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Tāreha, Kurupō

by Angela Ballara, Taape Tareha-O'Reilly

Biography

He tama nā Tāreha Te Moananui, tētahi o ngā tino rangatira o Ngāti Kahungunu, a Te Roera rāua ko Kurupō Tāreha; he rangatira tino whai whenua rāua nō Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay). Mai i te wā i a ia e taiohi ana, ka moe a Tāreha, e hia kē nei āna wāhine, ēngari tae rawa ake ki te tau 1850, kua matemate katoa ngā tamariki a aua wāhine rā. Kia kaumātua kētia a Tāreha, kātahi anō ka whānau mai a Te Roera rāua ko Kurupō. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1850 a Te Roera i whānau ai. Ko tōna whaea ko Mere Te Huia Te Apatari. I whānau a Kurupō i te tau 1871; ko tōna whaea ko Hārata Te Apatari, he tamāhine nā Mere Te Huia. Nā konei, i noho matua kēkē ai a Te Roera ki a Kurupō, ā, nā te mea kotahi tonu tō rāua pāpā, ka tuakana tērā ki a ia. Koirā te take, i āta tiakina e ia tana taina, me ko te matua tonu ia. Ko ngā tino hapū o te whānau o Tāreha i te takiwā o Ahuriri (Napier), ko Ngāti Hinemoa, ko Ngā Tuku-a-te-rangi, ko Ngāi Tākaro, ko Ngāti Te Rēhunga, ko Ngāti Te Rangikāmangungu me Ngāti Hinepare. Ahakoa anō, i pā rātou ki te iwi nui tonu, ki a Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti me tōna karangatanga hapū, me Ngāti Parau. Ka hoki te īngoa o tēnei hapū ki te wā i ngaro ai tētahi o ngā tama a Tāreha i roto i te kākaho, e pātata ana ki te pūroto o Ahuriri.

Ākuanei pea, i Waiōhiki e tata ana ki Ōtātara (Taradale), te wāhi whānau mai o ngā tokorua nei. Ko Te Roera i whakaakona ki ngā tikanga Māori; ko Kurupō i tukua ki te kura mīhana Katorika i Papakura (Meeanee), ā, nō muri iho, i tukua atu ki te Kāreti o Te Aute kura ai. Ka mutu tana kura, ka noho tahi rāua ko Te Roera ki te whakatikatika i ngā whenua i waiho mai e Tāreha mōna, kua mate noa atu rā i te tau 1880.

He takaoraora nui tonu tā te tokorua nei ki te wawao i ō rāua mana tuku iho ki ngā whenua i riro mai i tō rāua pāpā. Atu i te tau 1868 ki te 1870, ka noho ko Tāreha te mema Pāremata tuatahi mō te rohe Māori o Te Tai Rāwhiti. Nō te pakanga a te kāwanatanga ki ngā iwi Hauhau me ngā pononga a Te Kooti i ngā tau tekau atu i 1860 me ngā tau tīmatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1870, tautoko ana a Tāreha i te kāwanatanga koroni. Nā te mahi hoko whenua, me te pōkaitanga o te nama, ka ngaro ngā pānga whenua o Tāreha i ngā poraka o Ahuriri me Heretaunga; heoi, nā tōna pūmau ki te Karauna, i whakawhiwhia a ia ki ngā hea i roto i ngā poraka maha i ngā whenua i raupatutia i te rohe o Mōhaka–Waikare. Taka rawa ki te poraka o Kaiwaka, ka whakanōhia ko ia anake te tangata nōna taua whenua rā.

I runga i ngā kohākī o te wira o tana pāpā o te 20 o Mei o te tau 1885, i tono a Te Roera ki te Kōti Whenua Māori ki te whakawhiti mai i ngā pānga o Tāreha i te poraka o Kaiwaka ki a ia. Kīhai i whakaaetia kia noho ko ia anake te kaiwhakauru, whakataua ana e te Kōti kia whakaurua atu anō ētahi i tana taha ki taua whenua rā, wāwāhia rawatia ana e te Kōti taua poraka rā. Nō muri tata iho, i tonoa e Toha Rahurahu me ētahi atu kia āta tirohia e te Kōti te taitara o te whenua o Mōhaka–Waikare, i runga i tā rātou whakapae, ina koa ko te whakaurutanga o Tāreha ki aua whenua rā, he kaha te rite ki tō Kaiwaka, arā, he kaitiaki kē ia mō te hunga i pūmau ki te Karauna i te wā o ngā riri i te tekau tau atu i 1860. Ēngari mō te taha ki tēnei, nō te tau 1894, tukua ā-murimatetia ana te tiwhikete taitara ki a Tāreha; nō te tau 1895, ka riro i ngā uri o Tāreha te karāti Karauna ki ngā whenua nei. Tautohetohea ana e Te Teira Te Paea, he rangatira nō Mōhaka, te kerēme a Te Roera mō Kaiwaka ki te Kōti Matua (Supreme Court), ka mutu, ka haria atu hoki ki te Kōti Pīra (Appeal Court); riro ana te tāhuna i a Te Roera. Ahakoa whakahokia atu anō ki te Kōti Matua i te tau 1898, kīhai i rerekē atu. I tae rawa te kēhi nei ki te Kaunihera Motuhake a te Kīngi (Privy Council) i te tau 1901; ehara, ka riro anō i a Te Roera.

Ka haere tonu ngā tautohetohe mō ngā whenua, kāre i mutu i konei. Nā te mea, he whai take nō ētahi atu ki ngā whenua o Tātara-ā-kina – he pānga anō hoki ō ngā tama a Tāreha ki reira – ka tae he petihana ki te Kōti Whenua Māori i te tau 1924 kia tirohia anō te taitara o aua whenua e te Kōti Whenua Māori i runga i tā te ahikāroa, kaupapa tūpuna tuku iho hoki. He waihotanga iho nō Te Roera rāua ko Kurupō i ngā petihana nei kia whakahaerea tonutia, i tupu ai te whakaaro, tērā pea kei te whakaae rāua ki aua petihana rā. Ahakoa rā, whakahaerea ana anō aua whakawā, me ētahi atu petihana anō i muri iho, ka whakamāramatia anō hoki e te Kōti Whenua Māori i te tau 1929 te āhua anō o ngā pānga o ngā kaikerēme. Ko tōna mutunga iho, inā kē te tino whakaitinga o ngā pānga o ngā tama a Tāreha.

Ka tae ki te tau 1936, ka tonoa e Te Roera rāua ko Kurupō ō rāua pānga i Tātara-ā-kina kia whakahokia mai, ā, me ka kore me utu rāua. Ko tā rāua kī i roto i ā rāua tuhituhinga, kua whakapōharatia rāua kia noho tika ai ngā uri o te hunga tutū, me tā rāua whakamahara ake anō i te kāwanatanga, i tāna i oati ai i te tau 1870, kia whakahokia ētahi wāhanga o ngā whenua i murua ki ngā iwi Māori nā rātou i tautāwhi te kāwanatanga. Kua mate kē a Kurupō i te tau 1940, kātahi ka kawea atu te petihana nei ki te kāwanatanga, ā, whakatūria ana he kōmihana i te tau 1949, hei āta tirotiro i te take nei. Nō te tatūtangā ka whakahokia anō ki te āhua o ngā whakarite o mua atu o te tau 1920; nō konei i whakahokia atu ai ngā pānga whenua o Tāreha ki tōna whānau.

Ahakoa ngā pōraruraru ā-ture i pā ki a Te Roera rāua ko Kurupō, i eke tonu rāua ki te taumata mō te ahu whenua me te whakahaere pāmu. E tata ana ki te 400 ā rāua kau e taka ana i Waiōhiki i te tau 1908, i tō rāua whenua 500 eka te rahi. Iwa tekau eka te rahi o tā rāua pāmu anō i Pākōwhai, 70 ngā kau e miraka ana i reira. Ko ō rāua whenua i Kaiwaka, nuku atu i te 30,000 eka te nui, he mea rīhi mō tētahi wā ki a Hōri Tōnore (George Prior Donnelly). I hokona e Te Roera tōna whenua, nōna ake, i Kaiwaka Nama 2A ki te Karauna i te tau 1910, ā, i pērātia anō e Kurupō rāua me tētahi atu te whenua i Kaiwaka Nama 1, kia riro mai ai he moni hei whakahaere i te pāmu miraka kau. Tērā anō ngā pitopito whenua i hokona e rāua.

Tau ana te noho a te tokorua nei i runga i ngā hua o te whakahaere pāmu me te hoko whenua. Tekau ngā rūma o te kāinga o Kurupō i tū ki te whenua i Waiōhiki, ā, he aha rā, ka wera i te ahi. Ka mahia he kāinga tuarua, itiiti noa iho nei, i runga i tētahi toropuke e anga ana ki te huarahi matua: he rūma kaukau wehe nei tētahi wāhi (i te wā o te takahuritanga o te rau tau, kāore anō kia kitea he mea pērā) me tētahi taupoki, he mea huna. E whā ngā hōiho rērehi o Kurupō i mōhiotia ai he kaingākau tōna ki te hōiho, ā, riro ana nāna tētahi o ngā motokā tuatahi, he Wolseley, i kitea ai i Te Matau-a-Māui.

Ahakoa te kore mōhio o te ao Pākehā ki a ia, he tino kaumātua a Te Roera ki tōna iwi Māori. Ko te āhua nei, kāre ia i kōrero i te reo Pākehā. Ēngari anō a Kurupō. Ko ia kē te kanohi o te whānau Tāreha i roto i te ao Pākehā. He tangata rongonui ia i roto i ngā iwi o Te Matau-a-Māui, he mema hoki ia nō ētahi momo karapu tākaro, me te rōpū mahi pāmu o Te Matau-a-Māui, arā, te Hawke's Bay Agricultural and Pastoral Society, me te Whare Meihana o Mataruahou (Scinde Masonic Lodge). Ko ia tētahi o te ope hōia o Aotearoa mō te huritau ono tekau o Kuini Wikitōria (New Zealand Diamond Jubilee Contingent), i tukua ki Ingarangi i te tau 1897, hei takoha mō te pūmautanga o te whānau Tāreha ki te Karauna. Ko tōna tūranga, he haehana meiha nō te kamupene; ko te kāpene, ko Hoani Parāone Tūnuiārangi. Hei whakanui i te rā, he mea tuku anō ki a ia tētahi hoari nō muri ka meinga ki roto i te whare kai o te whare i Waiōhiki, takoto ai. E rima tau i muri mai, kua tū nei a ia hei kāpene mō te rōpū o ngā māngai Māori, ka haere ia ki te hui koroneihana mō Eruera Te Tuawhitu.

I a ia i Peretānia i te tau 1897, ka haria a ia kia kite i te karapu korowha roera, tawhito hoki o Ānaru (St Andrews Royal and Ancient Golf Club), ā, e ai ki ngā kōrero a te whānau, nō reira ka tupu tōna hiahia ki te hahau paoro. Ēngari, kua tino toa kē nei ia ki ētahi atu o ngā mahi tākaro, ā, e hia kē nei ngā mētara me ngā paraihe i riro mai i a ia mō te whutupaoro, mō te eke paihikara, mō te mekemeke me ērā atu whakataetae. Nōna ka hoki mai ki Aotearoa, ka hangaia e rāua ko Te Roera he papa korowha i runga i tētahi wāhanga o ō rāua whenua, 100 eka te rahi, i Waiōhiki; ka whakaīngoatia ko te papatākaro korowha o Waiōhiki (Waiōhiki Links), ā, nō muri nei ka hurihia te īngoa ki te papatākaro korowha o Ahuriri (Napier Golf Links). Nō te whakataetae i Tūranga (Gisborne) i te tau 1899, uru tahi ana a Te Roera rāua ko Kurupō ki te tīma o Te Matau-a-Māui. Tērā anō ētahi rangatira taitamariki tokorua nō Te Matau-a-Māui anō, ko Paraire Tomoana rāua ko Taranaki Te Uamairangi, i roto i te tīma.

Mataku ana a Kurupō mō te hahau paoro. Nō te whakataetae toa korowha runaruna o Aotearoa (New Zealand Amateur Golf Championship) i te papatākaro o Waiōhiki i te tau 1903, wikitōria ana ko ia, pērā anō i ngā whakataetae i Manawatū i te tau 1905. I whakauru ia ki ngā whakataetae i Ōtepoti (Dunedin), i Ākarana (Auckland) hoki. He maha tonu ngā tau e noho mema ngoi ana ia i te karapu korowha o Ahuriri (Napier Golf Club); ā, nōna kua kore e kaha ki te hahau paoro, ka noho ia hei kaiwhakaako. Ko Kurupō tētahi o ngā kaiwhakatū i te Rōpū Korowha Māori o Aotearoa (New Zealand Māori Golf Association), ā, ko ia tonu te kaiwhakaruruhau ā mate noa. I puta hoki te mea pakeke o āna tama, a Ngā-whakapinga‑o-te-rangi Tāreha, arā, ko Kapi te īngoa i mōhiotia whānuitia, hei toa mō te tākaro nei, ā, e hia kē ngā whakataetae korowha i riro i a ia; mutu rawa ake, ka huri ia hei ngaio whai utu.

E rua, nuku atu rānei, ngā wāhine a Te Roera. He uri nō Te Hauwaho, he rangatira rongonui nō Heretaunga, tana wahine tuatahi a Tuhitio. Kotahi anake tā rāua tamaiti, ko Tuiri. Nō te tau 1929, ka mate a Tuhitio. Ko tana wahine tuarua, ko Hera Greening, ā, mate rawa ake a Te Roera, e ora tonu ana a ia. Kāre rāua i whiwhi tamariki. Nō te moenga wahine anō, ka puta āna tamāhine, he māhanga. Ko tētahi, ko Ārepa (Alpha) nā Kurupō i atawhai, ā, riro kē ana a Ōmeka (Omega) nā Airini Tōnore i whakatipu.

Tokotoru rawa nuku atu pea ngā wāhine i moea e Kurupō. He taha Pākehā tō tana wahine tuatahi, tō Paranihia Pānapa. Ki ngā kōrero tuku iho a te iwi, ko te āhua nei nō muri i tana moenga i tana wahine, ka haere a Kurupō ki te tono ki ngā iwi o te tai moana, me kore e whai uri rāua (i āta tohu tonu ana kāwai whakapapa ki a Tangaroa, te atua o te moana, ki a Pānia o te iwi moana me tana tama taniwha, me Moremore). Nōna ka whakapā atu ki ngā iwi o te moana, ka piri rāua ko tētahi o rātou he wahine pākākā nei, ko Hinewera te īngoa. Mā te whakahoki rawa atu o tā rāua tama mātāmua ki te hunga nei, kātahi anō ka whakaae rātou ki te āwhina i a Kurupō. Nō te whānautanga o tana tama, o Kapi i te tau 1888, i te 1889 rānei, kāre a Kurupō i pai ki te tuku i a ia ki te iwi moana rā; nō muri ka kitea, kāre a Kurupō i kaha ki te whai tamariki. He wā nei, kārangarangatia ana ngā uri o Kapi ko Ngāti Hinewera.

Nō Ngāti Raukawa ki Ōtaki tana wahine o muri mai nei, ko Arihia Ranapiri (Alice Ransfield) te īngoa. Mai anō i ā rātou pakanga nui o ngā tau tekau atu i te 1820 ki a Ngāti Kahungunu ki Te Pakake me Te Roto-a-Tara, kāre anō kia āta hohouhia te rongo e Ngāti Raukawa, ēngari nā tēnei hononga, kātahi anō. Kāre tonu rāua i whiwhi uri. Ka tīkina atu e Kurupō rāua ko Arihia a Ārepa, te tamāhine a Te Roera, me Takarihi (Douglas), tētahi o ngā māhanga mea tāne a tana taokete, a Mēpara (Mabel), hei whāngai mā rāua. Ka mate tēnei o ngā māhanga, ka tīkina atu anō ko tētahi rā, ko Hoani (John). Kāre rāua i roa e moe ana, ka mate a Arihia. Ka moe anō a Kurupō i a Hiraina Puano, nō Ngā Rauru ki Te Hāwera i Taranaki. Koirā anō te mutunga iho, kāre he uri. Ka tangohia e rāua te tama a Kapi, a Hōri Ngākāwhe Tāreha me tētahi mea wahine, a Hine Pene, hei tamariki mā rāua.

He roa tonu a Kurupō e okeoke ana i roto i te māuiui, kātahi anō ka mate ki Waiōhiki i te 18 o Mei i te tau 1938, ā, nehua ana hoki ki te urupā i Waiōhiki i te 21 o Mei. Nō te tangihanga, muia ana tana rā e te iwi Māori, tae atu ki te nui o ōna hoa Pākehā hoki, ki tana wahine me ā rāua tamariki. Nō muri i a Kurupō a Te Roera i mate ai. Haruru ana te motu i te matenga o tana taina, o Kurupō, ēngari taka rawa mai ki tōna rā matenga i Ahuriri, i te 21 o Noema o te tau 1941, korekore ana te kōrero mōna i ngā nūpepa. Kei Waiōhiki, kei te taha o tana taina a Te Roera Tāreha e takoto ana.


He whakaaturanga anō

Rārangi pukapuka

    Ballara, A. & G. Scott. Crown purchases of Maori land in early provincial Hawke's Bay. Wellington, 1994

    The cyclopedia of New Zealand. Vol. 6. Christchurch, 1908

    Hopmans, T. 'The confiscation of the Mohaka and Waikare district'. LLB (Hons) research essay, Victoria, 1991

    Obit. [K. Tareha]. Hawke's Bay Daily Mail. 20 May 1938: 11


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara and Taape Tareha-O'Reilly. 'Tāreha, Kurupō', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1996. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/3t5/tareha-kurupo (accessed 13 May 2021)