Kōrero: Carroll, Turi

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Carroll, Turi

1890–1975

Nō Ngāti Kahungunu; he kaiārahi, he tangata ahu whenua, he kaitōrangapū ā-rohe

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Jinty Rorke,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1998.

Nō te 24 o Ākuhata o te tau 1890 i whānau ai a Alfred Thomas Carroll i Te Wairoa i te raki o Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay). Ko ia te whakapākanga o ngā tamariki tokotoru a Thomas Carroll, he tangata ahu whenua, rāua ko tana wahine, ko Mako Kaimoana. E taitamariki tonu ana ka tapaina a Alfred ko Turi, he īngoa nō tōna tipuna, nō Turipārera. Ko tōna pāpā, ko Thomas, tētahi o ngā rito o te pāharakeke tokowaru a Joseph Carroll, he Airihi i whānau ki Poihākena (Sydney), rāua ko Tapuke, he wahine nō ngā kāwai rangatira o Ngāti Kahungunu. Nā Tapuke i whai whenua ai tēnei whānau i Huramua. Ko tētahi o ngā tuākana o Thomas ko Tā Timi Kara (James Carroll). I heke tāhū iho a Turi i a Te Kapuamātotoru rāua ko Te Whewhera, mai i tā rāua tama rā, i a Tiakiwai.

I tō rātau kāinga i Huramua (Hurumua rānei) e kuraina tuatahitia ana a Turi mā, nā ngā mātua anō tēnei whakataunga. I muri iho ka haere a Turi ki te kura o Te Wairoa. Whāia ka mate tōna pāpā i te tau 1904, whakatika atu te matua kēkē, a Timi Kara, ki te mea kia tōtika tonu te akoranga i a Turi. Kua kite kē hoki a Timi e ari ake ana ngā tohu o te rangatira i roto i tana irāmutu, ā, e kimi ana hoki a Timi i tētahi pikitūranga hei kawe i āna mahi tōrangapū me āna mahi ohaoha. I pau te tau 1905 i a Turi i te kāreti o Whanganui (Wanganui Collegiate School), ā, i muri iho ka haere ia ki te Kāreti o Te Aute. Nō te tau 1909 ka tīmata tana whakaako i te kāreti ahu whenua o Waitaha (Canterbury Agricultural College) whai ai i te tītohu mō te ahu whenua me te whakatipu kararehe. He tama tākaro kaikaha a Turi, uru atu ana ki te tīma kirikiti me te tīma whutupaoro o te kāreti. Nō te tau 1911 ka puta ia i ana akoranga, kātahi ka riro i a ia te mahi whakahaere i te pāmu a te whānau, 2,200 eka te nui.

I te wā o te Pakanga Tuatahi, ko Turi tētahi o ngā kaiwhakaaraara i ngā Māori kia whakauru mai ki te Taua Māori Tuatahi. I te tīmatanga o te pakanga kāore ia i whakaaetia kia haere ki te mura o te ahi nā te kāpō o tōna whatu mauī, ēngari, nā te aha rānei, whakawhiti atu ana ia me te Ope Taua Māori o Aotearoa (New Zealand Expeditionary Force) ki tāwāhi i te tau 1917. I reira ka tū hei haihana. E whakamutumutu ana te pakanga ka taotū, ā, nō te tau 1919 ka hoki mai ki te kāinga. Nō taua tau anō tana urunga atu ki te tīma whutupaoro o te Rōpū (Māori) Paionia (Pioneer (Māori) Battalion).

Ka taka ki te 4 o Maehe o te tau 1922, ka moea e ia a Parehuia Shrimpton, he tamāhine nā Atamira Haeata rāua ko tana tāne, ko Walter Shrimpton, i Te Wairoa. Kotahi tonu te hua o tēnei moenga, ko tā rāua tamāhine, ko Mako, ēngari e hia hoki ā rāua whāngai.

Haere nei, ka pupū ake tōna hiahia ki te whai i te ara tikanga rua, ki te whakamahi i ngā mōhiotanga o te ao Pākehā hei oranga mō te iwi Māori pērā tonu rā i te ara i whāia ai e tana matua kēkē, e Timi Kara. Ēngari ko te taumata tōrangapū i eke ai a Timi Kara, kāore i whāia rawatia e Turi, tīmata noa ake tāna i te tuatahi i te takiwā ā-rohe. Kāti rā, nō te tau 1926 i pōtitia ia ki te kaunihera ā-rohe o Te Wairoa (Wairoa County Council), hei kanohi mō te takiwā o Waiau (Waiau Riding). I aua rā, kāore e kanohi kitea ana te Māori i ēnei momo rōpū. Mau tonu a Turi ki taua tūru kaunihera tae noa ki te tau 1959, ā, mai i te tau 1938 ka noho ia hei heamana. Arā atu anō ngā rangatōpū ā-rohe i pōtitia atu ia ki runga: ko te poari hōhipera o Te Wairoa (Wairoa Hospital Board), ko te poari hiko (Electric-power Board) me te poari wahapū (Harbour Board).

I tua atu i te whakahaere i te teihana o Huramua, he maha ngā rōpū ahu whenua i whai wāhi atu ai a Turi. I noho a ia i te poari o te kamupene ohu, kamupene miraka o Te Wairoa (Wairoa Co-operative Dairy Company), ā, atu i te tau 1933 ki 1934 i tū ia hei heamana. He mema anō hoki ia nō te uniana ahu whenua o Te Wairoa (Wairoa Farmers' Union), ā, heamana atu hoki mō te rōpū mahi pāmu o Te Wairoa (Wairoa Agricultural and Pastoral Association). Mō te taha ki ngā whenua kaporeihana Māori o Te Wairoa ko ia anō te heamana. Ki tōna nei whakaaro me mau tonu te puri a ngā tāngata whai pānga i ō rātau whenua, kia riro ai hoki mā rātau e ahu ngā whenua. Nā ana mahi whakaoreore kia piki ai te taumata ahu whenua i te rohe, ka whakawhiwhia ki te Mētera Bledisloe (Bledisloe Medal) i te tau 1940.

Kāore e moea te pō i tōna kaha ki te mahi. I mahi tahi rāua ko Āpirana Ngata ki te whakatū kaupapa ahu whenua mā te iwi. Atu i te tau 1928 tana ekenga atu ki te Kaunihera o Kahungunu (Kahungunu Māori Council). Nōna te reo i tū ai te whare whakairo o Tākitimu hei whakamaumaharatanga ki a Tā Timi Kara i te marae o Waihīrere, he mea whakaoti te whare nei i te tau 1938. I ngā hui e rua a te Rangatahi Māori (Young Māori Conferences) i te tau 1939 me te tau 1959 i haere ia ki te mea tuatahi, ā, meinga ana ko ia te perehetini o te mea tuarua. Ko te take o aua hui he whakatakoto mahere e ahu whakamua ai te iwi Māori me te whakapiki ake anō hoki i te taha ora. Nā tāna kite i te pā kaha o te mate kohi ki te Māori, ka tū i a ia te rōpū mate kohi o Te Wairoa. He mema hoki ia nō te Rōpū Korowha Māori me te Rōpū Tēnehi Māori o Aotearoa.

I te mutunga o te Pakanga Tuarua, ka puta te aroha o Turi ki ngā hōia Māori i hoki mōrehu mai, ka whakauru atu ia ki te komiti whakanohonoho ā-rohe. Nāwai rā hokona atu ana e Turi kia 1,700 eka o tō rātau whenua i Huramua ki te Tari Māori hei wāhi ako i ngā hōia mōrehu Māori. Ina riro mai ō rātau tiwhikete, kua āhei rātau ki te whakataetae mō ngā pāmu. Mā te taka o te māpere e waimarie ai, e kore ai rānei. Ka riro rā te whenua, ka wāwāhia kia puta kia 14 ngā pāmu. E hia hoki ngā mōrehu i noho ki aua pāmu, i akona hoki ki reira. I te tau 1946, tukua ana e Turi te toenga o Huramua ki tana tamāhine rāua ko tana hunaonga.

Ka mana te Ture Toko i te Ora me te Pai mō te Iwi Māori (Māori Social and Economic Advancement Act) o 1945, ka tū a Turi hei mema mō te komiti whakahaere ā-iwi o Kahungunu (Kahungunu Tribal Executive). Nō te tau 1949, ka ara i a ia te Kaunihera Kaitiaki Māori o Te Tairāwhiti (East Coast Māori Trust Council) he mea tautāwhi hoki nā te Pirimia – ko ia hoki te Minita Māori – nā Pita Pereiha (Peter Fraser). E rima ngā tau i muri mai, i te tau 1954, ka oti te whakawhiti te mana whakahaere i ngā whenua i raro i taua kaunihera ki ngā Māori whai pānga. I te tau 1949 anō hoki, i tohea e Turi te tūru Māori o Te Tai Rāwhiti mō te Rōpū Nāhinara, ēngari kāore hoki i toa.

Heoi anō, whakawhiwhia ana a Turi ki te tohu OBE i te tau 1952, ā, kākahuria ana ki te korowai o te Tā i te tau 1962. Koinei tonu te wā o tōna urunga atu ki ērā o ngā rōpū o te motu. Noho ake ana ia hei mema mō te Kaupapa Mātauranga mō te Iwi Māori (Māori Education Foundation) me tana tū anō hoki hei kaitiaki mō te karahipi o Mītira (Mitchell Scholarship) i tū nei i ngā hua o te pukapuka a Tiaki Hikawera Mītira (J. H. Mitchell), ko Tākitimu te īngoa. Hei āwhina tēnei karahipi i ngā tamariki e haere ana ki ngā kura tuarua. Nō te marama o Hune o te tau 1962, i pōtitia ia hei perehitini mō te Kaunihera Māori o Niu Tīreni mō ngā Kaiwhakahaere ā-Iwi (Māori Council of Tribal Executives). Nō te marama o Hānuere 1963, mahue atu ana tērā o ngā kaunihera, whānau ake ana ko te Kaunihera Māori o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Māori Council). I a ia e tiamana ana, i te taenga mai o te Kuini me tōna hoa tāne i te tau 1963, ko Turi Kara anake te māngai mō te iwi Māori i te hui nui i Waitangi. Tae noa ki te tau 1967 mau tonu i a ia te tūnga perehitini ahakoa pōkia ana te kaunihera e te nui o te raruraru o tērā wā. Arā ko ngā kaihautū rangatahi tonu ēnā e tautohetohe ana, e whakaputa ana i ā rātau whakapae mō te ahu whakamuri o tāna titiro, hinga nui kē ana ia ki ngā kaupapa Pākehā. Kawakawa ana tēnei āhua ki ngā pūkenga mātauranga e pihi ake ana i te tekau tau atu i 1960.

He tangata pūmau a Turi ki te Hāhi Mihingare, e 20 tau e noho mema ana mō te hīnota o Waiapu, he wātene hoki nō te minitatanga Māori o Te Wairoa me Mōhaka. E hia kē nei hoki tōna roa ki runga i te Poari o te Kāreti o Te Wairoa, ā, nāna i hua te whakataukī mō taua kāreti, 'Kia Mataara'. Ko ia hoki tētahi o ngā kaiwhakatū i te karapu Rotari o Te Wairoa (Wairoa Rotary Club), ā, noho ake ana ko ia te perehitini i te tau 1949 ki te tau 1950. I Hepetema o te tau 1969 hainatia ana e ia, rātau ko ētahi o Ngāti Kahungunu, ko ētahi o Tūhoe me te kāwanatanga anō hoki te rīhi o te papa moana o Waikaremoana ki te poari kaitiaki o te rohe pāka mō te iwi whānui o Te Urewera (Urewera National Park Board).

I te tau 1965, ka mate tana hoa wahine a Parehuia, tōna ringa matau i āna mahi katoa. I te wā kua tae ki te 80 ōna tau, hinga kino ana a Turi, whati ana tana tikihope, ā, riro ana ia nā tana tamāhine, nā Mako i tiaki. I tēnei wā, mauria mai ana ngā hui whenua katoa ki tōna kāinga i Huramua whakahaere ai. Nō te 11 o Noema i te tau 1975, ka mate a Tā Turi Kara ki tōna kāinga i Huramua. I te marae o Taihoa e takoto ana, e tangihia ana e te tini. Nō te rā o te nehu, ka takoto i Tākitimu, kātahi anō ka haria ki te urupā o tōna whānau okioki ai. E kīia ana, kotahi māero te roa o te ope hari i a ia ki te urupā.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Jinty Rorke. 'Carroll, Turi', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1998. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/4c12/carroll-turi (accessed 9 December 2019)