Kōrero: Stirling, Mihi Kōtukutuku

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Stirling, Mihi Kotukutuku

1870–1956

Nō Te Whānau-a-Apanui, nō Ngāti Porou; he wahine whai mana

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1996.

E ai ki ngā kōrero mai a te whānau ko te 30 o Oketopa 1870 te rā i whānau ai a Mihi Kōtukutuku i Pōhaturoa, he wāhi e tū tata ana ki Raukōkore, i te pito rāwhiti o Te Moana-a-Toi (Bay of Plenty). Ko Mihi te tamāhine tuatoru a Maaka Te Ehutū o Te Whānau-a-Maruhaeremuri (ko Te Whānau-a-Maru te īngoa poto), he hapū nō Te Whānau-a-Apanui, rāua ko tana hoa wahine, ko Ruiha Rahuta, o te hapū kai kō tata atu, o Ngāti Hinekehu. Nā ō rāua kāwai i rangatira ngātahi ai rāua; he mea taumau tō rāua mārenatanga kia pūmau ai te rongomau, me ngā paenga i waenganui i ngā hapū e rua. He uri anō hoki a Mihi nō tērā tipuna nui o Ngāti Porou, nō Mahuta-i-te-rangi. I tapaina ki taua tipuna nei te tiki kahurangi o te whānau, tinitini te wā e whakamaua ana e Mihi. He hononga anō tōna ki a Te Whānau-a-Ruataupare, he hapū nō Ngāti Porou.

I mua i te whānautanga mai o Mihi ka toromi tōna tuakana a Te Wharau i te awa o Raukōkore. I kitea te tūpāpaku i runga i tētahi toka; e tāwēwē iho ana i runga tonu ake i a ia ko tētahi kōtukutuku e kaha ana te puāwai. Hai whakamauharatanga ki te āhua o te matenga o Te Wharau, ka tapaina te tamāhine o muri tonu mai ko Keita Horowai. Ko te īngoa ake o Mihi i ahu mai i te mihi whakamutunga, i te poroporoaki rānei a te kōtukutuku rā ki te kōhine i toromi nei. I a Keita Horowai e taitamāhine tonu ana ka mate. E kīia ana he mea mākutu ngā tuākana o Mihi, ā, ko ia tonu tētahi e noho mōrearea ana. Ahakoa kua tohua kētia mai e tana tūranga matua ko ia hai rangatira ki Raukōkore, he maha tonu ngā mea o tōna iwi i hiahia kē kia riro i te tāne taua tūnga. I a ia e taitamāhine ana ka tukuna atu a ia ki ōna whanaunga o Ngāti Porou i Reporua, whakaruru ai. Ahakoa tonu rā, nō te pānga mai o te mate ki a ia, ka puta te wehi nā te mākutu i māuiui ai. Nā tētahi tohunga wahine, nā Miriama Te Manu i unu te kanga i runga i a Mihi me te tohutohu atu anō kia kaua e noho ki Raukōkore kia mārena rā anō ia, ā, kia kaua anō hoki e moe i tētahi tangata o te wā kāinga.

I whakarongo a Mihi Kōtukutuku ki taua tohutohu rā, ā, moea ana e ia a Duncan Stirling. E ai ki ngā kōrero, nā Pīhopa Rēnata Wiremu (Leonard Williams) i whakatapu tō rāua mārenatanga i te Whare Karakia Mihinare o Raukōkore i te tau 1896. I heke iho te tātai hono o Duncan i te iwi Pākehā, i a Ngāi Tahu me Ngāti Māmoe. He tohunga a Duncan ki ngā mahi a te kāmura, ā, kua aua atu kē a ia e mahi ana i roto i Te Tai Rāwhiti. I kite ngā kaumātua o Mihi i a Duncan i a ia e hanga ana i tētahi whare karakia i Te Horo. Mōhio tonu atu rātou he pai taua tangata nei hai hoa tāne mō Mihi. He meroiti tana mōhio ki te reo Māori, ā, ki ētahi o te wā kāinga o Raukōkore, he Pākehā kē a Duncan. Ko te nuinga o te iwi o Mihi nō te Hāhi Ringatū, ēngari, hai whakapūmau i te angitu o te mārena, tahuri ana te nuinga ki te Hāhi Mihinare.

Nā Duncan Stirling i hanga tētahi whare ātaahua i Raukōkore mō Mihi, he maha ngā rūma. Ko 'Stirling Castle' te īngoa o te hunga kāinga mō taua whare. Ko tana tamaiti tuatahi i whānau ki reira he tama. Ka tapaina ki a Taikorekore, tētahi tonu o ngā tīpuna rangatira, tīpuna tuākana o Te Whānau-a-Apanui. Hui katoa tekau āna tamariki. I ū tonu a Duncan ki tana umanga hanga whare, ā, taihoa ake ka tahuri ia ki ngā mahi ahu whenua, arā, ki te whakatipu kānga.

Nā te mea ko Mihi te rangatira o te wā kāinga ka taka ki a ia te tūnga matua mō ngā mahi me ngā tikanga pure o ngā wā katoa o te tau. I te tau e hopukina ana te ika e kīia nei he moki i Whanga-parāoa (Cape Runaway), e mana ana a ia kia whakawhiwhia ki te wehenga tuatahi, ā, nāna te mahi ki te tohatoha haere ki tōna iwi. He wahine tohunga a ia ki te whakatipu kūmara e ai ki ngā tikanga tuku iho. Kāti, inā kē hoki te rahi. Ko te wā o te rumaki me te hauhake o te kūmara te wā e taetae ake ai tōna iwi ki te āwhina i a ia, ēngari, kore rawa ia i whakaae kia pā he ringa kē ki ngā tipu, ā, riro ana māna tonu e tāpae ngā kūmara ki roto i te rua. He nui noa atu ngā kūmara e whakatipua ana e ia, hai whāngai māna i ngā hui nui katoa o te wā kāinga.

Hei uri hoki a ia ki a Muriwai, te wahine e kīia nei nāna i ora ai a Mātaatua waka e tahia kētia ana e te tai ki ngā toka ki Whakatāne, ka noho ko Mihi Kōtukutuku tētahi o te kāhui iti o ngā wāhine o tōna whakatipuranga e whai mana ana ki te tū ki te marae i tōna rohe ake, kōrero ai. I whakatakahia a Keita, te tuakana o Mihi, mō taua tūnga, arā, i akona ki ngā whakapapa me ngā tāhuhu kōrero o tōna iwi. Nō tana hinganga, ka riro i a Mihi tana tūnga. Kīhai i nui ngā wā e tū ana a ia ki te kōrero, ēngari, i tahuri kē a ia ki te whakahaere i ngā wāhine hai rōpū waiata mā ngā wāhine e tū ana ki te whaikōrero. E whia kē nei ngā waiata i mau i a ia, ā, i ētahi wā ko ia tonu i te tito i āna waiata. Ēngari, nā te mea ko ia te kanohi rangatira o tōna iwi i ētahi o ngā hui nui, i mōhio tonu a Mihi ki te here i runga i a ia kia tū ki te kōrero.

E ātetetia ana e ērā atu o ngā ngārahu ā-iwi te mana o te wahine ki te tango i te tūranga e tika kē ana mō ngā kaumātua tāne. Nā te tūranga rangatira o Mihi i whakaputa ētahi āhuatanga hai whakararuraru i a rātou. Ko Te Pairi Tūterangi o Tūhoe tērā ka tū ki te wero i te mana o Mihi ki te kōrero i Te Waimana. I pērā anō a Mita Taupopoki o Te Arawa i tētahi tangihanga i Ōhinemutu i te tau 1917. Hau ana tōna rongo i roto i te ao Māori mō ngā whakawhitinga kōrero i waenganui i a rāua. I kī atu a Mita ki a Mihi kia tau ki raro, ā, kia kaua e takatakahi i te kawa o tōna marae. Ko te whakautu a Mihi ki tērā ko te tātai mai i tōna whakapapa i a Tamatekapua o Te Arawa waka, ka kī, ka teina kē a Mita ki a ia. Ko tana huringa atu tēnā i tana tuarā kātahi ka whakapohane atu me te kī atu kia kaua a ia e whakaiti i te wahine, i te mea, i puta mai ia i ngā kūwhā o te wahine.

Tinitini ana te wawaotanga a Mihi i ngā tikanga tuku iho. Nā te mea he whakautiuti te whakangungu i a ia ki ngā tikanga o te tapu me te noa, koirā te take i kaha ai tana tiaki kia kaua rawa aua tikanga e takatakahia. I Rangitukia kāinga i te ngutuawa o Waiapu ka kitea e Mihi ngā rīhi me ngā kai i roto i te whare nui. Nā tana kaha weriweri ki tēnei tū āhua ka porohuritia e ia te katoa, ka huri ki te riri i te tangata whenua me te kī atu, arā, kāore a Te Whānau-a-Apanui i pupuri i tēnei tikanga i te kai i te tapu o ō rātou tīpuna.

I te tata paunga o te tau 1919 ka pāngia a Mihi Kōtukutuku e te mate pukupuku ū. Ka haere tahi atu rāua ko tana hoa tāne i te haerenga roa ki te kāinga o Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana i Rātana Pā, e tata ana rā ki Whanganui. I taua wā nei kua eke a Rātana ki te taumata rongonui o te tohunga whakaora mate. Nā Rātana a Mihi i whakatapu, ā, atu i taua rā i hua ai te whakapono o Mihi kua ora tana mate; ngaro tonu atu te koropuku rā. E whia tau kē nei i muri ake ka hoki mai anō taua mate, ā, koinei rā te take i hemo a ia.

Ko Mihi Kōtukutuku tonu tētahi o ngā rangatira whai whenua i te takiwā ki Raukōkore. I te wā o te rau tau o 1800 ki 1899 ka kokorahotia e tana pāpā, e Maaka Te Ehutū te katoa o taua rohe. Nō te Hānuere o 1919, i te tirohanga anō i ngā taitara whenua o Raukōkore i te Kōti Whenua Māori, tū ana ko Eruera Kāwhia Whakatāne Stirling, tana tama tuarua, hai kaihāpai mō ana pānga. I tukuna e te kaiwhakawā te nuinga o aua whenua rā ki a Mihi. Ēngari, he whakaaro rangatira nōna i whakaurua e ia ētahi atu o ngā whānau o te wā kāinga ki ngā taitara o aua whenua. Ko ia te kaiwhaipānga nui o te poraka o Tawaroa, ā, i te whakatūtanga i te Kaporeihana o Tawaroa (Tawaroa Incorporation) i te tau 1917, ko ia tonu tētahi o ngā kaipuri hea rahi. He pai ngā hua moni i puta i te rīhitanga i a Tawaroa ki a J. S. W. Nielson. Taka rawa ki 1924, ko Āpirana Ngata tēnā e whakahauhau ana i ngā kaipuri hea kia whakamahia a Tawaroa hai punga, kia taea ai te tango mai tētahi pūtea taurewa i te Poari Takiwā Whenua Māori o Waiariki (Waiariki District Māori Land Board). I whakamahia taua pūtea taurewa nei hai hanga i te wheketere miraka o Te Kaha (Te Kaha Dairy Factory). He maha rātou ōna i tahuri ki te miraka kau, ā, he roa tonu te wā i noho ai ko te haki kirīmi te pūtake o tō rātou oranga.

Nā Mihi Kōtukutuku a Āpirana Ngata i tautoko i āna mahi ahu whenua katoa i runga i te ngākau aroha noa. I ngā wā e toro atu ana a Ngata i te rohe o Te Whānau-a-Apanui, kai te taha tonu o Mihi tōna kāinga noho. I te wā o te Pakanga Tuatahi, i a Api e kohi moni ana hai whakangao ki runga i ētahi whenua mō te Rōpū Māori Paionia o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Māori (Pioneer) Battalion) e hoki mai ana ki te wā kāinga, ka tāpaetia atu e Mihi ngā moni hua rīhi o ētahi o ōna whenua me te tohutohu atu i a Ngata kia pānuitia nā Te Whānau-a-Apanui taua moni. Nāna i whakaae tana hoa tāne me tā rāua tama tuarua, me Eruera kia whawhai i ngā hui tōrangapū mō te taha ki a Ngata. Nō te hurihanga o Eruera ki te rōpū Reipa mō tētahi wā poto, kāore i tukuna e Mihi tana hōro hai wāhi mō ngā hui tōrangapū a tana tama.

I noho pūmau tonu te whakaaro nui o Mihi ki a Ngata i ngā wā o te pai, o te kino hoki. Nō muri tata tonu mai i te matenga o te tama mātāmua a Mihi i te tau 1939, ka whakawherehia a ia e Ngata kia hoatu i tētahi pūtea hai tuarā i te whakairohanga i a Tūkākī, te whare nui o Te Kaha, ahakoa te pai kē atu ki a Mihi ko tōna ake whare nui, ko Hine Mahuru, i te marae o Wairuru e tū ana, kia whakairohia i te tuatahi. Pōuriuri ana te ngākau o Mihi i te mamae i te ngaronga o te tūru Pāremata o Ngata i te tau 1943. Heoi anō, kāore a ia i mau ohorere, nā te mea hoki kua oti kē i a ia te matakite te timunga o te tai o ngā mahi angitu a Ngata. I te wā o te māuiuitanga whakamutunga o Ngata, ka toro atu a Mihi ki te kite i a ia. Nāna te tono ki a Mihi kia waiatatia katoatia e ia ngā mōteatea e tika ana kia waiatatia i tana tangihanga. I te taenga mai o taua wā, arā, i te tata paunga o te Hūrae o 1950, ā, hai whakatutuki i tana ōhākī, ka takina mai e Mihi a Te Whānau-a-Apanui ki runga i te marae o Waiomatatini.

Puta noa i te wā e ora ana a ia i mahi tūao ai a Mihi mā te iwi o tōna rohe. Hai whakamihi i a ia mō āna ake mahi ki te āwhina i tōna iwi, me ērā a tōna pāpā i mua atu i a ia, ka whakawhiwhia a Mihi e te whare kīngi o Buckingham ki tētahi mētara me te tiwhikete i te wā o te koroneihana o Hōri Te Tuarima i te tau 1911. Ko te tau 1953 te wā i tūtaki ai a Mihi ki a Kuini Erihāpeti i Rotorua. He mihi nui ki a Mihi i taua tūtakitanga mō āna mahi hauora me te toko i te ora, mō tana tautoko i ngā mahi ahu whenua me te whakatōtika ake i ngā whare noho o te iwi Māori.

Nō te 14 o Noema 1956, ka hinga mai a Mihi Kōtukutuku i Raukōkore. Ka ora tonu te hoa tāne, ā, tokoono ā rāua tamariki i mahue ora tonu ana. He tira nui tō Te Arawa nā Kepa Ehau i taki mai ki tana tangihanga. E whia kē nei ngā kupu kangakanga i utaina e Ehau ki runga i te rua kōiwi o Mihi hai utu mō ngā whakawhitinga kōrero i waenganui i a rāua ko Mita Taupopoki i ngā tau e tata ana ki te 40 ki muri. Kātahi te mea rerekē, ēngari ko te whakatairanga kē i te tūranga teitei o Mihi te tikanga o aua kupu āna. I tāpuketia a Mihi ki te urupā o Moutara i Raukōkore i te 17 o Noema 1956.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Stirling, Mihi Kōtukutuku - Stirling, Mihi Kotukutuku', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1996. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/3s36/stirling-mihi-kotukutuku (accessed 21 August 2019)