōne Tōia i poropiti ai, mehemea ka tākehia ngā kurī, he tangata tō muri atu i tērā.

I hora whānui i waenga i te Māori te ātete i te tāke kurī, te utu rēti me te whakawhāititanga i ngā mahi patu manu tuku iho. Nō te haerenga atu o te Kaiwhakawā Takiwā, o Spencer von Stūrmer, ka tino kaha rawa atu taua āhuatanga i Te Hokianga. I meinga e tērā e hē ana kia whakamanahia te tāke kurī i reira. Ahakoa ngā pitihana o 1893 a ngā Māori o Whāngāpē, me ērā o Kaikohe o 1894, ka whakatauria e James Stephenson Clendon, te kaiwhakawā whai utu o Kororāreka (Russell), kia whakawhiu e te kaha o te ture i te pānuitanga a Paki Wī Hongi o Kaikohe i te whakatau a tōna iwi e kore rātou e utu. Ko te nuinga o te hunga nāna a Paki Wī Hongi i tautāwhi, i puta ake i ngā whānau me ngā apataki o Te Whata, he rangatira nō mua tata atu i mate ai, ā, ko te whakaaro ko Hōne Tōia anō tētahi.

Ko 1895 pea te tau i hiki ai te maha noa o Te Huihui ki ngā wāhi keri kāpia o Hauturu, e takoto mai rā i waenga o Waimā me Kaikohe. Ko te āhua nei ko te toa tonu a Hōne Tōia te wāhi whakawhiwhi taputapu mā rātou. Nā te noho piri pea a te hunga o Te Huihui i whakakaha te manawanui o tāna apataki ki te ātete i te tāke kurī. Ahakoa ngā rerenga kētanga o ngā rīpoata mō ngā moni e puta mai ana i te mahi keri kāpia, ā, he wāhi anō tō te pōharatanga ki te whakakaha i te manawanui kia kaua e utua ngā tāke, ko te āhua nei nō roto mai i tētahi whakataunga i āta whakaritea mārikatia te kaupapa kia ātetehia te ture. I ngā tau i waenga o 1896 ki 1898, puhipuhia ai te kūkupa me te pārera i te wā e rāhuitia ana, kātahi ka tāpaea ki ngā kātipa a te ture hei wero. I whainatia rātou, kīhai i utu i ā rātou tāke kurī. Ko rātou i whakapeka i hāmenetia mō aua nama, ahakoa ia rā kīhai rawa i tae ake ki te aroaro o te kōti. Ko te mahi a Hōne Tōia i taua wā he takawaenga, ehara i tērā o te amorangi. I ētahi wā ko ia tonu hei utu i ngā whaina i utaina ki ētahi. Pērā i a Paki Wī Hongi rā, i kī te iwi o Hauturu kia patua e ngā pirihimana ā rātou kurī. Heoti, kīhai rawa rātou i whawhai ina mau hereheretia ana rātou.

Nō te Hune o 1897 ka tangohia mai te mahi rēhita kurī i ngā pirihimana e Henry Menzies, he tangata nā te Kaunihera ā-Rohe o Hokianga i whakatū. Kāhore a ia i utua, ēngari i purihia e ia kotahi hereni o ia kara kurī i hokona e ia. I te 8 o Pēpuere 1897 ka toro atu a Menzies i Hauturu, ā, nāna i tuku ngā hāmene 40 te maha kia whakahaeretia i te 6 o Āperira. Tino kaha rawa atu te mōrikarika o te iwi o Hauturu me Pukemiro (te kāinga o Hōne Tōia i te awaawa o Waimā) mō tētahi turituri i tāpaea nā Menzies i kī, arā, mehemea kāhore e utua ngā nama, ka ākina rātou ki tētahi whenua e noho pūmautia ana e te huka, ā, whawhati ana ō rātou wheua i te hukapapa tio. Nā te kaha ihiihi o te hunga nei, rere ana te maha tāngata, wāhine atu, tamariki atu, ki te ngahere moemoe ai.

Ka whakamātau a Hōne Tōia ki te wawao kia hikitia ngā kēhi. Ko tāna ki a William Seon o te Kaunihera ā-Rohe o Te Hokianga, ki tōna whakaaro e kore te iwi e utu kia rata rā anō te tū a te kaunihera. Momoho ana tana tono kia hikitia te kēhi ki te 11 o Mei, whakatūria ana e ia he hui ki Pukemiro i te 28 o Āperira, ā, tonoa ana e ia he pōwhiri ki a Seon rātou ko Kātipa Alexander McGilp me Menzies mā. Kotahi rau e rima tekau ngā Māori i reira. I hoatu he kūkupa hei kai mā ngā Pākehā, ēngari kīhai i kainga nō te mea e rāhuitia ana i taua wā. I pānuitia e Rōmana Te Paehangi, he whanaunga kaumātua nō Hōne Tōia, e kore ngā tāke whenua, ngā tāke kurī me ērā atu tāke e utua e te iwi, ā, e kore e mutu tā rātou mahi puhipuhi manu. Ka mea a ia, 'Ka mate mātou i te mahi a ngā tāke nei'. Nā Hōne Tōia i whakaū, arā, ka ātete atu te iwi tēnā i te tuku i a rātou kia haria ki te whare herehere, ā, auināke ka haere atu rātou ki Rāwene me ā rātou pū. Hei tāna, e haere tahi ana rātou nō te mea he iwi rātou nōna, otirā, e kore te hunga wāhine, tamariki, tāngata whai rānei e whakamamaetia; e kore e heke te toto ki te kore rātou e tūtaki atu ki te ture. I te 29 o Āperira, tukua ana he waea i tuhia i te hui i Pukemiro i raro i te īngoa o Hōne Tōia, ki a Clendon. Ka whekori i konei ko te tikanga o taua waea he whakatū pakanga mō ngā tāke kurī me ērā atu o ngā tāke, ā, he whārona awatea te mutunga.

Nō te putanga o te rongo kua takoto he kaupapa ki te haere ki Rāwene, ka maurirere ngā tāngata whai; whakatahi ana te tokomaha ki Kohukohu, eke ana rānei i te tima, i te Glenelg. I te māpouriki o te Rātapu o te 1 o Mei ka tae ake tētahi rōpū i raro i a Rōmana ki Rāwene ki te whakaatu i a rātou ki te ture. Kīhai te rōpū i eke ki te hokotahi te rahi. Ko Hōne Tōia anō tētahi. E mau pū katoa ana, ā, e tū māmā ana ki te riri. Ko te tohutohu a Rōmana ki a rātou kia kaua te Pākehā e patua, ā, mā te whakamātau rā anō ki te mau herehere i a rātou e whakatutū te puehu. Ka kōrero atu te hanga nei a William Gittos, te mihinare Wēteriana rā, rātou ko Robert Cochrane, he kaikānataraka nō taua wāhi, me ētahi atu ki a rātou. E noho puku ana, kātahi ka mihi atu ki te katoa i runga i te wairua whakahoahoa, hāunga te ture, me te kī anō e kore ā rātou pū e pakū i te tuatahi. I runga i te whakamāherehere a Gittos rāua ko Cochrane, tahuri ana te hunga rā, hoki ana ki te kāinga.

Ko te whakautu a te kāwanatanga he tuku i tētahi hokowhitu hokoono te kaha ki te raruraru nei. Ko ngā rākau whawhai he raiwhara, ngā pū nui tautoko e rua me ngā pū pupuhi tere e rua. Mā runga mai te taua nei i ngā tima, i te Gairloch me te Hinemoa, ā, ko Rūtene Kānara Stuart Newall te kaiārahi. Ū ana rātou ki Rāwene i te 2 me te 3 o Mei. I tonoa anō te manuao o Peretānia te Torch, ā, ka tau ki waho o Rāwene mānu ai i te 4 o Mei. Nō te 5 o Mei, ahakoa te kaha o ngā kaingārahu o reira ki te wawao, ka rangatū tonu atu te hokowhitu a te kāwanatanga ki Waimā. Nā Hōne Tōia te kupu inoi i tuku kia tatari mai ngā matua i Ōmanaia, ā, kia oti rā anō i a Hōne Heke, he Mema Pāremata, te hohou te rongo, ēngari, kīhai a Newall i whakarongo. Ko te mataku, kei whakatakotohia he ngohi ki ngā puke ngāherehere i waenga i Ōmanaia me Waimā. I pakū mai ngā pū e rua, rere ana ngā matā i runga ake i ngā mātenga o ngā matua, tērā pea e waitohu kē mai ana aua puhinga kua tata mai te hokowhitu.

I te hokowhitu e whakatata haere ana ki Waimā, kua tae kē mai te waea a Heke ki a Hōne Tōia, e whakamāherehere ana i a ia kia whakaehu i tana hono, ā, kia hoki ki te kāinga i runga i te rangimārie, kātahi ka pitihana i ana whakahē ki te Pāremata. Tonoa ana e Tōia te tokorua o āna tāngata ki te whakatūpato i tana pīpī kia kaua e pupuhi. Ka whakaritea e Hōne Heke te rangaawatea, te whakahauraro o Hōne Tōia me tana iwi, ā, tangohia ana ētahi o ā rātou pū. Nō te 6 o Mei ka whakamautia tahitia a Tōia me ōna hoa tokowhā; taro ake ka whakamautia anō te hunga 11 te rahi.

I whakamau hereheretia rātou i te whare kōti o Rāwene. He karakia, he hīmene, he kōrerorero i te wā i a rātou i reira e tatari waka ana hei hari i a rātou ki Ākarana (Auckland) whakawākia ai. I tukua rātou ki tētahi hui a ngā kaingārahu o Ngā Puhi me Te Rarawa i huingia i te pō i Waimā. Ko te hiahia o ngā ngārahu kia whakakāhoretia ngā whakapae i runga i te kī taurangi ka noho pai ngā mauhere, heoti, kīhai ngā mana whakahaere i whakaae. Ka hariharia nā ki Ākarana, ki te whare herehere o Mautini (Mount Eden), ā, tae atu ana i mua i te rā o te 16 o Mei. Nō te 20 o Mei ka tū te kōti whakawā whakataki i te kōti pirihimana, kātahi ka whakawākia i te marama o Hūrae i te aroaro o E. T. Conolly o te Kōti Matua (Supreme Court). Ko te kī a ngā whakapae, i kakai ia ki te whakakoro ki te whawhai ki te Kuini, nā reira i māperetia e ia he tangata mau pū māna hei aki i tērā kia whakarerekētia ngā whakahau a te ture; āpiti atu, ko tana kakai ki te ārai i te kohikohinga o ngā tāke mā te kaha o te pū. I te takahuritanga a te hunga herehere i tō rātou hara kore ki te whai hara ki te whakapae tuarua, ka whakatārewatia te tuatahi. Ko te whiu mō Hōne Tōia me te tokowhā o rātou e pā ana ki tēnei whakapae, he whakarīrā i te whare herehere mō ngā marama 18, ā, 12 ngā marama mō ērā atu o ngā whakapae. I whakatōpūtia katoatia ngā marama nei. I whainatia ērā atu o ngā herehere, kātahi ka puritia ki te whare herehere kia tae rā anō mai te kupu a te kaiwhakaū kī taurangi.

I pau katoa te whiu o Hōne Tōia ki Mautini. Nā tētahi pirihi a ia i whakaahuru i a ia i te whare herehere, huri ana ia hei Katorika. I puta anō te ihi o tona poropititanga i te tata mutunga o tana whiu. Nāna te kī ki tana hono nā tētahi anahera te kupu ki a ia o te rā e tukua ai rātou kia haere. Te takanga o taua rā, ka tatari nā me te pahure haere o te wā, kore he rerekētanga, kātahi ōna hoa ka whakamanumanu i a ia. Ko tā Hōne Tōia ki a rātou, kia taihoa, kāore anō te rā kia tō. I te 9 o ngā hāora i te pō ka tae mai te whakaatu, ā, tukua ana rātou kia haere. Mai i te tīmatanga o te 15 o Maehe 1899, ka whakakāhoretia te whiu o te toenga o te wā e mau hereheretia ai, he whakautu pea i te pitihana o te marama o Hepetema 1898 o te 100, nuku noa atu, o ngā ngārahu whai awe o Ngā Puhi, o Te Rarawa me Te Aupōuri.

E 40 pea ngā tau o Hōne Tōia i taua wā. I ngā tau i muri i te tukunga i a ia he iti noa iho ngā rongo kōrero mōna, heoti i pūmau tonu tana tūranga amorangi i waenga i tōna iwi. I haere tonu āna mahi mō tōna hāhi. He tangata tuakiri mārohirohi, ā, e maharatia ana e āna mokopuna ina puta ana he tautohe i ngā hui me ngā tangihanga, ka meatia ki tāna i pai ai. He wā e noho ana ki Tāheke, he wā anō ki Kaikohe. E toru rawa āna wāhine. Ko Rīpeka Tīmoko o Ngāi Tāwake te tuatahi, puta ana ngā tamariki tokorima. Ko te tuarua o āna wāhine ko Keita Penekahi o Ngāti Korokoro me Te Māhurehure; 10 ngā tamariki i puta. Ko te tuatoru o āna wāhine ko Mate Rōmana; ka puta he tama, he tamāhine. Hei whakamahara i ngā tūponotanga ki a ia o 1898-‑99, ka tapaina aua tūponotanga hei īngoa mō te tokomaha o āna tamariki, mokopuna hoki. Ēngari, kāhore tētahi o āna tamariki i tapaina ki ōna īngoa katoa, ki a Hōne Riiwi Tōia. Nāna tonu te poropiti, me ka huaina pērātia te tamaiti, kāhore e nuku atu tōna pakeke i te whitu tau ka mate.

Ko tētahi pāmu e tata ana ki te roto o Ōmāpere te wāhi noho o Hōne Tōia i a ia ka taikoroheketia. I hinga mai a ia i reira i te 9 o Ākuhata 1933, ko ōna tau, e 73, 74 pea. Ko te tuarua me te tuatoru o āna wāhine e ora tonu ana me te tini tamariki, mokopuna hoki. I haria tana tūpāpaku ki Te Waimate nehu ai. Nāna te poropiti e kore a ia e whāroro kia pau rā anō ngā rā e toru i muri i tōna matenga. E mahara tonu ana āna mokopuna i tana noho torotika i tana kāwhena ā tae noa ki te rā tuatoru.

I muri iho i te matenga o Hōne Tōia, e tū tonu ana ngā hui a te whānau i te 16 o ia marama ā tae noa ki te tekau tau atu i 1960. I te haere tonu i roto i te whānau ngā ritenga i whakahaeretia i ngā hui a Hōne Tōia mai anō i te tekau tau atu i 1890, arā, te karakia, te hīmene me te hākari. I ētahi wā e rangona tonutia ana te whiowhio.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Tōia, Hōne Riiwi - Toia, Hone Riiwi', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1993. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2t45/toia-hone-riiwi (accessed 18 August 2019)