Kōrero: Kawiti, Kirihi Te Riri Maihi

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Kawiti, Kirihi Te Riri Maihi

1877–1964

Nō Ngāti Hine; he kaihautū, he tangata ahu whenua, he kaitātai whakapapa

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Kene Hine Te Uira Martin, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1998.

E ai ki ngā kōrero a te whānau, nō te 17 o Āperira o te tau 1877 i whānau ai a Kirihi Te Riri Maihi Kawiti ki Waiōmio, i Kawakawa kei Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands). Ko te tama tuarua ia a Maihi Parāone Kawiti rāua ko tana wahine tuatoru, ko Hēningārino, ā, ka mokopuna anō hoki a Te Riri ki te toa rangatira rā o Ngā Puhi, ki a Te Ruki Kawiti. He īngoa iriiri a Kirihi, ā, ko te roanga kē atu o tōna īngoa ko Te Riri-whakamutunga-a-Kawiti-ki-te-Ruapekapeka. He īngoa whakamaharatanga tēnei ki te whakapuakanga a Te Ruki Kawiti, arā, i mutu kē mai tana tūnga hei rangatira taua mō Te Tai Tokerau i te mutunga o te pakanga i Ruapekapeka.

Tōmua i a Te Riri ko tana tuakana ko Ranga; tōmuri i a rāua ko tō rāua teina ko Huru, ka tokotoru katoa ai rātou. Tokotoru hoki ana tuāhine, arā, ko Hui rātou ko Te Warati, ko Te Here. Hāunga tērā taha, he tuakana anō tō Te Riri, ko Hirini, ā, he tuahine anō, ko Mate, ēngari he matua kē rānei tō ngā tokorua nei. I kuraina a Te Riri i ngā Kura Māori o Kāretu me Porotī kei te rohe o Whāngārei, ā, nō muri i te matenga atu o tōna pāpā, o Maihi, ko te hokinga mai tēnā o Te Riri ki Waiōmio i te tau 1889. Ka ruarua nei ngā tau i muri i te matenga atu o Hōterene Kawiti, inarā, o te irāmutu piki tūranga tonu a Maihi, ka riro nei ko Te Riri hei manukura mō Ngāti Hine.

E taitama tonu ana a Te Riri ka tīmata tana noho mai i runga i ngā whenua kei te taha tonu i ngā rua kōiwi o Waiōmio, mahi pāmu ai. I taua wā ko Te Riri anake te tangata o Ngāti Hine e kaha ana ki te noho i aua whenua. Ko te mea hoki e tapu katoa ana te whaitua nei, pokapoka katoa ana ngā hiwi i ngā rua tūpāpaku, ā, whakamataku ana hoki ngā kōrero e rangona ana. Nā te mea he whenua papatipu i mau tonu ai te noho a Te Riri ki reira tautiaki ai. Tāpiri atu ki tēnā i reira anō te rua huna i ngā kōiwi o te tupuna o Ngāti Hine, o Hineāmaru, e karapotia ana e ngā kōiwi o ana toa. Kei hea rā ia i te whenua nei e takoto ana, ko wai ka mōhio.

Nō te tau 1896 i moe ai a Te Riri i a Mārara Māhanga nō mai i ngā aho tātai o Ngāti Hine me Ngāti Kororā; ko Ngāone te īngoa o tā rāua tamāhine, ā, ko Te Tāwai (Tāwai Riri Maihi Kawiti) te mea tāne. I te matenga o Mārara ka moea e Te Riri a Hana Te Ahuahu (ko Moe Tana anō tōna īngoa) o Ngāti Kōpaki, he hapū anō nō Ngāti Hine. Nō te 19 o Mei o te tau 1915 tō rāua mārenatanga ki Waiōmio. Kotahi noa tā rāua tamaiti, he wahine, he mea tapa ko Te Rīngi Taimana (Diamond Ring). Nō te tau 1918 i mate ai a Moe Tana, ā, nō te 5 o Hune 1933 i Waiōmio anō, ka moea e Te Riri a Totorewa Hōterene o Te Orewai hapū o Ngāti Hine; nō muri tonu mai i te whānautanga o tā rāua tama i mate ai te tamaiti nei.

Nā te mea he tangata rangatira a Te Riri i taupokia ia ki ngā tūranga mana. Nō te tau 1904 i pōtitia ia hei tiamana mō tētahi komiti poraka hei tirotiro i ngā taitara o ngā whenua Māori i te rohe o Kaikohe. I te tau 1924 ka whakatūria a ia hei mema mō te Kaunihera o Pēwhairangi (Pēwhairangi Māori Council), ā, i taua tau anō ka pōtitia ia hei tiamana mō te Komiti Marae o Waiōmio (Waiōmio Village Committee). Riro tonu nāna i hāpai te taha oranga, te taha hauora, whakaū hoki i te mātauranga o tōna iwi i te rohe o Pēwhairangi. I tautohea tonutia e ia te mahi kai waipiro. Nō te tau 1909 i tonoa e ia te Tari Kura kia whakatūria he kura hou ki Ōrauta me Waiōmio; ka torutoru tau noa i muri mai ka whakatuwheratia ēnei kura. Ka rua nei ngā hāhi, te Hāhi Mihinare me te Hāhi Wēteriana, nāna nei i waha. Mai i te tau 1927 ki 1942 ko ia te mihinare Metoriti, mihinare hōnore ā-kāinga, ā, whai ake ana i a ia ko tana tama, ko Te Tāwai.

Mau haere tonu te pūmahara o Te Riri ki tana tupuna, ki a Te Ruki Kawiti, ko ia tonu tana pou hirinaki, tana pou whakaawe, ahakoa te āhua kōaro tonu o te whakaaro o ētahi ki a Te Ruki, nāna nei i kōkiri te mana kāhui o Peretānia i te pakanga ki Te Tai Tokerau i ngā tau 1845–46. Pāpouri tonu nei ērā ōna a Ranga rāua ko Huru, kei noho tēnei hei mate pēhi nui i ngā uri. Nā konei ka mahue te īngoa nei o Kawiti i te tau 1909, mau kē ana ko te īngoa o tō rātou pāpā, o Parāone (Brown) hei īngoa karanga mō rātou. Nō muri kē mai i mauria ake ai e ētahi o ngā uri tērā o ōna īngoa, a Maihi (Marsh). Kāti, mahue noa ake ana ko Te Riri anake hei mau i te īngoa nei, i a Kawiti, waiho hoki ki ōna uri.

Ka whaikōrero nei a Te Riri, ka whakahuahua tonu ia i ngā pepeha o tōna tupuna tāne, ā, aua atu hoki tana pai ki te kōrero. I te wā o te Pakanga Tuatahi rongo katoa ana te tangata i tana whakahē i te mahi whiriwhiri ā-māpere haere i ngā tamariki tāne o Ngā Puhi. Whakahokia ana e ia te whakahohoutanga o te maungārongo e tana tupuna, e Te Ruki Kawiti, i mutu ai te whawhai i Ruapekapeka. Ēngari kāore ia i whakahē i te hunga Māori nō rātou te hiahia ki te haere ki te whawhai, ā, tae noa ki te Pakanga Tuarua kore rawa ia i rerekē atu. Ahakoa tāna, i whai wāhi tonu ia ki ngā mahi āwhina i te Pakanga Tuatahi, ā, nō te tau 1941 ki 1945 i noho tonu ia hei tiamana mō te komiti tāmau whenua ā-kāinga. Mō ana mahi āwhina i te whawhai, i ūhia a ia ki te tohu whakahōnore, ki te OBE i te tau 1949.

Mai i te tekau tau atu i 1930 ka tīmata te mārama haere o te whānuitanga me te hōhonutanga atu o ngā mahi o tērā wā, o te tekau tau atu i 1840. Nā te mea ko Te Ruki Kawiti te uku pou nui a Hōne Heke, ka tika tonu te rironga mā tana mokopuna, mā Te Riri e hura te papa parāhi o te pou kara i Kororāreka (Russell) i te 9 o Āperira 1930. I reira anō hoki a Tau Hēnare, te Mema Pāremata mō Te Tai Tokerau, rāua ko Te Ātihana (F. O. V. Acheson), te kaiwhakawā matua rā o te Kōti Whenua Māori. Atu i te tau 1932 ka noho a Te Riri hei mema mō te Poari Kaitiaki o Waitangi mō te Motu (Waitangi National Trust Board), hei kanohi mō ngā tino rangatira tokowhā rā o Ngā Puhi, mō Hōne Heke, mō Pōmare II, mō Tāmati Waka Nene me Te Ruki Kawiti. Ka nui kē nei ana āwhina atu i te mahi whakaora mai i te Whare Tiriti o Waitangi me te whakatū anō hoki i te whare nui i kō tata tonu mai. Riro tonu ko ia ki te whakamahi i te hunga tāne i te ngahere i Mōtatau, he wāwāhi kauri te mahi hei toetoe tuanui, hei whakatikatika i te Whare Tiriti. I runga atu i tēnā i mahia mai anō e rātou he rākau – he kauri, he tōtara – hei whakatū i te whare. Nā te āwhina mai hoki a Tau Hēnare me ngā hapū o Ngāti Te Tārawa me Ngāti Hine o te iwi kāinga, i oti ai te whare i te wā i hiahiatia ai.

Nō te tau 1939 i pōtitia e ngā kanohi, arā, o Ngā Puhi, o Te Rarawa, o Te Aupōuri, o Ngāti Kahu me Ngāti Whātua a Te Riri hei tiamana mō te komiti whakanui i te rau tau o Waitangi. Ko te pātai kē me haere tonu te whakatuwheratanga o te whare, me tatari rānei mō muri o te pakanga. Kāti koa i mau tonu a Te Riri ki te rā i whakaritea kia āhei ai ngā hōia tama tāne kua tata te wehe atu ki te mura o te ahi (me te kore anō pea o ētahi e hoki mai), ki te whai wāhi atu ki te hui mai i te taha o ō rātou pakeke. Nō te 6 o Pēpuere 1940 i tū ai te hui whakanui i te rau tau me te whakatuwheratanga i te whare nui; ko tētahi o ngā mahi o taua rā he whakaara ake anō i te mahi hainatanga a rātou mā i te Tiriti, ka mahue mai mā Te Riri e whakaū te taha hainatanga a tōna tupuna, a Te Ruki. Nō muri ka whakahaua e Te Riri kia hoatu i ngā waka hou e rua, i mahia ake mō taua hui, ki te Poari Kaitiaki o Waitangi mō te Motu hei tiaki, hei whakaputa anō hoki i ngā hui whakanui i te rā o Waitangi. Ka whakaae nei te Poari, ko te mea rahi tonu o ēnei waka e rua, ko Ngā-toki-mata-whao-rua, i riro i a rātou.

Whakamutua ana te mahi pāmu a Te Riri ka pore ka whara nei ia i te tau 1940, ā, ko tana huringa atu tēnā ki te tuhituhi kōrero. Mahia mai ana e ia he rātaka, e hia tau kē ia e tuhi ana i ngā kōrero o te whānau o Kawiti. I oti atu anō hoki i a ia tētahi kōrero tuku iho a te iwi. He nui tonu te tangata uiui mai ai i a ia mō te taha ki ōna mōhio ki ngā aho tātai me ngā kōrero tuku iho anō hoki. I te mahinga mai o tētahi rori hou i te tau 1949 mā te urupā i Te Haumi whakawhiti atu ai, i tae rawa atu te Tari Mahi mō te Katoa (Ministry of Works) ki te kōrero ki a Te Riri. Kia oti rawa te mahi, i hariharia atu ngā kōiwi he wāhi kē, kātahi anō ka wātea te haere anō o te mahi rori, e ahu pērā atu ana ki Paihia. I tēnei wā e kaha ana te mau o te awe o te rangatira matua nei, o Te Riri, ā, i whakatūria anō hoki ia hei kaiwhakawā tūmatanui. I te tau 1956, i a ia i te hui tuatahi a te Poari Kaitiaki Māori o Te Tai Tokerau (Tai Tokerau Māori Trust Board), whakatūria ana tana tama a Te Tāwai hei hēkeretari mā te poari.

Ka mutumutu haere nei ōna tau ka tīmata tana aro nui atu ki te whakatupuranga whai ake. Ka nui nei te tautoko a Te Riri i te Rōpū Tēnehi Māori o Aotearoa (New Zealand Māori Lawn Tennis Association), ā, nāna tonu i tuku te paraihe purei tēnehi ki ngā tamariki o Ngāti Hine, he mea whakataetae i ngā Rāhoroi. I ngā tekau tau atu i 1940 me 1950, he taonga e whakataetae nuitia ana tēnei, kātahi ka ngaro, ā, taka rawa mai ki te tau 1995, kātahi anō ka tīmata anō te whakataetae i waenganui i Te Kapotai o Waikare me Ngāti Manu i Kāretu. Ahakoa te pākaha o Te Riri ki ana mokopuna, he pākaha tōkeke tonu nei tōna. Me ka noho ake ana i tana taha me pukumahi tonu te mokopuna. Ka rongo atu ana i tana hiripa e koē haere mai ana i te papa o te whare, me tere tonu te hoki ki te mahi.

Nō te 20 o Pēpuere o te tau 1964 i hinga ai a Te Riri Maihi Kawiti. I mate ia i tōna kāinga, mahue noa mai ana ko tana wahine tuatoru, ko Totorewa Hōterene, me ngā tamariki tokotoru. Tūpono te oti o te whare nui o Tūmatauenga i te marae o Ōtīria i te wā o tōna tangihanga. Ko te poroporoaki tukunga atu i a ia ko te whakapakūtanga i te pūrepo whakahirahira rā a tana tipuna. Ina koa rā tōna tikanga he mihi whakanui i te hunga e wehe atu ana, ēngari mutu mai ana i a Te Riri te whakapakūtanga o taua pūrepo. Kei Wairere urupā, kei Waiōmio i Kawakawa e tāpuke ana a Te Riri Maihi Kawiti.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Kene Hine Te Uira Martin. 'Kawiti, Kirihi Te Riri Maihi', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1998. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/4k4/kawiti-kirihi-te-riri-maihi (accessed 12 July 2020)