Kōrero: Hei, Ākenehi

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Hei, Akenehi

1877/1878?–1910

Nō Te Whakatōhea, nō Te Whānau-a-Apanui; he nēhi, he kaiwhakawhānau tamariki

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Patricia A. Sargison,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1996.

Ko te īngoa o Ākenehi Hei i ētahi wā ki ōna kaitukumahi Pākehā, ko Agnes. Tē mōhio tūturutia mehemea ko 1877, ko 1878 kē rānei te tau i whānau ai ia i Te Kaha, i te pito rāwhiti o Te Moana-a-Toi (Bay of Plenty), hei uri mō tētahi o ngā tino whānau o Te Whakatōhea me Te Whānau-a-Apanui. Ko Maria Nīkora tana whaea, ā, ko Heemi Hei tōna pāpā. Nō tōna kōkā tōna taha ki a Te Whakatōhea, ki a Ngāti Pūkeko, ki a Ngāi Tai, ki a Tūhoe me Te Arawa hoki. Nō te taha ki tōna pāpā, tōna hononga atu ki a Ngāi Tawarere me Te Whānau-a-Manu. Mai i 1885 ki 1892 a ia e kuraina ana i te Kura Māori o Te Kaha (Te Kaha Native School). Atu i reira ka haere a ia ki te kura o ngā none i Ōpōtiki kura ai, ā, i muri mai ki te Kāreti o Hato Hōhepa mō ngā Kōtiro Māori (St Joseph's Māori Girls' School) i Ahuriri (Napier).

Pāpā tonu iho te awe o tōna tungāne, o Hāmiora Hei ki runga i a ia. Nā tērā ia i whakamōhio ki ngā whakaaro rangatira o te Kotahitanga o ngā Tamariki o te Kāreti o Te Aute (Te Aute College Students' Association). Nā runga i te whakahauhau a Hāmiora, ka tīmata te mahi a Ākenehi hei nēhi kaiāwhina, ā, hei kaiāwhina hoki i te rata kokoti, i te hōhipera o Ahuriri (Napier Hospital) i te tau 1901. Ko ia tētahi o ngā wāhine he mea whakaako i raro i tētahi rārangi mahi nā Hāmiora i whakahua (he mea tautoko nā Āpirana Ngata), ā, he kaupapa nā te kaitirotiro o ngā kura Māori, nā Te Pōpi (James Pope) i pīkau. Ko tā rātau mahi he ako i ngā mātauranga taketake o te mahi nēhi, kia tōtika ai tō rātau tūnga hei kaikauwhau kaiaka mō te rongopai o te hauora, ina hoki atu ana rātau ki ō rātau kāinga. Nā runga i tō rātau pai hei hoa wāhine ringaringa, ā, hei kōkā tōtika, ka taea e rātau te ātete te mana o ngā tohunga, te whakatipu ā rātau tamariki kia rite tō rātau momo noho ki tō te Pākehā, me te whakahoki atu i te toi parukore tūturu o te waiora ki ō rātau iwi. Nō te tau 1905, ka whakawhānuitia ake taua kaupapa nei kia uru mai ai ngā mahi katoa hei akoranga mā te nēhi. Koinei anō hoki te wā i tau ai a Ākenehi hei nēhi poropeihana i te hōhipera o Ahuriri. I puta ia i tana whakamātautau whakamutunga i te Hune o 1908, ā, he tino manawa reka nō te tākuta whakahaere ki ngā mahi a Ākenehi ka whakatūria a ia hei nēhi matua mō te whare pokanga.

Heoti, ehara kē te take o ngā kaupapa whakaako nēhi Māori hei whakanoho i a rātau ki roto i ngā hōhipera Pākehā, mahi ai. Kua oti kē i te kāwanatanga te whakaae i te Noema o 1907, ina mutu ana ngā wāhine Māori te whakaako, ka tukuna rātau hei nēhi takiwā mā te Tari Whakahaere Ora mō te Katoa (Department of Public Health). E anipā ana a Ākenehi kia riro mai i a ia tana tohu, ā, ka tahuri ki te ako i ngā pūmanawa o te kaiwhakawhānau i te hōhipera o Hato Erena (St Helen's Hospital) i Ōtautahi (Christchurch). Nō te Tīhema o 1908, ka puta ia i tana whakamātautau whakamutunga ki tērā kaupapa. Nā te mea e noho kore moni tonu ana te Tari Whakahaere Ora mō te Katoa hei utu i ngā nēhi Māori, ka hoki a Ākenehi ki Tūranga (Gisborne) ki reira mahi nēhi ai, mōna ake. Ko te mutunga iho ko te whakaatu mai a te Tari i tētahi tūranga mōna i Te Kao, wāhi o Muriwhenua, i te 11 o Hune 1909. Nā ngā Māori o te iwi kāinga te karanga kia tukuna atu tētahi nēhi hei whakamāmā i ngā pēhanga mai a te mate taipō piwa. E rua marama a ia i reira e mahi ana, ā, he wā anō i Kororāreka (Russell), ā, mutu rawa atu ki Rotorua mahi ai.

Nō te whakawhitinga i te kawenga mō ngā mahi hauora Māori ki te Tari Māori (Native Department) i Ākuhata o te tau 1909, kīhai a Ākenehi Hei i arongia atu. Inarā, kore rawa i hoatu tētahi mahi māna, i utua rānei mō ngā mahi kua oti kē i a ia te mahi. He wā a ia e mahi tūmataiti ana i Kororāreka me Tūranga. Ahakoa ruarua nei āna tuhinga atu ki Pōneke (Wellington), nō Noema rā anō a ia i whakawhiwhia ki tētahi tūranga i Nū Pāremata (New Plymouth). I te wā e noho pū ana ia i reira, ko ia anō hei nēhi i te hunga kāinga o Hiruhārama (Jerusalem) me Pipiriki i te awa o Whanganui.

Ahakoa pēhea te titiro ki te wahine nei, tūturu mārika ko Ākenehi te tuatahi ki te para i te huarahi mō tēnei tū mahi. Nāna i anganui ngā uauatanga o te haere i te nuku o te whenua, me te kore e pai o ngā wāhi noho i ngā takiwā mokemoke, āpiti atu ki te taumaha o ngā mahi whakahaere a tōna tari matua hei waha māna. Ki ōna rangatira, mā āna mahi hei whakaatu i te kaha o ngā nēhi Māori ki te mau takohanga i ngā mahi. Ā, i wāna anō hoki e mau nei ia i ngā tikanga me ngā whakaritenga a tōna tari, tae atu ki ngā tikanga kaikiri kua tūturu kē i roto i te nuinga o ngā rōpū Pākehā. Ārikarika ana te tautāwhi mai a ngā āpiha kāwanatanga i a ia nō te mea e aro kē ana rātau kia pakupaku noa te whakapau o ngā moni, me te kore kaha o te kāwanatanga ki te hāpai tūturu i ngā mahi hauora Māori.

Ko tētahi mea tino taumaha rawa atu ki a Ākenehi Hei, ko te whakataurite i ngā whakahau a tōna akoranga Pākehātanga ki ngā tikanga tuku iho a tōna iwi. E ai ki tētahi o āna tuhinga, me tino tūpato rawa atu kia kaua e tāwaia e ia ngā mea e whakaponohia ana e te tūroro, me te mau pūmau tonu ōna ki te mahi e whāia ana e ia hei mahinga māna. I Te Kao ka whakaaro a Ākenehi me kaha ake tana whakahau i āna tūroro, ā, me ka kore e whakarongo ki āna tohutohu, ka whakawehia e ia. Koia tēnei te take i tahuri ai te iwi kāinga ki te kairiri ki a ia. He pāhunu nui nōna, ka whakaaro a ia kua kore he painga o te noho tonu ki reira mahi ai.

Heoti, ka kaha haere ake tana pakari, ka kaha ake hoki tana mōhio ki ngā tātai hei whāinga māna. E mārama ana ki a ia, ka whakakāhoretia e āna mahi ētahi o ngā tikanga tuku iho o tua whakarere, ina hoki e mau tonu ana i ngā Māori, tae atu ki a rātau i kuraina ki te taumata o te mātauranga, ki aua tikanga nei. Heoti, hei tāna, he mea nui tonu kia puritia ētahi anō o aua tikanga nei. Nāna i kite, arā, ka whakarongo pīkari ō rātau taringa, ā, ka mau rātau ki ana tohutohu mehemea ka whiria tahitia e ia ngā uaratanga Māori me ērā a te Pākehā. I a ia i Hiruhārama i taea e ia te whakahauhau kia keria ētahi awakeri, kia nekehia ngā whare ki ngā tahataha teitei tū ai, me te whakawehe i āna tūroro ki tētahi hōhipera, he mea hanga mō te wā poto. Nā ngā iwi o Taranaki te tono ki a ia kia tū hei māngai mō rātau i te wā e tono ana rātau i tētahi hōhipera iti, whare noa nei. Nā ōna pūmanawa me tōna kaingākau ki tana mahi i taea ai e ia te turaki ngā mautohe i heipū i te tīmatanga, noho kē mai ana hei whakamaunga atu, hei whāinga ngātahi mā te Māori me te Pākehā i te whakamanatanga o te mahi nēhi mō te hauora Māori i te tau 1911.

Nō te 25 o Hūrae 1910, i tono ia kia tukuna a ia kia haere ki Tūranga, i reira rā tana irāmutu wahine e taumaha ana i te mate taipō piwa. Kāore anō ngā wiki ruarua nei i pau, ko ia tēnā e nēhi ngātahi ana i tōna tungāne me tana hoa wahine, i tana irāmutu tāne (nō Oketopa i hemo ai), me tētahi tokorua atu anō. I pāngia katoatia rātau e te taipō piwa. Nā te ruhi o te tinana me te mānukanuka anō ōna, ka pāngia hoki a ia e taua mate nei. Ka tukuna atu ki te Hōhipera o Tūranga takoto tūroro ai, ā, nō te 28 o Noema 1910 a ia ka hinga mai i reira. He wahine kiritapu taua wahine nei.

E ai ki ngā whakaaturanga mai mō Ākenehi Hei, arā, he wahine i pai te āhua, he wahine tōrire, he mea kura rawa hoki. Nā te whakaaro rangatira ki te mahi mā tōna iwi, whakapuke ana tōna ngākau i āna mahi i mahia e ia. Nā te ngākau pono me te ngākaunui o Ākenehi Hei ki tāna mahi i taea ai e ia te āwhina te iwi Māori ki te whakapai ake i ngā āhua o tō rātau hauora. E ai ki ngā iwi e rua kāore i kō atu i te parekura nui tēnei matenga tōtatatanga o Ākenehi Hei.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Patricia A. Sargison. 'Hei, Ākenehi - Hei, Akenehi', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1996. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/3h13/hei-akenehi (accessed 11 December 2019)