Kōrero: Tarakawa, Takaanui Hōhaia

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Tarakawa, Takaanui Hohaia

1852–1919

Nō Tapuika, nō Ngāti Rangiwewehi, nō Ngāi Te Rangi; he tohunga, he tumu kōrero, he kaitātai whakapapa, he kaituhi

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Paul Tapsell,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1996.

E ai ki āna ake whakaatu, i whānau a Takaanui Tarakawa i te tau 1852. Ka moe tōna pāpā a Te Ipututu Tarakawa i a Te Whakaumata, arā anō tōna īngoa ko Patumoana, nō Ngāi Te Rangi. Ko ia tētehi o ana wahine tokotoru, tokowhā rānei. Ki tā Takaanui i mōhio ai nō te tau 1827 i mārenatia rāua, ēngari ko te āhua nei, nō te 1850 i tino whakatapua tana hononga e Te Wiremu (William Williams) i roto i te tikanga Karaitiana i Tūranga (Gisborne). Nō taua wā tonu i iriiria ai a Takaanui, me ōna pakeke, tae atu ki ōna tuākana tokotoru me ōna tuāhine tokorua hoki: mauria ake ana e Te Ipututu Tarakawa a Īhāia hei īngoa iriiri mōna, ko Ana tō Te Whakaumata, ko Hōhaia tō Takaanui. Ka mutu ngā rīriri o te wā i te tekau tau atu i 1860, ka haere a Takaanui ki Te Puke whakatipua ai e te iwi o tōna pāpā, e Te Arawa.

He kāhui whai mana ngā pakeke o Takaanui Tarakawa i te takiwā o Te Moana-a-Toi (Bay of Plenty). Nō ngā whawhai nui o roto o tēnei rohe i ngā tau tīmatanga o te rau tau tekau mā iwa, i hou ai te rongo o Te Ipututu Tarakawa mō te toa ki te riri. Nō Tapuika tōna koroua a Ngāuru‑o-te-rangi (Rauru-o-te-rangi rānei), ā, hei pāpā tonu hoki tēnei ki tōna ake matua. Ko tōna kuia ko Te Ao-kapurangi, he wahine tapairu rongonui nō Tapuika me Ngāti Rangiwewehi. Ko ngā tungāne o Te Ao-kapurangi, ko Te Kōhuru rāua ko Te Waro he tohunga tino tapu. I roto i ngā whakaakoranga i a Takaanui ki ngā tikanga a Te Arawa, mō ngā kōrero tuku iho me ngā mahi a ngā tūpuna, koinei te hunga nāna ia i ako. Tērā anō te whakaaro, nā ngā mihingare ia i ako ki te kōrero pukapuka i te reo Māori me te tuhituhi i taua reo. Ā mate noa ia, mau haere tonu ana tōna mōhio pai ki te kōrero pukapuka me tōna kaha ki te whai i te mātauranga.

Ko te whakapae, i moe pea a Takaanui i a Ngārōria o Ngāti Whakahemo, ēngari kāore rāua i whiwhi uri. Tokorua ana irāmutu wāhine nāna i whakatipu, arā, ko Hīpera (Hēpera rānei) rāua ko Pīrangi; kei roto i ngā whakapapa o Takaanui e whakaatu ana hei tamāhine kē ēnei māna. Ahakoa rā nāna tonu a Pāora Tongariro i whakatipu hei tama māna, arā, ko Pāora Rangipaturiri anō tōna īngoa.

Nō te tekau tau atu i 1880, ahakoa e ora tonu ana tōna pāpā me ōna tuākana, i riro nā Takaanui Tarakawa i hautū ngā whawhai a tōna whānau me tōna hapū ki te Kōti Whenua Māori. I te wā i pakangatia te poraka o Whakauma e tata ana ki Te Puke i ngā tau 1884 ki 1891, nāna te kerēme a tōna whānau i kōkiri. He mea kerēme e Takaanui te whenua i runga i te kaupapa he mema ia nō Ngāti Ngāuru, he hapū nō Waitaha. Kāti, kore rawa ia i whakaae ki te hono atu i tana kēhi ki ērā anō o Waitaha, kōkiri i a Ngāti Rereāmanu, i a Tapuika me ērā anō o ngā kaikerēme. Nā te mea ko te whenua e nōhia tūturutia ana e tō rātau whānau e tata atu ana ki Te Puke te take i kōwhiringia ko Waitaha tō rātau kāwai heke, ehara i a Ngāti Rangiwewehi, i a Tapuika rānei. I āhei rātau ki te puri i ō rātau pānga i ētehi o ngā poraka, tae atu ki te poraka o Te Puke, ēngari nō te tukunga o te whenua o Whakauma ki Waitaha, mahue atu ana te whānau o Tarakawa ki waho.

Nāwai rā kua tino tohunga a Takaanui Tarakawa hei kaiwhakaatu ki te Kōti Whenua Māori, ā, auau tonu te tono a ngā kaiwhakawā i a ia puta noa i Te Moana-a-Toi, ki te tuku whakaaaturanga, tae atu ki ērā wāhi pērā i Ōtorohanga i te Rohe Pōtae. Nā te waia ōna ki ngā mahi whakarite whenua, mahi atu hoki i te taha o ngā kairūri me ngā rōia, ka tohunga kē atu ia; auau tonu tana whakahaere i ngā kēhi a ētehi atu, ā, nō muri i te huringa ki te rau tau rua tekau, ko tētehi wāhi o tana oranga nō mai i a ia e tū ana hei kaiwhakahaere Māori.

Ko te āhua nei, i a Takaanui Tarakawa e mahi ana i te taha o te hunga rūri whenua, ka tūtaki ia ki a Te Mete (S. Percy Smith), i whakatūria rā hei kairūri matua i te tau 1889, ēngari kua tīmata kē tana whakaaro ki te whakatū i te Rōpū Porinihiana (Polynesian Society). Mai i te tau 1893, i taikaha rawa te tuhituhi reta a Takaanui ki a Te Mete me te tuhi kōrero hoki i roto i te pukapuka a te Rōpū Porinihiana (Journal of the Polynesian Society). Nō te tau 1893, ka puta tana pukapuka tuatahi i te reo Māori, 'Ko te hoenga mai o Te Arawa, rāua ko Tainui i Hawaiki', i whakaīngoatia e Te Mete ki te taitara Pākehā, 'The Coming of Te Arawa and Tainui Canoes from Hawaiki to New Zealand'. Nā Te Mete anō hoki i whakamāori, i tuhituhi ngā whakamārama. He whakaatu tō ngā kōrero nei i te wehenga me te taenga mai o ngā waka, i ngā wāhi whakanohonoho haere o te mauri, tae atu ki ngā kāinga i nōhia e ētehi o ngā tūpuna o runga mai i ngā waka. I pā anō hoki ngā kōrero a Takaanui ki ngā pakanga ki te rohe o Maketū, i te wā e ora tonu ana tana tūpuna koroua a Te Moemiti.

I kitea tonutia atu te momo mahi o Takaanui rāua ko Te Mete i runga i ā rāua tuhituhi ki a rāua. Ko ngā pepa tuhituhi, ko ngā pene me ngā pene rākau he mea hoatu e Te Mete. Auau tonu te tono atu a Takaanui kia tukua mai anō ētehi, ā, kāore i taea e Te Mete te whakangata tana hiahia pepa; mutu rawa ake, kua tahuri kē a Takaanui ki te mahi i muri tonu o ngā pānui tawhito o Te Kāhiti o Niu Tīreni, tae atu ki ngā pānui o te k­­ōti whenua, i runga rānei i ngā kape whakaatu ture whenua Māori, hei wāhi tuhi mōna. Ko ngā kōrero a Takaanui, i tuhituhia e ia kia rahi tonu, pūkoni hoki, ēngari ka haere te wā kua pai haere tana tuhi. Ko tā Te Mete he mahi ki te whakatauira i tā Takaanui, ki te wehewehe haere i ngā kupu me te whakauru i ngā pīwhaotanga. I mau tonu rawa ia ki te tāhuhu o ngā kōrero Māori a Takaanui i te tāinga o āna mahi, ahakoa anō ngā wāhi takitahi i whakarerekēngia e ia e pā ana ki te whakauru i te kupu pūmau hei whakakapi mō te kupu pūnoa; he wā nei kua kore ia e kaha ki te whakaatu i ngā kōrero e tino hāngai pū ana ki te mahi ai i ngā whakahaerenga o te kawa. Kei roto i ngā kōrero Pākehā anake ngā tuhinga whakamārama a Te Mete. I ētehi wā, ko te pūtake o āna kōrero whakamārama, ko ōna mōhiotanga tonu, ā, i ētehi wā anō, ka tīkina atu e ia anō i ērā o ngā mana pūkōrero. Ēngari ko te nuinga o te wā, e hāngai kē ana ngā whakamārama a Te Mete ki ngā whakahokihoki kōrero mai a Takaanui ki ana patapatai, ki ana tono whakamārama rānei mō ētehi o ngā take.

Ngākaunui rawa atu a Takaanui i tana mahi i ngā kōrero o neherā. I ētehi wā i komeme tonu a ia mō te wā poto ki te tuhituhi pukapuka, nō te mea hoki e pau kē ana ngā rā o te wiki i ana mahi umanga, mahue ake ko ngā Rāhoroi anake e wātea ana. Ahakoa ōna raruraru pōkeka i ngā mahi whakahaere whenua, ko tāna i kī atu ki a Te Mete, aua atu ērā raruraru, ka nui kē atu ki a ia āna mahi tuhituhi. He mataku nōna kei te ngaro haere te Māori, koirā i kaikā ai ia kia mau tonu ngā kōrero o nehe rā. Kore rawa ana koeke i whakaae, he rerekē ngā kōrero o nehe a tēnā waka, a tēnā waka, puta noa; koinei te take i hiahia ia ki te whakawhitiwhiti whakaaro ki te iwi kē mō ngā āhua hōhonu rawa atu o tēnei momo mātauranga. I pūmau kaha ia ki te kōrero tahi ki ngā tohunga o ētehi atu rohe mō te taha ki ngā whakapapa, mō te wāhi i ahu mai ngā waka me ērā atu āhuatanga. He kore nō ōna whakaaro i ngata i te mahi tuhituhi noa, e hia nei ana tononga atu i ngā tau 1893 me te 1894 ki a Te Mete me ērā atu mema o te kaunihera o te Rōpū Porinihiana, kia noho ngātahi rātau, kōrero kanohi ki te kanohi, ki te whakamārama i ētehi o ngā take e pōraruraru ana. Kāore i taea e ia, e te rōpū rānei te kite he moni hei whakatutuki i te take nei.

Ka mataku ētehi o ngā pakeke me ngā tohunga ki te mahi a Takaanui ki te tuhituhi i ngā kōrero e tapu kē ana. Ko tā rātau, he pai kē te waiho kia ngaro, tēnā i te riro i te hoko, ka memeha noa iho te tapu. Nā Takaanui tonu a Te Mete i ohiti kia kaua e pānuitia e utua ana te tangata mō ngā kōrero ā-iwi, kei noho kē ngā toi kōrero atua hei pūnga kai, ēngari kāre rawa ia i āwangawanga iti noa nei kei akona e Te Mete ngā kōrero muna rā. Auau tonu tana tono ki a Te Mete kia tūpato i ana tā i ngā whakapapa; inarā me ka hē ana ko Takaanui kē ka raruraru i tōna iwi.

I te tau 1894, ka puta ngā kōrero a Hāre Hongi Stowell i roto i te pukapuka a te Rōpū Porinihiana e whakahē ana i ngā mahi a Takaanui. Ko Hāre Hongi tonu tētehi i whakaaro he pai kē atu mehemea i waiho kia takoto ngaro noa ētehi o ngā kōrero i tuhia e Takaanui. Whakahokia ana e Takaanui ngā whakahē i roto i tana pepa e rua nei ōna wāhanga, he mea pānui ngātahi i taua pukapuka anō. Kātahi ka nuku kē atu i te nuinga o ngā toi kōrero nāna rā i taea ai.

I taua pukapuka anō, ka puta te tuhituhinga nui tuarua a Takaanui, 'Ko te rerenga mai o Māta-atua, me Kurahaupō me ērā atu waka, i Hawaiki', arā, ko te whakapākehātanga ko 'The coming of Māta-atua, Kurahaupō, and other canoes from Hawaiki to New Zealand'. I tangohia mai e Te Mete te whiti tuatahi o te pepa i tētehi o ngā reta a Takaanui, he kaupapa kē anō tāna, kātahi ka takahurihia ngā kōrero kia hāngai ki te whakaaro e pupū ana i te whatumanawa o Te Mete, he tāruru waka kē tāna kaupapa. Mārama tonu te takoto o ngā kōrero a Takaanui, kāre kau ngā waka i haere 'tāruru' mai i Hawaiki, ēngari he wehe takirua, takitoru kē tō rātau wehenga mai.

Pai noa ana te whakaaro o Takaanui ki ngā kupu whakahē a Hāre Hongi, ēngari e mārama tonu ana ki a ia, ehara tēnei i te tangata mōhio. Ahakoa rā rerekē ana te whakaaro o Takaanui ki ngā tuhituhi a Katiana (W. E. Gudgeon) māna ki a Te Mete i te tau 1894 pea. E ai ki te kōrero a Katiana, hāunga ngā kōrero a Takaanui mō Te Arawa, e kōtītiti ana ētehi o nga pūtake rārangi o ōna whakapapa, taupatupatu hoki ki ngā whakapapa o Ngāti Porou me Ngāti Kahungunu. Ēngari e whakaae ana a Katiana, kāre kau he whakapapa e kore e whakahēngia e tētehi iwi kē, ēngari, ko tāna hoki i whakapono ai he wā tōna e kitea ai e te Pākehā ngā pōhēhē, kātahi anō ka taea te whakatika te takapiringa o te whakapapa. E ai ki te kōrero a Katiana, e kore e taea e te Māori, nō te mea ko te Pākehā anake e pūmanawa ana ki te uiui tika.

He mea whāki pea e Te Mete ngā kōrero a Katiana ki a Takaanui, ā, pukuriri tonu atu tērā. Ko tāna kī, kāore a Katiana i pā ki ngā tūpuna rā, ēngari nō Takaanui katoa ngā tūpuna e whakahuahuatia ana e ia i ōna whakapapa; kore rawa a Katiana e tata atu. Ko te whakapae anō a Takaanui, ka nui kē te hē o ngā tuhituhinga a Katiana. I whakahē anō ia i te hunga Pākehā e whakamahi noa ana i ngā whakapapa, arā, ki tāna, ngā 'whakapapa tango whenua' i whānau mai i ngā mahi a te kōti whenua. I mea atu anō a Takaanui, arā kē ko tōna puna kōrero ko te whare wānanga, ēngari ko tō Katiana ko te whare kōti.

Nā ngā raruraru pea o ōna whenua i Te Moana-a-Toi, ka haere a Takaanui ki Takapau, ki te tonga o Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay) noho ai i te taha o ōna whanaunga i reira, atu i te tau 1897 ki te tau 1899, nuku atu rānei. Ka noho ia ki reira, ka tonoa a ia e Pūrākau Maika, te ētita o te nūpepa Māori, o Te Puke ki Hikurangi, kia noho tūturu ia ki Pāpāwai ki te āwhina i ngā whakahaere o te nūpepa. Te take i kore ai ia i tae atu, kāore tōna whānau i rata ki te heke ki Te Wairarapa. I a ia i Takapau, kātahi ia ka whakawhirinaki atu ki a Pāora Rōpiha ki te hanga i te pepa, i 'Mahu rāua ko Taewa'; e ai ki tā Te Mete, i riro nā taua pepa i whakaatu te āhua o te noho a te Māori i te rau tau tekau mā whā, ā, ko te mea i tino whakakitea rawatia, ko te mana o te tohunga.

I a Takaanui e noho ana i Te Matau-a-Māui ki te tonga, he mea tīmata e ia tana pukapuka hei mahi nui whakamutunga māna ki te ao; e whā nei ngā wāhanga o taua pukapuka, ā, he whakaatu i 'Ngā Mahi a Te Wera, me Ngā-Puhi hoki ki Te Tai Rāwhiti', inarā, i ngā mahi a Te Wera Hauraki i te motu o Mokoia huri haere i Te Moana-a-Toi, puta atu ki Te Tai Rāwhiti, tae rawa atu hoki ki Te Matau-a-Māui. Nō te tau 1818 pea, taka noa mai ki ngā tau whakamutunga o te tekau tau atu i 1830 te wā e kōrerotia nei. Tīkina rawatia e ia ngā kōrero a te hunga i tū i ngā pakanga o aua wā, arā, tana pāpā, tana matua kēkē me ērā o ōna whanaunga pakeke ake. E rua ngā pepa hei wāhanga tuatahi i pānuitia i te tau 1899, ā, nō te tau i muri mai i pānuitia ai te wāhanga tuarua, e rua anō ngā pepa.

Taka rawa ki te tau 1904, kua noho ake anō a Takaanui i Te Puke. Pau ana ōna kaha ki te whakaemi whakapapa me ngā kōrero o nehe, ahakoa ngā taumahatanga o āna mahi whakahaere whenua me tana mahi umanga kaikawe. Pūmau tonu ia he tauutuutu tō rāua hononga ko Te Mete, ā, pā kau mai ana he raruraru, tere tonu tana tono atu ki a Te Mete ki te whakatika i ngā take e pā ana ki te whenua, ki ngā kairūri rānei. Me ka hiahia ia ki ētehi mapi, pepa whai mana rānei, he pai noa tana tono atu ki a Te Mete, ā, waiho atu māna e tuku atu ana mēra ki ngā tari a te kāwanatanga.

I te tau 1909, ka tupu haere tōna manawapā mō te whakatūpato i ngā wāhi tapu o te Māori e pā ana ki ngā wāhi ūnga mai o ia waka, o ia waka, pērā i ngā papanga i Whāngārā i Te Tai Rāwhiti, i Te Māhia ki te taha marangai o Te Mātau-a-Māui, taka rawa mai ki ngā taonga i Kāwhia rā e kīia ana ko ngā kōhatu o Tainui e tohu ana i te wāhi okiokinga o tērā waka. Kātahi ia ka whakaaro mā tana akiaki i a Te Mete ki te whakapā atu ki te kāwanatanga, mā reira e waimarie tana take. Kia tae atu te kōrero a Takaanui ki ngā mema Pāremata, ki a Hēnare Kaihau rāua ko Āpirana Ngata, ka tuhia atu e Te Mete a Te Rangi Hīroa (Peter Buck) kia riro mā ngā tokorua nei e tuku atu. Ko tāna i wawata ai kia riro mā te Poari Rāhui Whenua Purotu (Scenery Preservation Board) e tiaki, ēngari mutu kau noa te take nei i konā.

Nō te tau 1909, i tuhia e Takaanui he kōrero poto nei he mea tapa e ia ko 'Te Kōrero mō Kataore: he mōkai nā Tangaroa-mihi'; nō 1911, ka tuhia e ia tana kōrero whakamutunga, arā, he kōrero poto anō, 'He kōrero mō Tara-whata', mō te tupuna rā i āwhinatia e āna kurī; ki tā te kōrero rā i haere mai rātau i Hawaiki e mau ana i te āhua tonu nei o te taniwha. Nō te ūnga mai ki uta, ka whakatakariri a Tarawhata nō te mea kua tae kē mai āna kurī i mua i a ia, ā, i Maunganui, ka whakakōhatungia e ia. E mahara ana a Takaanui, nō te marama o Hānuere o te tau 1910, ka tae atu ia ki te tiki i aua kōhatu rā, karakia whakanoa rawa ana ia i te tuatahi. Tīkina atu ana a Āperahama Tamaiwhakangaro o Ngāti Whakaue rāua ko tētehi Pākehā, hei āwhina ki te uta atu i aua kōhatu rā ki runga i te tima. Ka whakawhiti atu rātau ki te motu o Matakana, ā, tangohia atu ana e ia ētehi kōhatu anō i reira, i mauria mai ki Aotearoa mā runga i a Tainui waka. He kāwai pānga nōna ki aua tūpuna rā, i māmā noa ki a ia te mahi nei. Haria katoatia mai aua kōhatu rā ki Rotorua, ā, whakanōhia ana e ia ki runga i ngā ahurewa e rua i te pā whakairo i Te Whakarewarewa.

Nō te tau 1909, ka mutu te tuhituhi a Takaanui ki a Te Mete. Atu i te tau 1910, ka mutu te rongo kōrero mōna, ā, kia tae kē ki te tau 1917 kātahi anō. Nō taua tau, e toru ngā petihana i tukua e Te Arawa ki a Hāmi Ārena (James Allen), te minita o te whawhai, e tono ana kia whakawāteangia a Te Arawa i te pānuitanga o te tau 1917, e whakatau ana i te māperetanga ā-ture ki te Māori. Nō Takaanui tētehi o ngā īngoa i runga i tētehi o aua petihana rā.

I a Takaanui Tarakawa i Te Puke, ka karangatia ia ki te īngoa o Tamaohu, ēngari kia noho ia ki Te Awahou, ki ngā whenua o te whaea o tōna pāpā, kua karangatia ia ko Takaanini. Ko ngā maumaharatanga mōna, he tangata kawe i te taha wairua, he tohunga hoki nō te taumata ikeike rawa i matakuria e te katoa. I wehi hoki ngā iwi ki ana pukapuka whakapapa e whakaatu ana i ngā kāwai puta noa i Te Moana-a-Toi. Nō Takaanui Tarakawa ka kaumātuatia, ka riro nā tōna whanaunga, nā Neti Ieti (Yates) ia i tiaki. Nō te 11 o Tīhema o te tau 1919, ka mate ia i Te Awahou, ā, ko te whakaaro i nehua ia i waenganui i te iwi o tōna matua, kei te urupā tawhito o Ōtaraninia i Te Puke, kei te taha tonu o te awa o Waiari.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Paul Tapsell. 'Tarakawa, Takaanui Hōhaia - Tarakawa, Takaanui Hohaia', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1996. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/3t4/tarakawa-takaanui-hohaia (accessed 21 August 2019)