Kōrero: Raukura, Ēria Tūtara-Kauika

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Raukura, Eria Tutara-Kauika

1834/1835?–1938

Nō Ngāi Tahupō, nō Tūhoe, nō Ngāti Kahungunu; he tohunga Ringatū

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Judith Binney,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1996.

Ko Ēria Tūtara-Kauika Raukura te tino tohunga o te Hāhi Ringatū, te Hāhi rā i hangaia e Te Kooti Arikirangi. Nō muri i ngā pakanga i waenganui i a Ngāi Tahupō o Te Māhia rāua ko Tūhoe, ka mau hereheretia tana pāpā a Raukura. Ko tōna whaea, ko Whakatiki Te Momo (Te Moumou rānei), nō Tūhoe rāua ko Ngāti Hingāna (Ngāti Hingānga) o Te Wairoa ki uta. I whānau pea a Ēria i te tau 1834, i te tau 1835 kē rānei, ki Te Pāpuni, i te kāinga o tōna whaea i te taha whakarunga o te awa o Ruakituri; he huarahi nui tēnei e ahu whakaroto ana ki Te Urewera.

Nā ngā whawhai i Te Tai Rāwhiti i waenganui i ngā Hauhau me ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga, i te marama o Oketopa o te tau 1866, i manenetia a Ēria ki Wharekauri, arā, ko te īngoa Moriori ko Rēkohu (Chatham Islands). He mea tuku atu a ia ki roto ki te rōpū tuawhā o te hunga i mau hereheretia i Pētane (Bay View) me Ōmarunui e tata ana ki Ahuriri (Napier). Ko tētahi whakaatu āna mōna e kī ana e rima putu, e whitu īnihi tōna roa, ā, kāore i tā mokotia. Nō te marama o Hūrae o te tau 1868, i rere mai a Ēria i Wharekauri i te taha o Te Kooti. I whawhai tahi rātau me ngā hunga i mau hereheretia rā i te tuatahi o ā rātau pakanga ki ngā hōia, i ngā marama o Hūrae me Ākuhata o te tau 1868. Mutu kau ana te whawhai i te awa o Ruakituri, ka whakarērea e Ēria tana ope i Puketapu, kātahi ka haere mā tuawhenua ki Ōpōtiki. Nōna ka tae ki Te Urewera, ka hono atu anō ia ki a Te Kooti whawhai haere ai, ā, i te whawhai i Te Hāpua i te 1 o Hepetema o te tau 1871, ka oma a ia. I a Te Kooti e whakaruru ana i Te Kūiti, ko Ēria anō e noho ana i tana taha. I te tau 1881 i a ia i reira, ka iriiria a Ēria e Te Kooti hai tohunga matua mō te Hāhi hou, i ngā wai o te awa o Mangaokewa.

Hau noa ana te rongo o Ēria, arā, he tangata i tino wehitia. I whakataua ki a ia te mana mākutu, ā, e kī ana te kupu whakatūpato mōna me kauaka tana ātārangi e pā ki te tangata kai mate noa te tangata i a ia. Atu i te tau 1913 ka whakanōhia a Ēria hai kaitiaki i te whare nui, i a Rongopai i Waituhi. He mea hanga, ā, he mea peita taua whare whakahirahira rā mō Te Kooti i te tau 1887. Nō waenganui o te tekau tau atu i 1920, i reira tonu a ia e tohunga ana, e noho kaitiaki ana. He pēnei te kōrero a te iwi mōna, he tangata whanokē, he tangata hinengaro motuhake. I whakamāoritia e ia te hāhi Ringatū, anō he pūtahitanga nō ngā tikanga hāhi e rua; tuatahi, ko te whakapono o te Māori ki te atua runga rawa, ki a Io, i mauria mai rā e rātau ngā kōrero mōna i te hekenga mai i 'Kēnana'; tuarua, ko ngā whakaakoranga Karaitiana i akona i Aotearoa nei i muri i te tau 1814. I kōrerotia e ia ētahi āhuatanga o te hāhi hou nei ki a Kānara Poata (Thomas Porter), te tangata nāna i whakaputa raraupapa tana tuhinga koiora mō Te Kooti i te tau 1914; ko ētahi o ngā kōrero o taua tuhinga nā Ēria.

Nō muri i te matenga o Te Kooti i te tau 1893, ka whakaae a Ēria ki a Rua Kēnana ko ia te poropiti o Tūhoe, te mīhaia i poropititia rā e Te Kooti, hai whakaoti i āna mahi. Nō reira nō te tau 1906, nō muri i te tomokanga o Rua i te whare nui o Rongopai, e tata tonu ana ki Pākōwhai kāinga, ka iriiria a ia e Ēria i te awa o Waipaoa, tapaina ana ki te īngoa i matakitea rā, ki a Hepetipa. Kore rawa i whakaaetia a Te Kooti kia haramai ki taua whare. Nō muri, i whakamoea e Ēria a Rua ki te tokowhitu o āna wāhine 12, i runga i ngā tikanga whakahaere karakia. He wāhi nui tonu tā Ēria ki te whakahuri mai i a Tūhoe ki te whakapono hou o Rua.

Tae rawa ake ki te tau 1913, kua wehe kē a Ēria i a Rua; ahakoa i mau tonu a Ēria ki tōna wāhanga anō o te Hāhi Ringatū i raro i te īngoa tawhito o Te Hāhi o Te Wairua Tapu, me ōna karakia o mua. I Hūrae o te tau 1913, ka tīkina atu e Te Peehi (Elsdon Best) a Hēmi Makitānara (James McDonald), te kaitango whakaahua o te Whare Taonga o Aotearoa (Dominion Museum) i Pōneke (Wellington), ki te tango i ētahi whakaahua pereti-karaehe o Ēria. E waru aua whakaahua nui whakaharahara rā kei te toe, e whakaatu mai ana i te āhua o Ēria e mōhiotia ana ka rawe ki a ia. Inarā, te āhua ōna e kauwhau ana, e pānui ana i te Paipera me te tū anō o te ringa katau e tohutohu ana, ā, ko ia hoki e mau ana i ngā kākahu pirihi nāna anō i tauira – he koti poraka mangu, he whiri koura ki ngā tapa, me ngā kupu Pākehā 'Holy Church' kai ngā ringaringa. He mea tui anō hoki aua kupu ki te koura ki runga ki te kara, ēngari he mea whakamāori ki te 'Hāhi Tapu'. I tana wehenga atu i Waituhi i te tau 1915, koinei tonu ōna kākahu me te pōtae porohita mārō nei i te māhunga. Mā runga hōiho atu ia me te pāhi kirikau, pāhi wehenga rua i mua i a ia, e mau ana i ngā kōiwi o ngā kaumātua i mate i te taipō piwa; ko tāna e whakahoki ana i ngā kōiwi ki te kāinga i Waimaha me Maungapōhatu hai whakaatu ki te iwi, ā, kia tanumia anō. I oti i a ia i te tau 1930, te whakamārama ngā tūranga whakarae e whitu i roto i te Hāhi o Te Wairua Tapu: ko te poutikanga (te ūpoko), ko te ture (te kaitiaki i te ture), ko te tohunga (te kaiwhakaako i te whakapono), ko te tākuta (te tohunga whakaora i te tūroro), ko te kaituhituhi, ko te āpotoro me te kaitiaki (te kaiārai i te kino). Ko te marae o te whare o Ihowā, tana whakamārama mō te huihuinga o ngā tūranga nei, ā, ka whakataua te hāhi motuhake kia rite ki te pā.

I noho a Ēria i Te Pāpuni me Waimaha i ngā whenua o tōna whaea. I poua e ia tōna taitara ki aua whenua. He kaiwhakaatu mōhio a ia ki te mana me ngā tikanga nohoanga o te whenua, e pā ana ki te rohe e haere atu rā i te taha whakarunga o Te Wairoa ki Maungapōhatu, ina kē te nui. Nāna tonu ētahi taunakitanga i hoatu ki te Kōti Whenua Māori me ngā kōmihana a te kāwanatanga. He tautohetohe ā-kāinga te take i mahue i a ia a Waimaha i te tau 1912. I whakapaetia a ia, nā āna mahi mākutu i mate ai ētahi o rātau. Kātahi ia ka haere ki Pākōwhai, ki te marae tēneti o te iwi o reira noho ai; ko Te Miini Kerekere o Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki tō rātau rangatira. Nō te tau 1913, ka neke a Ēria ki Ngātapa ki runga ki te whenua nā Te Miini i hoatu hai nohoanga mōna. Noho ana a Ēria rātau ko te hunga i whai atu i a ia i reira, ā, he kuti hipi te mahi hai oranga. Nā rātau tahi i hanga te whare nui a Nukutaimemeha-a-Māui. I whakatūria e Ēria he whare kawenata ki te taha mō ngā Paipera me ngā tuhinga tapu. Ko te whenua i tukuna atu rā, he mea rēhita ki te īngoa o Te Whānau-a-Ēria. Mai i te 1915 ki te 1918, i uru a ia ki te pakanga auroa kia whakahokia mai te roto o Waikaremoana ki te hunga Māori nō rātau taua moana. I te petihana a te koroua nei i te Pāremata, nāna te mahi pōnānā, tae atu ki te roa o te haere, māuiuitia ana hoki ki te haere mā runga pahi, ki te tuku i ana whakaaturanga.

I moe a Ēria i a Huka Huinga o Te Ao (Ngāaikiha Te Kaaho), he wahine he torotoronga ōna ki a Tūhoe. Kāre kau ō rāua uri, ēngari tērā ētahi tamariki nā rāua i atawhai. Ko te tangata matatau rā o Tūhoe, ko John Rangihau tētahi. I mate a Ēria ki Ngātapa i te 29 o Hune i te tau 1938, ā, i tanumia ki reira. Ko te kī, 103 tōna pakeke. E rua marama i muri mai, ka mate hoki a Huka ki Ngātapa, e 90 ngā tau. He maha tonu ngā iwi e kī ana e tino tapu tonu ana a Ēria ki a rātau.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Judith Binney. 'Raukura, Ēria Tūtara-Kauika - Raukura, Eria Tutara-Kauika', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1996. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/3r5/raukura-eria-tutara-kauika (accessed 8 December 2019)