Kōrero: Stowell, Henry Matthew

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua

Stowell, Henry Matthew

1859–1944

Nō Ngā Puhi; he kaiwhakamāori, he tohunga whakapapa

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e P. J. Gibbons,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1996.

E ai ki te kōrero tonu a Henry Matthew Stowell – ko tōna īngoa Māori ko Hāre Hongi – nō te 4 o Pēpuere 1859 a ia i whānau ai ki Te Waimate (Waimate North) i Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands). Ko te tama ia a John Shephard Stowell rāua ko Hūhana (Susan), te tamāhine toto rangatira a Rīmaumau (Maumau) o Ngā Puhi. He kaikani rākau te mahi a te pāpā o Hāre Hongi, ā, i whakawhiti mai ia i Amerika ki Aotearoa nei noho ai. Ko te kura o Panēra (Parnell) i Ākarana (Auckland) te kura tuatahi o Hāre Hongi Stowell. Ko te āhua nei, nā runga i te akiaki a Kāwana Hōri Kerei (George Grey) ka meingia a ia kia haere ki te Rōpū Māori Wēteriana (Wesleyan Native Institution) i Te Tātua (Three Kings), kura ai. I kitea i reira tōna kaha ki ngā mahi a te kaiako, me tōna toa ki ngā kaiwhakataetae tākaro. Nō muri mai ka tīmata tana mahi mā tētahi ope rūri i Te Tai Tokerau. Otirā, ko te mea whakahirahira rawa atu i pā ki a ia i te wā o tōna taiohitanga, kāti pea pau noa ōna rā, ko te wā i noho ai ia ki Waitaha kāinga e tata atu rā ki Ahipara. He roa paku atu i te tau a ia i reira e whakaakona ana e te tohunga rā, e Ngā Kuku Mumu ki ngā tikanga Māori. Hei kōrero mā Hāre Hongi i muri mai, ko Ngā Kuku tonu te mea tuatahi o ōna kaiwhakaako, noho tonu ko ia tōna koroua tino whakahirahira. Haere ake nei matatū tonu a Hāre Hongi, kia mau i a ia ngā toi kōrero tūpuna a te Māori, arā, ngā pūrākau, ngā whakapapa, tae atu ki ngā kōrero pūtaiao e pā ana ki te ao tukupū.

He wā roa tonu nei a Hāre Hongi e kani rākau ana i te rohe o Mangakāhia. He mea whakawhaiāipo e ia a Ellen, te wahine a tōna tuakana, a Hāmuera (Samuel), ā, nō te marama o Noema 1886 ka whānau tā rāua tama ki Ākarana, he mea tapa ko Hector Arthur Ngāpua Stowell. Kātahi a Hāre ka noho mai ki Waiwhetū, i Te Awakairangi (Hutt Valley) i Te Whanganui-a-Tara (Wellington). I te whakamanatanga i a ia hei kaiwhakamārama reo ki te Kōti Whenua Māori i te tau 1888, i pū tōna mātauranga reorua. I tētahi haerenga ōna ki Taranaki, ka tūtaki rāua ko Mary Rachel Robson, te tamāhine a te kaikani rākau, a James Robson rāua ko Mere Ngāmai. Ko Mary Harrison anō te īngoa o Ngāmai, ā, he whanaunga tata ia ki a Te Wharepōuri o Te Āti Awa. Nō te 27 o Hūrae 1891 i mārena ai rāua i Ngaere, e tata atu rā ki Stratford. I te tekau tau atu i 1890, me ngā tau tōmua tonu o te tekau tau atu i 1900, i noho rātou ko tōna whānau (tokowhitu katoa āna tamariki) ki Te Hāwera. He hāereere tonu te mahi a Hāre Hongi, i āna mahi kaipakihi, kohi mōhiotanga haere rānei i ngā tohunga Māori. Hei whakarangatira tonu māna i ōna tūpuna o Ngā Puhi, i te wā nei ka tīmata tana mau ake i te īngoa Hāre Hongi hei īngoa mōna; oti ana hoki i a ia te tā ētahi pānui kōrero, me ētahi whiti kōrero tino whakapaipai nei. Nā reira nei ētahi o ngā mema kāwanatanga i whakamīharo ki te hōhonu o tōna mōhiotanga, ka akiakina tonutia atu a ia e ngā āpiha kāwanatanga kia kohia ngā kōrero tūpuna, pakiwaitara hoki a te Māori. Nō te tau 1908 a ia i whakatūria ai hei karaka rangitahi, hei kaiwhakamārama reo hoki mō te Tari Māori ki Pōneke (Wellington). Nō te tau 1913 i whakatūturutia ai tāna noho i ēnei tūnga. I te whakahaerenga i te kēhi whakawā i a Rua Kēnana i Ākarana i 1916, i tino whakahīhī mārika tonu a Hāre Hongi i te rironga i a ia o te tūnga reo kaiwhakamārama me te tūnga kaiwhakaatu mō te taha o te ture.

Nā te mea he tapu ngā tikanga Māori, kīhai a Ngā Kuku Mumu i whakaae kia tuhia e Hāre Hongi Stowell āna tohutohu atu ki a ia. Hei aha koa i whakapono tonu a Hāre Hongi, he take tēnei hei mahi māna, arā, ki te whakatikatika i ngā kōrero parau a te tangata. He nui tonu āna pānui kōrero i tuhia ki te pukapuka pūrongo kōrero, ki te Journal of the Polynesian Society a te Rōpū Poronihiana, atu i te tau 1893 ki 1923. Ko te kiko o āna tuhituhinga me āna pānui ki ngā nūpepa, he whakahē kē i te momo whakatakoto o ētahi o ngā kōrero tuku iho mō ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Kāore i rerekē ake ōna whakaaro i ngā korero i pānuitia e Te Mete (Percy Smith) me ērā anō o ngā pūkenga Pākehā, mō te taenga mai o te tāruru waka ki Aotearoa nei i te tau 1350. Inarā tā Hāre Hongi, he kōrero teka ā rātou kōrero. Kāore i mahue i a ia te kaha whakahē i ngā kōrero a te kairīpoata, kaitito kōrero rā a Hēmi Kāwana (James Cowan), nō te tau 1913 i moe rā ia i te mea pakeke o ngā tamāhine tokoono a Hāre Hongi, ko Eileen tōna īngoa. E ai ki a Hāre, kāore i tika kia karangahia a Kupe he kaiwhakatere waka; he atua pohewa kē a Kupe, he atua puia rānei. Ki tāna anō, ka hia mano tau kē te roa o te iwi Māori e noho ana ki Aotearoa nei; ā, hei mea anō māna, he para toenga mai noa a Aotearoa nō te whenua rawhaki o Hawaiki, he wā anō i whiti rawa atu i te pae o te ao, e whenua katoa ana. Kore rawa i whakaaetia e te nuinga o te tangata āna kōrero.

Nō muri i tōna tukunga i tōna tūnga i te Tari Māori i Mei o 1921, ka noho tonu ia hei reo kaiwhakamārama, ā, i whakaakona hoki e ia te reo ki ngā Pākehā i hiahia kia akona. He mea tūtohu nāna tana pukapuka ake, ko te Māori–English tutor and vade mecum, hei pukapuka mahi mā rātou, nāna rā i tā i te tau 1913. Ko Reiri Arihi Whēkihana (Alice Fergusson) tana tauira tino rangatira; ko ia te hoa rangatira o te Kāwana Tianara i ngā tau mātāmuri o te tekau tau atu i 1920. Nāna anō i whakahaere ētahi kauhau mō ngā tikanga Māori, i pāho hoki i te tikanga o ngā īngoa Māori tūtakiwā i runga i te reo irirangi, tae atu ki te momo whakahua anō i aua īngoa. He mea tuhi anō e ia ngā kōrero mō ngā īngoa tūtakiwā Māori i pānuitia ki tētahi makahīni motokā. Ka ruarua nei āna waiata i tukua atu e ia ki a Āpirana Ngata, hei whakauru ki roto ki Ngā Mōteatea. Mahue ana i a Ngata te whakamahi aua waiata rā. Nō te whakapukapukatanga rawatanga i te wāhanga tuatoru me te wāhanga tuawhā, kātahi anō ka kitea ētahi o āna waiata.

I ngā tekau tau e rua atu i 1920, i Pōneke nei, tuputupu ai te rongo o te hārakiraki o te hanga tū o Hāre Hongi Stowell. Inarā, te pūhutihuti me te mā o ngā makawe, te kikorangi o ngā whatu, te tāroaroa o te hanga, te paipa i te waha, he pāhau te kanohi, me tana kāmeta mau haere tonu e pūhia ana e te hau kaha o Pōneke. Kite atu ana te tangata i a ia, tere mōhio tonu ko wai. Waihoki nā tana whanonga i tiro mākututia a ia e te tangata: he tangata māhorahora, he tangata harakoakoa ia (ēngari hūmārika ana i ngā wā katoa), ā, mehemea ia kei ngā karapu me ngā pāparakāuta e kōrero ana, he tinitini te wā, he pārekareka, he tāwhai kē tana momo whakahua i te kōrero mō āna mahi o mua. Otirā, e mau tonu ana te koi o tōna hinengaro: i te tau 1939, e 80 ōna tau, ka āwhinatia e ia ngā kairapu whakaaturanga ki te rangahau i te pukapuka rau tau, whakamahere rohe whenua tuku iho e whakaarotia ana kia pukapukatia. Nāna anō hoki ngā kōrero mō ngā rohe ā-iwi, mō ngā hononga iwi hoki o Te Tai Tokerau. E hia tau kē nei rāua ko tana wahine a Rachel e noho wehe ana, ā, nō te tau 1939 i mate ai i Nū Pāremata (New Plymouth). Nō te tōmuringa o ōna rā he hoa wāhine ruarua nei ōna i tūhono, i piri tonu ki a Hāre Hongi. Nō te 23 o Maehe 1944 i mate ai ia ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara.

Ahakoa raihanatia a Hāre Hongi Stowell hei kaiwhakamāori, he kaiwhakamārama kē te whānuitanga atu o āna mahi. Ko ia tētahi o ngā tāngata o Aotearoa nei o te rau tau atu i 1800 ki 1899, tūturu mārika ana he tangata kākanorua. Māmā noa iho ki a ia te haere i waenga, i roto rānei i te hunga Māori me te hunga Pākehā. I Ākarana anō ia i tētahi wā, arā i Ōrākei e taki ana i tētahi koaea Māori e waiata ana i te waiata nei, i 'Little brown jug'. Ko Hāre Hongi tonu i te whakatangi i tana wairingi, me taki mai mai i te kapa waiata nei. I te whakamāoritanga a te hunga rā i te rangi o te waiata, i whānau ake he waiata poi hou. Tino hari koakoa ana a Hāre Hongi ki ngā mahi a ōna hoa. Ahakoa he mea pakupaku noa tēnei, ko tōna tikanga kē, he whakaatu mai i ngā mahi a te hunga pērā i a Hāre Hongi rā, e para ana i te huarahi atu ki ngā tikanga ahurei o tēna iwi, o tēna iwi.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

P. J. Gibbons. 'Stowell, Henry Matthew', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1996. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/3s38/stowell-henry-matthew (accessed 18 August 2019)