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Bennett, Frederick Augustus

by Manu A. Bennett

Biography

Ko Ōhinemutu kāinga i te tapa o Rotorua Moana te wāhi i whānau ai a Frederick Augustus Bennett (Pererika Ākuhata Pēneti) i te 15 o Noema 1871. Ko Raiha Ratete (Eliza Rogers) tōna whaea. He wahine nō te kāhui ariki o tērā manawapū o Te Arawa, nō Ngāti Whakaue. Ko tāna i tuku ai ki tana tama ko ngā tikanga me ngā whakapapa o tōna iwi. He toa hokohoko nei te mahi a tana matua, a Thomas Jackson Bennett. I heke mai ia i Airana ki Aotearoa i te tau 1849. He tino pai rawa atu tōna mōhio ki te reo Pākehā, ā, he kaimahi mātātoa nō te hāhi. Nā te mea he karanga rua nō Pererika, i whakataka ia kia tū pakari i roto i āna mahi i a ia e ora ana.

Arā a ia i Maketū e noho ana i ngā tau tōmua o tōna whanaketanga, ā, he mea iriiri i reira e Peneha (S. M. Spencer). I haere ia ki te Kura Māori o Maketū, ā, nō te hokinga atu o te whānau ki Rotorua, ka haere ia ki te Kura Māori o Ōhinemutu. Nō te tau 1883, ka riro mai i a ia tētehi karahipi hei tuku i a ia ki te Kura o Tīpene (St Stephen's School) i Ākarana (Auckland), ā, nō te tau 1884 e haere tonu ana āna mahi ako i te Kura Māori o Te Wairoa i te moana o Tarawera. Ko reira tonu te wāhi i pū mārika ai ngā mahi tāpoi, arā, ko ngā puia o Ō-tū-kapua-rangi me Te Tarata; ina koa ko te tupunga ake he hokohoko pokanoa i te waipiro te papa, ka hangā he rōpū hei whakatapu i te inu nei. Ahakoa 14 noa iho ōna tau ka noho ko Pererika te hēkeretari o taua rōpū nei me te kaiwhiringa reo mō ngā manuhiri. Ko konei tonu te wāhi i tūtaki ai a Pīhopa A. B. Suter o Whakatū (Nelson) ki a ia. Nā ōna mātua i whakaae kia heria atu e Suter a Pererika ki te Kura a te Pīhopa (Bishop's School) i Whakatū, kia haere tonu ai āna mahi ako, ā, nō muri ki te Kāreti o Whakatū (Nelson College). I konei ka whakatūria ia hei tauira tuakana, ā, hei mema hoki mō te tīma tākaro whutupaoro tuatahi. Ko āna mahi anō i taua wā, he mema waiata nō te koaea o te whare karakia nui o Whakatū, he kaiwhakaako ki te kura Rātapu, ā, he kaiāwhina anō hoki i ngā karakia ki a rātau o ngā wāhi tūhāhā.

Nō te tau 1893, ka whakaae a Pēneti ki te tūranga hei minita reimana i raro i a A. O. Williams i te mīhana Māori i Pūtiki kāinga kei Whanganui. Nā tana rika kia whiwhi ētehi atu ki ngā painga o te mātauranga, ka tīmata ia i taua wā tonu ki te kohi moni hei hanga i tētehi kura. Tau rawa ki te mutunga o te tau 1895, kua hoki anō a ia ki Whakatū ki reira whai anō ai i te mātauranga. He mea whakawahi ia hei rīkona i te tau 1896, ā, i whakaoti hoki i tana tohu paetahi mō te taha atua (LTh). Nō muri, whakawahia ana ia hei pirihi i te tau 1897. I te wā i a ia i te tūranga pirihi kaiāwhina tuarua o te Whare Karakia o te Hunga Tapu Katoa (All Saints' Church), nāna i whakahaere te koaea. Heoti, hora whānui ana te rohe o tana minitatanga ki ngā wāhi tūhāhā. Nā te awe o Pēneti i taea ai tētehi whare karakia te hanga ki Motueka, me tētehi kura ki te kokoru o Whangarae i Kaiaua (Croisilles Harbour).

I whai wāhi atu a Pēneti ki te Kotahitanga o ngā Tamariki o te Kāreti o Te Aute (Te Aute College Student's Association), arā, te kawainga o te Rōpū Taitamariki Māori (Young Māori Party) i te tekau tau atu i 1890. I haere ia ki ā rātau hui me tana whakarite anō ki te whakapau i ōna kaha haere ake nei ki te mahi mā te mīhana, ki te tautoko i ngā whāinga a te Kotahitanga ki te whakapai ake i te taha kikokiko, i te taha pūkenga, i te taha noho ā-iwi me te taha wairua o te iwi Māori.

Ko te 11 o Mei 1899 te rā i mārenatia e ia a Hana Te Unuhī Mere Paaka (Hannah Mary Park) i Motueka. He wahine nō Te Āti Awa, i kuraina i Hukarere Kura mō ngā Kōtiro Māori (Hukarere Native Girls' School). I rongo ngātahi rāua i te karanga a te Hāhi kia haere rāua ki Hua, arā ki Mangatī (Bell Block), ki roto ki Taranaki. Ko te tuatahi tonu o āna mahi he whakahaere i ētehi kōnohete hei kohi moni kia taea ai te hanga o tētehi hōro hei pokapū mō ngā mahi a te mīhana. Ko ia tētehi i whai wāhi atu i te whakatuwheratanga o te kura Māori tuatahi i Pūniho, i Taranaki, i te tau 1903. He mea whakaatu e Pēneti tana tino māia ki te haere hei kaikawe i te whakapono Pākehā ki te rohe i reira nei e taunutia ana, e mauāharatia ana te Pākehā, i muri mai i ngā whawhai o te tekau tau atu i 1860. He mea tino whakahē e ia ngā mahi hokohoko pokanoa i te waipiro, ā, ka inoi atu ki a Timi Kara (James Carroll), te minita mō ngā take Māori, kia kōkuhua he ture hei whakamutu i ngā hokonga waipiro ki te Māori hei inumanga i waho mai i ngā wāhi i raihanatia ki te hokohoko. Ko te mutunga iho o tēnei, ko Te Ture Whakatikatika i ngā Ture Raihana (Licensing Acts Amendment Act) 1904. Nā te wā me te ngoi i whakapaua e ia ki te kaupapa nei nāna i whakatū te riri i waenganui i a ia me ngā rangatira o te pīhopatanga. Nō muri tonu mai ka tukua e Pēneti tōna tūranga, ahakoa rā te tautoko mai a ngā Māori me ngā Pākehā o reira i a ia.

Ko te nekehanga tēnā o Pēneti ki Rotorua i te tau 1905, hei kaiwhakahaere mō te mīhana Māori. Mai i Rotorua ki Taupō, ā, whaka-te-tonga atu ki Tokaanu te hōrapa o tana rohe. He kohi moni anō hei hangahanga whare tana mahi tuatahi. Ka whakatūria tētehi rōpū kōnohete motuhake, ā, nā ngā moni i kohia mai i ā rātau mahi hāereere i te motu, i tū ai te whare karakia i Te Whakarewarewa me te hōro i Ōhinemutu. He mea whakaaraara haere ētehi whare karakia anō puta noa i te rohe o te mīhana. I kimihia tonutia ētehi tauira hou hei minita, ā, i te wā o te pupuritanga o Pēneti, i tonoa ētehi ki Tūranga (Gisborne) kia whakangungua ki te Kāreti o Te Rau Kahikatea (Te Rau Theological College).

Ko tētehi o aua tauira nei te kipa mō te kēhi rongonui e pā ana ki ngā moana o Rotorua. Nō te hokinga atu o Mānihera Tūmātahi ki te kāinga hararei ai i te tau 1907, ka mau ia i te kaitiaki o te rōpū kumanu, he hī ika mai nōna i te tuaone o te whenua o ōna mātua. I te whainatanga i a Mānihera ka puta ngā kōrero māia, ngā kōrero tōkeke a Pēneti ki te whakahē i te mahi tūkino a te ture, e whaina nei i tētehi tangata mō te hī ika mai i tōna ake tuaone, hopu ai i ngā ika i tukua pokanoatia ki ngā moana, kīhai hoki i whakaaetia e te hunga nō rātau aua moana. Ka uru mai ētehi atu ki te tautoko i te whakahēnga, ā, i te tau 1908, ka haria te take nei ki te Kōmihana a Taute (Stout) rāua ko Ngata. Ko te pūtake o te kēhi ko te rangatiratanga o te papa o te moana, ā, whakahauhautia ana a Te Arawa e te kōmihana kia kawea taua kēhi ki te Kōti Matua (Supreme Court). Nāwai rā, ka whakataua te take nei i runga i te whakaaro kotahi i te tau 1922, ā, whakaae noa ana te kāwanatanga kia utua ā-tautia £6,000 ki ngā kaiwhiwhi Māori mō ake tonu atu. He mea tuku te moni nei mā te Poari Kaitiaki ā-Rohe o Te Arawa (Arawa District Trust Board) e whakahaere. Ko te īngoa o tēnei poari i nāianei ko te Poari Kaitiaki Māori o Te Arawa (Te Arawa Māori Trust Board). E haere tonu nei tā rātau whakamahi i taua whiwhinga nei hei painga mō ngā iwi o Te Arawa.

Nō te Ākuhata o 1909 a Hana Bennett ka mate. O ā rāua tamariki ko Pererika Pēneti, tokotoru ngā mea tāne, tokorua ngā mea wāhine. I Tūranga, i te 14 o Tīhema 1911, ka moe wahine anō a Pēneti. He kaiāwhina pūmau tana wahine a Arihia Rangioue Pōkiha, te tamāhine a Hēmana Pōkiha o Ngāti Pikiao.

Ka pau te 13 tau i a Pēneti i Rotorua, ka hiki ki Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawkes Bay) ki te whakatutuki i ngā mahi mō te mīhana Māori. He mea whakanoho ia hei minita i Waipatu i te tau 1917. Mai i Nūhaka ki Waipāwa te nuku o tana rohe mīhana. He mea whakatū ia hei mema mō te komiti tumuaki o te pīhopatanga o Waiapu, ā, i noho hoki hei mema mō te Poari Kaitiaki o Te Aute. Puta noa i tana minitatanga he roa tonu te wā i whakapaua e Pēneti ki te whakapukapuka i ētehi pānui whakamārama me ētehi pukapuka putaputa. I tīmata mai tēnei tū mahi i Whakatū. Ko He Kupu Whakamārama me Te Pīpīwharauroa ērā. Ka whai i muri mai ko Te Kōpara, ko Te Toa Takitini, ā, taihoa ake ko Te Reo o Aotearoa. Ko tā ngā whakapukapukatanga nei he whakarato i te taura here mā reira tuku ai i ngā whakaaro, i ngā tirohanga me ngā rongo kōrero o te wā, ki ngā Māori o te Hāhi Mihingare.

Ko te kahanga mai o te awe o T. W. Rātana nō te tau 1918, te take i puta ai tētehi uauatanga mō te Hāhi Mihingare me ngā mahi anō hoki a Pēneti. I mau ia i waenganui i te matekiritanga o te Māori – nā reira nei i whanake ai te kaupapa Rātana – me te whakatoatoa o ngā tāngata whai me tō rātau Hāhi, he wāhanga nei nō taua Hāhi tana minitatanga. He mea tautāwhi nā te Hāhi Mihingare a Rātana i te tīmatanga, ēngari, nō tana pānuitanga i tōna Hāhi ake i te tau 1925, puta ana te pukuriri ki a ia me tana apataki. He mahi uaua te noho ngākau pono ki ngā kī taurangi pirihi, ā, koia tēnā te mea e tino whakamamae ana i a Pēneti me te nui noa atu o rātau.

Nō te tau 1925, ka whakatakotoria te whakaaro i te Hīnota Whānui kia whakatūria tētehi pīhopatanga Māori me tōna ake pīhopa. Koinei tētehi wāhi o te whakautu ki te whakatūranga i te Hāhi Rātana. Ko te mea nāna i pāpuni ai te nekehanga whakamua ko te take me Māori, me Pākehā kē rānei hei pīhopa. I totohe tonu te hāhi Pākehā me ōna pīhopa kia noho hei Pākehā te pīhopa tuatahi, ēngari, ko te wāhanga Māori i raro i a Apirana Ngata, e ōrite ana ki tā ērā te kaha o te totohe, i kī rātau me noho kē hei Māori te pīhopa. Ko te hua o tēnei take ko te noho weheruatanga o ngā whakaaro i waenganui i a Ngata rāua ko Pēneti, nō te mea e pai ana a Pēneti kia tukua ko tētehi Pākehā, e mārama ana ki te reo Māori, hei pīhopa. Ka pūmau tonu taua komutu rā ā tae noa ki te Hīnota Whānui o 1928. Nā taua hīnota i whakamana tētehi ture tau hei hanga i te pīhopatanga i whakaīngoatia ko te pīhopatanga o Aotearoa, ēngari, kāre ia i whakawhiwhia ki tētehi rohe pīhopatanga māna ake e whakahaere. Ko te tikanga ka meatia taua pīhopa hei kaiāwhina i te pīhopa o Waiapu.

Ko Pererika Pēneti tonu te mea i tohua. Nō te 2 o Tīhema 1928 ia ka whakatapua ko te pīhopa o Aotearoa. Ko ia te Māori tuatahi i whakatapua hei pīhopa Mihingare i Aotearoa nei. Ko tāna mahi he taute ki ngā Māori o ngā pīhopatanga katoa o Niu Tīreni i raro i te raihana whakaaetanga mai a ngā pīhopa o ia pīhopatanga. Heoti, he maha ngā pīhopa kīhai i whakaae ki te raihana i a ia. Ko tō rātau hiahia kē mā rātau tonu e whakahaere ngā mahi a te Hāhi i waenganui i te iwi Māori. He whakaepaepatanga tēnei i te whakaaro o Pēneti kia whakarerekētia ngā whakahaere o te mīhana Māori. (I noho pēnei tonu tēnei tū āhuatanga ā tae noa ki te tau 1978. Koinei te tau i raihanatia te pīhopa o Aotearoa e te pīhopa matua.)

Āpiti atu ki tana tiaki i te taha wairua, he tino tākare te urunga atu o Pēneti ki ngā mahi ā-iwi. Nāna i whakahauhau te mahi kia whakapakaritia ngā kapa haka Māori. I te tau o 1938, ka pōtitia ia hei perehitini mō te Kotahitanga o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Alliance), te rōpū e kaha tonu ana te haere o tā rātau whawhai kia whakahoungia te ture waipiro. He mema ia nō te Rōpū Reo Irirangi o Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay Radio Society) me te Karapu Rotari (Rotary Club). Ko 1938 te tau i haere ai a Pēneti ki Īnia ki tētehi hui mihingare, ā, ko reira te wāhi i āhei ai ia ki te tūtaki ki ngā mihingare Karaitiana o ngā wāhi katoa o te ao.

I Ākuhata o 1946 ka whakanuia e Pēneti te huritau 50 o tana whakawahinga. Arā a ia i te Hui o Lambeth i Rānana (London) i te tau 1948, ā, i kauwhau rawa ia i te whare monaki nui o Wehiminita (Westminster Abbey) i taua haerenga ōna. Mai i konei, ka haere atu ia ki Amsterdam, ki te whakaminenga tuatahi a te Rūnanga o ngā Hāhi o te Ao (World Council of Churches). Āpiti atu ki ēnei here o rāwāhi i runga i a ia, ko ia tētehi o te rōpū e whakatikatika haere ana i te Paipera Māori. I ūwhia ia ki te tohu CMG i ngā whakahōnoretanga o te Tau Hou o 1948. E whakatautetia ana āna mahi whīwhiwhi e te raruraru, ā, e whakahau ana kia hoatu e ia ōna pūmanawa, tōna manawanui mutunga kore, me te whakawhere i tana tāima i runga i te ngākau oha noa. Kore rawa te ngākau pono o Pēneti ki tōna Hāhi i whakarūhia, ā, i tiakina e ia te noho pūmau o tana whakapono, te hora ao whānui o ōna whakaaro, me tōna wairua āio, wairua taumauri.

O ngā tamariki 19 a Pēneti, kotahi noa te mea kīhai i tupu kia pakeke. Tokowhitu o āna tama i haina mō ngā ope taua o te Pakanga Tuarua, ā, he mea kōmihana katoa hei āpiha. He tino taiea rawa atu ngā mahi a Tāre (Charles) i a ia i te Ope Taua Māori 28 o Aotearoa (28th (Māori) Battalion). I tino pūkeke rawa atu a Pēneti kia whakawhiwhia e ia ana tamariki ki ngā tino painga ahakoa pakupaku noa ana rawa. Ko te nuinga o rātau i puta i ngā whare wānanga, ā, i whiwhi hoki i ngā tohu mātauranga. I mātātoa katoa rātau i roto i te ao tūmatanui, ā, i whakawhiwhia te nuinga ki ētehi hōnore, me ētehi tohu hoki. Ko tana tama, ko Manuhuia te pīhopa Māori tuatoru o Aotearoa.

Nō te 16 o Hepetema 1950 ka mate a Frederick Augustus Bennett i tōna kāinga i Kohupātiki, i Te Matau-a-Māui. Ka mahue mai ko tana wahine tuarua me ngā tamariki 18 te nui. He mea nehu ia ki raro ki te wāhi tapu o te Whare Karakia o Faith (St Faith's Church), i Ōhinemutu, i kō paku mai i te wāhi i whānau ai ia.


He whakaaturanga anō

Rārangi pukapuka

    Obit. Church and People. 20 Oct. 1950: 4

    Obit. Dominion. 18 Sept. 1950: 6

    Obit. New Zealand Herald. 18 Sept. 1950: 8

    Te ripoata a te Komihana mo te Kaupapa Tikanga Rua mo te Tiriti o Waitangi: the report of the Bi-cultural Commission of the Anglican church on the Treaty of Waitangi. Christchurch, 1986

    Westerman, E. J. 'The Right Reverend Frederick Augustus Bennett, CMG, Bishop of Aotearoa'. MA thesis, Canterbury, 1948


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Manu A. Bennett. 'Bennett, Frederick Augustus', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1996. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/3b29/bennett-frederick-augustus (accessed 15 August 2020)