Kōrero: Kapua, Eramiha Neke

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Kapua, Eramiha Neke

1867–1875?–1955

Nō Ngāti Tarāwhai; he tohunga whakairo, he tohunga Ringatū, he tangata ahu whenua

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1998, and updated in November, 2010.

Ko Eramiha Neke Kapua tētehi o ngā tohunga whakairo rongonui o te rau tau rua tekau. Ko tona pāpā ko te tohunga whakairo i tino mōhiotia rā, ko Neke Kapua o Ngāti Tarāwhai, ā, ko tōna whaea ko Mereana Waitere, hei kauaemua ki a Tene Waitere, ko ia anō tētehi o ngā tohunga whakairo rongonui o Ngāti Tarāwhai. I ētehi wā karanga kētia ana a Eramiha ko Eramihia, ko Eramihi Neke kē rānei, ā, ko Ruatō pea i Okataina i te taha rāwhiti o Rotorua te wāhi whānau o Eramiha, i tētehi wā nei atu i 1867 ki 1875.

He uri a Eramiha Kapua nō Ngāti Rangitakaroro, he hapū nō Ngāti Tarāwhai, nā rātau te mahi nei te whakairo. Nō te tātai whakapapa o Ngātoroirangi te hapū nei, ko ia rā te tohunga o Te Arawa waka. E ai ki te kōrero, nā te whare wānanga – e mōhiotia nei ko Māninihau i Te Koutu i Okataina – i tuku iho ngā mana kaha o te tohunga nei ki ōna uri. Ko Te Amo-ā-Tai rāua ko tōna whanaunga, ko Te Iwimōkai anō ētehi o ōna tīpuna, ā, hei tipuna matua tuarua anō a Te Iwimōkai ki a Eramiha. Whakamataku ana te mana o ngā tohunga nei, ā, tino hiahia tonutia ana ā rāua mahi whakairo e te tangata. Nō te mutu haere o te hiahia ki te waka tere, me te taenga mai o ngā whao maitai i ngā tau whakamutunga o te rau tau tekau mā iwa, i ngana ai te tangata kia nuku kē atu te āhua o te hanga o ngā mahi whakairo, huri kē ana te kura whakairo o Okataina, nō Ngāti Rangitakaroro rā te nuinga o rātau, ki te whakairo whare nui. Mai i a ia e taiohi tonu ana, he mea whakangungu tonu a Eramiha e tōna matua ki ngā mōhiotanga me ngā tikanga pure o te whakairo.

Nō te tau 1905 i āwhinatia e Eramiha tana pāpā ki te whakairo i tētehi whare i Rotorua, he mea mahi rā mā te kaiwhakahaere matua o te Tari Tūruhi me ngā Whakatauanga Hauora (Department of Tourist and Health Resorts), mā T. E. Donne. Nō te tau o muri mai, i kōrero atu a Donne ki te kaiwhakahaere o te whare pupuri taonga o te koroni (Colonial Museum), ki a Ākuhata Hamutana (Augustus Hamilton), ina koa e ōrite tonu ana te kaha o Eramiha ki tērā o tana pāpā ki te whakairo. Ko te mahi tuatahi tino nui i whakairotia e Eramiha, ko te pā tauira, ko Āraiteuru, i riro rā nā Hamutana i hoahoa mō te Whakakitenga ki te Ao Whānui o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand International Exhibition) i Ōtautahi (Christchurch) i te tau 1906. Nā Eramiha rātau ko ōna whanaunga i mahi ake te mahi nei i roto i te whare pupuri taonga o te koroni, tāraitia ake ana e rātau he waharoa, he pātaka, me te paepae anō hoki mō te whare rūnanga. He wā anō i muri i noho tonu te hunga rā i roto i te pā, noho tahi rātau ko ētehi Māori nō ētehi o ngā rohe iwi o te motu, nuku atu i te 50 te nui. Hei whakangahau i ngā manuhiri i meinga tonutia rātau kia mau kākahu Māori, ā, i te kitenga e mau pūtu kirikau pīataata kē mai ana, kowhetetia ana rātau. I kō atu i tēnā he whakaputu kai anō te mahi ki rō pātaka, tao kai mai i rō hāngi, whakahaere hoki i ngā mahi pōwhiri, i ngā mahi haka me ētehi atu momo kanikani anō hoki. Riro ana nā te tākuta nei, nā Te Rangi Hīroa (Peter Buck) ō rātau mate i tiaki; nā te aha rā, pāngia tonutia ana te nuinga o rātau e te rewharewha.

Nō te wā i mua me te wā i muri mai hoki i te whakakitenga i Ōtautahi tae noa ki te tau 1910, aruaru noatia te mahi a Eramiha rāua ko tana pāpā me ō rāua whanaunga, i a rātau e whakairo ana i te kāinga tauira o te kāwanatanga i Te Whakarewarewa. Kāti rā, nā Eramiha rāua ko Tene Waitere i kōwhaiwhai te mahau, he mea waihanga rā ki ngā tauira tuku iho. Atu i te tau 1908 ki 1910 a Eramiha e whakairo ana i te whare nui i a Ruaihona i Te Teko. Mai i te tau 1910 pea, i iti haere te mahi i puta ake i ngā tūruhi me te kāwanatanga, ā, tauwehe atu ana te kura o Okataina, hūnuku atu ana te whānau a Kapua me ō rātou whanaunga nohonoho ki wāhi kē. Nō te tau 1905 pea, i moea ai e Eramiha a Wairata Ngāheu, ā, neke atu ana rāua ki Te Teko e pātata atu rā ki Whakatāne noho ai. Ka mutu pea ā rāua tamariki, kotahi te tamāhine, kotahi te tama whāngai. Tekau mā rima tau pea a Eramiha e noho mahi pāmu noa ana, kore rawa he kōrero pānui, he aha rānei mōna. Atu i te tau 1921 ki 1925, me ngā tau atu i 1930 ki 1931, i noho a Eramiha hei mema i runga i te komiti o te kura o Te Teko.

Pērā anō i tōna pāpā, nō te Hāhi Ringatū a Eramiha, ā, he minita rēhita anō hoki ia nō te Hāhi, arā, he tohunga Ringatū. Nō te tau 1925 i riro i a ia te whakahaere o tētehi rōpū whakairo, e whakarākai ake ana i te whare karakia Māori o Tikitiki hei tohu whakamaharatanga ki ngā hōia Māori o Te Tai Rāwhiti. Nā te uaua o te kite tangata hei whakairo i te mahi nei, i mōhio ai a Āpirana Ngata kua ngaro haere kē te mahi whakairo, me ērā atu o ngā mahi toi. I te whakatūnga i te Kura Whakairo (School of Māori Arts) i Rotorua i te tau 1927, ka kite a Āpirana he tangata mau whao katoa ngā kaiwhakaako o te kura, kore rawa tētehi i mau toki. He kore i whakamahia nō te toki kapukapu i kore ai i pai te rere o te hanga mai o te whakairo, i kore ai hoki i kitea te ātaahua o te porowhita o te mahi, pērā i ngā mahi o mua. I te tau 1929, ka tonoa a Pine Taiapa e Āpirana ki Te Tai Rāwhiti, rapu haere ai i ngā tohunga mōrehu e mōhio tonu ana ki te mau toki kapukapu.

E hia kē nei ngā wiki e kimi ana a Pine i ngā tohunga nei, ēngari kore rawa i kitea. Nāwai ā riro ana nā Te Whare Moana o Raukōkore i kī atu ki a ia, ko Eramiha Kapua tāna e kimi ana, he tino tohunga mō te mau toki. He mōhio tonu a Āpirana ki a Eramiha tae atu hoki ki āna mahi, ā, meinga atu ana e ia a Pine kia tīkina a Eramiha. Nō te 10 o Hānuere i te tau 1930 i tae atu a Pine ki te kite i a Eramiha, kitea ake rā i tana pāmu i Te Teko, e miraka kau, e whāngai poaka ana. I te mutunga o te karakia Ringatū ka tīmata a Pine ki te kōrero ki ngā whanaunga o Eramiha e kao ana, mō tana mahi ki te kimi haere i te tangata e tohunga ana ki te mau toki kapukapu. Ka tū mai tēnā o ngā whanaunga o Eramiha ka kī me whakaae te tono rangatira kia ea ai te moemoeā o Āpirana, kia tū ai he whare whakairo i ngā marae katoa. Ahakoa kua taipakeke kē rāua ko tana wahine, whakahauhautia ana ngā tokorua nei ki te waiho mai i ō rāua painga, ehara ko te whakairo anake, ēngari me whakaako anō te waiata, te haka, te whai kōrero, tae atu ki ngā mahi toi anō a te wahine, te mahi tukutuku, mahi raranga nei hoki. Nā te ngākau kore o Eramiha ki te taumaha o te kaupapa hei waha māna, i kore ai ia i aha atu, waiho kētia ana mā tana hoa mā Te Wairata te take nei e kōrero. Ka whakaae a Te Wairata, ko tana kōrero ki tana hoa, 'ka haere tāua ki te mau i te wai-ū mō ngā tama maha o te iwi Māori, e tangi mai nei ki te kai mā rātau.'

Nō te marama o Pēpuere o te tau 1930, i tīmata a Eramiha rāua ko Te Wairata i tā rāua mahi hou i te kura whakairo o Ōhinemutu. Kotahi tonu atu te mahi a Eramiha ki te ako i ngā tauira ki te mau toki kapukapu, ā, noho ake ana tekau tau tana roa e whakaako ana i tēnei mahi. Nō ngā hau e whā o te motu me te moutere o Rarotonga ngā tauira, ā, akona ana e ia kia riterite tonu te rangirangi o te hau o te toki, o te waiata, o te karakia ake anō hoki i a rātau e mahi ana. Whakaakona ana hoki e ia te hanga tū ngāwari noa o te tangata, te tiaki i ngā taputapu, te whakatika i te rākau hei whakairo me te pēwhea anō o te mahi i te kākano o ngā rākau hanga rerekē. Nāna anō hoki rātau i tohutohu ki ngā īngoa tawhito mō ngā momo mahi mau toki katoa. Riro ana nā āna tikanga i whakapoto te roa o te mahi, ā, me i noho tonu mā te whao ripi anake e mau te mahi, e hia marama, tau kē rānei kātahi anō ka oti te mahi. I mua i te mahinga a Eramiha i te rākau, mārama noa ana tana kite i te āhua o te whakairo kei roto i te rākau i mua i te tīmatanga o te mahi; iti noa āna tuhituhi i runga i te rākau, hei mau ake māna i te whakairo. Tuhia ana e ia he tauira mā āna kaiako i runga i te rākau, ēngari ka kaha haere tō rātau mōhio, ka whakamahia e ia ki te whai i tōna momo mahi ngāwari noa.

He kaiwhakairo nō te ao kōhatu a Eramiha, ā, i mau kaha tonu ia ki ngā tikanga tuku iho o te tapu me te karakia. Korekore rawa e pūhia atu e ia ngā maramara, ēngari kohia kētia ana, ka tahuna. Kore rawa hoki ia i whakaae kia pātata mai te wahine ki āna mahi, whakaae rānei ki te kai hikareti, kai aha noa rānei i a ia e whakairo ana. Otirā ko tāna tonu ki ngā tauira o te kura whakairo me waiho noa e rātau te taha tapu o te mahi whakairo. Ko te take hoki he kore e mōhio tika nō rātau ki te pure, ka takahi kūware noa i te tapu, ā, pai kē atu te waiho noa i te taha tapu.

I kō atu i tana mahi whakaako, ka tīmata te mahi whakairo a Eramiha i ngā whare nui huri noa i te motu. Nō te tau 1932, nāna i ārahi tētehi rōpū e mahi ana i ngā whakairo mō te whare nui o Ngāti Raukawa i Ōtaki. Waihoki ko te tino whare i mahia e ia ko te whare nui mō te rau tau, he mea hanga mō te tau 1940 hei whakanui i te rau tau o te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi. I mua i te tīmatanga o te mahi o te whare nui i te tau 1934, he rōpū iti nei i te Papa Whakahiku (Auckland Institute and Museum) mō tētehi wā, e akona ana ki ngā momo whakairo o tēnā takiwā, o tēnā takiwā. Whāia hoki i te waihangatanga ake i ngā whakairo mō tēnei whare, nō ia takiwā, nō ia takiwā te tikanga o ngā whakairo. Kāti i riro tonu nā Eramiha te nuinga o ngā whakairo i tārai, whakaurua atu hoki e ia ngā tikanga whakairo o Te Arawa. Nōna ka tino koroua haere, nuku atu ana te whakawhirinaki a Eramiha ki ana tauira. Nāwai ā kore rawa i taea e ia te whare nei te whakaoti, riro ana nā tētehi rōpū kē i whakatutuki. Nāna anō hoki Ngā Pūmanawa-e-Waru-o-Te Arawa i Te Rotoiti i whakairo, he mea tīmata e ia i te tau 1936. Ko te momo o te mahi, he mahi ka mutu, he mahi ka mutu, ā, nō te tau 1940 kātahi anō ka oti. Ko te tau 1940 anō pea te tau i mahue i a Eramiha te kura whakairo, ka hoki ki Te Teko, ki reira whakaako ai i tōna whanaunga, i a Te Kākā Niao Ngāheu – ko tētehi anō o ōna īngoa karanga ko Kākā Ahirau Niao – kia noho ake ai hei whakapiki māna.

O ngā kaiwhakairo o tōna wā, mau haere tonu te mana rongonui o Eramiha hei tino tohunga whakairo, ā, i te tau 1944 tonoa mai ana ia e Whina Cooper o Te Rarawa kia haere mai ki Panguru, ki te hoahoa, ki te whakairo hoki i tētehi whare nui mōna. Tokorua āna irāmutu i haria ake e ia, ā, whakaakona anō hoki e ia ētehi atu kaiwhakairo i a rātau tonu e mahi ana. Ahakoa te tikanga e kore e whakaaetia te wahine ki te whakairo, i whai wāhi tonu a Whina ki te whakairo. Nō muri mai i ngā tautohetohenga a Whina ki te iwi o tētehi marae e pātata ana, me ngā whakahē anō a te pirihi Katorika o te rohe ki ngā taihemahema o ngā tūpuna e mau mai ana i runga i ngā whakairo, whakaputua kētia ana ngā whakairo 105 te nui, e 30 tau kē te roa e takoto ana. E hia kē nei ngā tau e mau tonu ana te whakaaro o te iwi o Panguru, nā runga i ngā tautohetohenga i mākututia e Eramiha ngā whakairo, ā, nāna anō te oati, kore rawa ēnei whakairo e ara ake, i a Whina e ora tonu ana.

Ahakoa te taikoroua tonutia o Eramiha, i mau haere tonu tana mahi whakairo. Ko ētehi atu o ngā whare i mahia e ia ko Tia i Te Puke (nō te tau 1945 pea), ko Te Poho-o-Tūhoe Pōtiki i Te Waimako i Waikaremoana, ko Tūwharetoa i Matatā. Ka tae atu ki Te Tai Tokerau, ko Tūmatauenga i te marae o Ngāti Hine i Ōtīria, me Ngāpuhi Moana Ariki i Mangamuka, ngātahi i oti i a ia te mahi i te takiwā o te tau 1947. Nō te 7 o Hūrae o te tau 1955 i mate ai a Eramiha i Te Teko. Riro ana nā te Ringatū te karakia tuku atu i a ia ki te kōpū o te whenua i Hēhērangi i te 10 o Hūrae.

Tata riro tonu nā Eramiha Kapua anake i hoatu ngā mōhiotanga o te ao tawhito ki ngā kaiwhakairo o te whakatipuranga hou o ngā tāngata whakairo. Nā runga i āna mahi i mahue ake ai te kaha o ngā tikanga whakairo a Ngāti Tarāwhai ki runga i ngā mahi whakaara ake anō i te mahi hanga whare whakairo. Otirā ko te mutunga mai tēnei o te moemoeā o Ngata, i whiwhi whare whakairo katoa ai ngā marae o te motu, hei tohu i te mau haere tonu o te kaha o ngā tikanga Māori.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Kapua, Eramiha Neke', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1998, updated November, 2010. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/4k3/kapua-eramiha-neke (accessed 21 August 2019)