Kōrero: Paikea, Paraire Karaka

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Paikea, Paraire Karaka

1894–1943

Nō Te Uri-o-Hau, nō Ngāti Whātua; he minita Wēteriana, he kaihautū Rātana, he kaitōrangapū

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1998.

He mokopuna tuarua a Paraire Karaka Paikea nā Paikea Te Hekeua, tētahi o ngā tino rangatira o Te Uri-o-Hau me Ngāti Whātua. Ko tōna pāpā ko Karaka Eramiha Paikea, ā, ko tana māmā ko Tuhi Harirū Maihi, hei tamāhine mā Wereti rāua ko Hōpera Maihi, o Ngāti Whātua anō hoki. Nō te takiwā pea o te 1 o Hune o te tau 1894, i whānau a Paraire ki Ōtamatea, wāhi o Kaipara. Nō muri i tana whiwhinga karahipi i tētahi kura Māori, ka haere ia ki Tīpene (St Stephen's Native Boys' School) i te tau 1907 ki 1909, ā, atu i te tau 1910 ki 1915 ka haere ki Paerata (Wesley College) i Te Tātua (Three Kings) i Ākarana (Auckland). Whakawhiwhia ana ia ki te tohu o te tauira tino mōhio o taua kura i te tau 1914. I purei whutupaoro ia mō tōna kura, ā, nō muri mai ka uru ia ki te tīma o Ngāti Whātua.

I whakaakona a Paraire Paikea hei minita Wēteriana, ā, he minita ākonga ia i te wā ka moe nei ia i a Hinerupe Parāone, hei tamāhine mā Parāone Meinata rāua ko Tāruke Hēmana, i Ōtamatea i te 19 o Hune 1918. Atu i te tau 1919, ka whakanōhia ia ki Ōtorohanga, ā, ka eke nei ki te tau 1920, ka whakawahia a ia hei minita. Kāti, nō te tau 1921, ka whakaaetia ia kia tāoki i āna mahi minita mō te tau kotahi, ēngari i mau tonu tōna īngoa ki runga i te rēhita o ngā minita o te Hāhi Wēteriana tae noa ki te tau 1925. I taua wā, kua rawe kē nei ki a ia ngā akoranga a Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana, arā, te matakite whakapono, kaiwhakaora ā-wairua hoki.

Nō te tau 1924, i tīmata ai te tū whakahirahira mai o Paikea i roto i ngā whakahaere o te kaupapa Rātana. I mua i te haerenga atu o Rātana ki tāwāhi taiāwhio ai i te ao, ka hangaia ake te kaunihera tuatahi o ngā Kotahitanga Rātana, ka uru ia hei mema; ko te tino mahi āna, he whakahaere i ngā take hauora. Ko ia tonu tētahi i tahuri ki te whakatikatika i te petihana, he mea hari atu rā e Rātana ki Ingarangi i te tau 1924. E noho tonu ana a Paikea i Te Tai Tokerau i taua wā, ka riro nei ko ia hei takawaenga mō ngā komiti katoa o te rohe o te kaupapa Rātana me ō te kāinga hoki. Nō te huinga o te kaunihera o te Kotahitanga Rātana i Hepetema o te tau 1924, ka whakahaua a Paikea kia hoki mai ki Rātana Pā mahi ai; me ka kore, me whakahoki mai ia i ngā pukapuka me ngā pepa katoa e pā ana ki āna mahi. I Te Tai Tokerau tonu ia i Hānuere o te tau 1925, he mea whakamana rā ia ki te kohi i ngā hainatanga a rātou e hiahia ana ki te whakauru mai hei mōrehu (hei mema mō te Kotahitanga), he mea kohi e ia i Ōtamatea.

Nō Hune o te tau 1925, i kāhititia te Hāhi Rātana, me Paikea rātou ko ngā minita; koirā te tikanga o tana wehe tūturu mai i te Hāhi Wēteriana. Nō te tau 1926 i whakaīngoatia ia ki te komiti whakahaere o te Kotahitanga Rātana hou, ka riro ko ia te kaitakohanga e tino tirotiro ana i ngā komiti ā-rohe o Te Tai Tokerau; nāwai rā kua riro kē ko ia hei hēkeretari mā te Kotahitanga. Nō te marama o Mei o te tau 1927, i mua atu rānei, kua heke katoa rātou ko tōna whānau ki Rātana Pā, noho ai. Ko tōna īngoa tonu tētahi i runga i te rārangi īngoa o ngā āpotoro ture wairua i rīhaina hei minita e mana ana ki te mārena tangata, ahakoa i mau tonu i a rātou ērā atu o ngā mahi whakahaere a te minita.

Nō te tau 1928 i tīhokatia atu ai a Paikea ki roto i te taha tōrangapū o te kaupapa Rātana. I Hūrae o taua tau, kua oti kē te tango ake e te Māngai (e Rātana) te īngoa nei, a Piri Wiri Tua hei īngoa mau mōna, ka hāpai haere nei ia i āna mahi rapu pōti. Nō taua wā anō i tīmata te kōrero a te Māngai mō te wāhinga o tōna tinana kia whā ngā koata, ko tana whakaritenga tēnei kia noho mai he mema Rātana i roto i ngā rohe pōti Māori e whā. Ka tae mai nei ki te marama o Oketopa 1928 kua oti kē ko Paikea te kōwhiri mō te tūranga o Te Tai Tokerau. Ahakoa ko wai te kaiwhakauru Rātana, he mea whakahau rātou katoa e te Māngai ki te haina i tētahi kawenata ki te whakapau i ō rātou kaha kia riro mai he tūru i te Whare Pāremata. Ko tāna anō he whakatūpato i te mahi tāwai, me te kore tango utu o te tangata mō āna mahi, ā, kia kaha tonu te manaaki i te iwi Māori katoa, ehara i te iwi kotahi anake, i te takiwā kotahi rānei.

Ko te whakahau tonu a te Māngai i a Paikea, mai i tēnei o ngā pōti haere atu, kia kaha tonu te hāpai i te whakarite i ngā auētanga e pū ake ana i ngā takahanga i te Tiriti o Waitangi, me te kaupapa anō hoki o te mana motuhake o te iwi Māori. Hei tohu māna i te tikanga o te kaupapa nei, riro ana nā Paikea i waha te whakamau a Ngāti Whātua mō ō rātou whenua e ngaro haere tonu ana i Ōrākei i Ākarana. Nō te tau 1929, ka riro i a Paikea te mahi hēkeretari a Pita Moko mā te Māngai. I te marama o Mei, i haere ake ia i te taha o Rātana ki Pōneke (Wellington) ki te petihana i te kāwanatanga me ka kore e homai tētahi āwhina hei patu i ngā nama e tāmi nei i ngā whenua e karapoti ana i te takiwā kāinga i Rātana Pā; ka pau haere te tau, ka haere anō rāua ki Te Tai Tokerau, ki Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay), ki Te Wairarapa, ki Whakatāne me Tauranga, ko Paikea anō te hēkeretari.

Tae rawa ki te tau 1930, kua noho kē a Paraire Paikea hei mema mō te Tokowhitu (he komiti whiriwhiri, tokowhitu ngā mema), i tērā wā ko te rōpū whakahaere tēnei o te Kotahitanga Rātana; nō te taenga ki te tau 1931, ka tū anō ia mō te tūru o Te Tai Tokerau. I kitea anō hoki ia i roto i ngā whakawhitiwhiti kōrero i waenganui i te Rōpū Reipa me te Rōpū Rātana; ka tae haere atu ki te pōti o te tau 1931, i mau tonu te tūranga 'takawaenga' (te īngoa o taua wā mō te tūranga motuhake) o ngā tāngata a Rātana, ahakoa rā tautokona tonutia ana rātou e te Rōpū Reipa. Nō te tatauranga, 2,109 ngā pōti a Paikea, 3,297 a Tau Hēnare. Nā te kaha mai o te Rōpū Rātana, i haere tonu te whakawhitiwhiti kōrero ki te Rōpū Reipa; i te taenga atu o Te Hōrana (Harry Holland), arā, o te kaihautū o te Rōpū Reipa ki Rātana Pā i te 4 o Āperira 1932, riro ana nā Paikea āna kōrero i whakamāori. Eke kau atu ana ki tērā wā, kua noho kē mai a Paikea hei tiamana kairīwhi mō te komiti whakahaere o te Kotahitanga Rātana. Nō muri i te pōti pāerotanga i Ākuhata o te tau 1932, ka uru ko Eruera Tirikātene hei mema Māori mō Te Tai Tonga, ka tonoa e Rātana tana tama a Toko rāua ko Paikea ki Pōneke ki te āwhina i a Tirikātene hei hēkeretari māna, me te whakawaia anō hoki i a rāua ki ngā mahi tōrangapū.

I ētahi wā e mahi ana a Paikea i Pōneke, ā, i ētahi wā e whakahaere ana ia i ngā mahi a te Kotahitanga i Rātana Pā; nō taua wā nei i hangaia te pēne parāhe a ngā mōrehu, i tapaina e Rātana ko Te Reo o Te Māngai. Ko Paikea tonu te kaiwhakaako me te kaiārahi tuatahi o taua pēne. Ka matatau haere ake te pēne ka tīmata tō rātou puta atu ki ngā hui maha o te motu – ki ngā mahi tākaro, ki ngā hui tōrangapū, ki ngā tangihanga, tae atu ki ngā toronga mai o te kāhui roera. Ko ia tonu te kaiārahi o te Pēne Hiriwa o ngā Mōrehu (Rātana Mōrehu Silver Band), he mea whakatū rā i te tau 1935, ā, nāna hoki ngā kaupapa hākinakina i whakatū ki Rātana Pā.

Ahakoa kīhai a Paikea i toa i tana whakataetaetanga i te tūru mō Te Tai Tokerau i te tau 1935, nā te kaha o te kōkiri o ngā kaiwhakauru Rātana, i ngana ake ai te Rōpū Reipa ki te whakahono mai i a rātou ki tā rātou kaupapa. Nō te 2 o Āperira i te tau 1936, i noho ai a Paikea hei mema mō te Rōpū Reipa o Aotearoa, ā, nō taua tau anō, i tae ia ki te hui a te rōpū. I whakaīngoatia ia hei hēkeretari mā te komiti whakahaere Māori (Māori Organising Committee), ā, he wāhi nui tonu nei tōna ka riro nei i te kaupapa Rātana te whakahaere o te wāhanga Māori o te Rōpū Reipa. Nā te rārangi īngoa o ngā mema o te Hāhi ka tū nei i a ia ngā peka tūhonohono haere. I ngana anō hoki te komiti whakahaere Māori ki te waihanga ake i te āhua o ngā kaupapa a te Rōpū Reipa, kia hāngai kē mai ki ngā whāinga a te Rōpū Rātana. I te hui whakamīharo nei i waenganui i a Rātana rāua ko te Pirimia, ko Te Hāwiti (Michael Joseph Savage) i te 22 o Āperira 1936, ko te wā tērā i āta whakataua te taupiringa o ngā rōpū e rua nei, ka riro nā Paikea i whakamārama ngā kōrero a te Māngai.

Nō te tau 1937, i hurihia te īngoa o te komiti whakahaere Māori ki te kaunihera tohutohu Māori (Māori Advisory Council); ko tētahi o ngā take i pēnei ai, he whakaiti i te mana o Rātana i runga i te wāhanga Māori o te Rōpū Reipa. Ahakoa i whakataetaetia te tūranga hēkeretari, i mau tonu tēnei i a Paikea; ēngari anō a Tirikātene, riro kē ana tōna tūranga perehitini i te rāwaho nei, i a Rangi Māwhete. Nā te whakaīngoatanga o ētahi Pākehā ki te kaunihera, kātahi ka uaua rawa te kaha o Paikea ki te whakamahi i te kaunihera kia aro mai ki ngā kaupapa a Rātana. Ahakoa ngā taupatu, kōwhiria ana ko Paikea hei kaiwhakataetae i te tūranga mō Te Tai Tokerau i te tau 1938, ā, hinga ana i a ia a Tau Hēnare, 2,011 kē te nui atu o āna pōti.

He tangata i paingia a Paikea e ngā iwi e rua, ā, ka rawe kē nei hoki ia ki te kōrero Pākehā. Ka mau kē nei hoki tōna kaha ki te tautāwhi i ngā kaupapa a Tirikātene, pērā i ngā take e pā ana ki te taha hauora Māori me ngā whare kāinga mō ngā Māori. Nā te hanga pū noho ōna i te Komiti mō ngā Mea Māori (Native Affairs Committee), i taea e ia te ārahi mai ētahi petihana mā roto i te komiti nei. Ko tētahi wāhi nui o āna mahi i waho mai o te Whare Pāremata, he rapu i tētahi tikanga e ora ai ngā iwi Māori o Ōrākei, e rua eka me te hāwhe noa te whenua rāhui kei te toitū tonu. I noho tonu ia hei hēkeretari mā te komiti whakahaere i Rātana Pā, he mea wehe rua e ia ōna wā mahi i waenganui i Rātana Pā me Pōneke. Ahakoa i mutu tana mahi hēkeretari mā te kaunihera tohutohu Māori, i noho tonu ia hei mema mō taua komiti.

Ko te pakarutanga mai o te pakanga i te tau 1939 te wā i hira ai ngā mahi a Paikea. Tautokona ana e ia te tono kia whakatūria he ope taua Māori tūao kia noho tonu ko ngā Māori hei āpiha; heoi ko tāna anō i wawata ai kia kaua e māperetia te iwi Māori ki te haere ki te whawhai. Riro ana nā rāua ko Āpirana Ngata, me ērā atu anō o ngā mema Pāremata o te Hāhi Rātana, i whakatū he rōpū hanga noa iho hei āwhina i ngā hōia i te whawhai; ehara, kāre tonu i roa kua kitea me āta whakatū anō he rōpū ōkawa tōtika ake. Nā konei, i whakatūria e te Pirimia, e Pita Pereiha (Peter Fraser) he Māori hei kanohi mō te iwi ki te rūnanga matua o te kāwanatanga i Tīhema o te tau 1940. Tae rawa atu ki te tau 1941, i te 21 o Hānuere, ka whakaīngoatia a Paikea hei mema mō te Kaunihera Whiriwhiri (Executive Council), hei waha kōrero anō hoki mō te iwi Māori.

Kua roa kē a Paikea e hanga tikanga ana mō te whakatū rōpū hei whakakotahi i ngā mahi Māori mō te whawhai, ā, nō te 13 o Maehe i tāpaetia atu e ia te kaupapa nei. Nō muri ka haere ia huri noa i te motu, whakaatu haere i ōna whakaaro ki ngā kaihautū o ngā iwi, ā, nō te ekenga atu ki te 9 o Mei whakaaetia ana te kaupapa nei e te rūnanga matua o te kāwanatanga: riro ana mā te kaupapa tūao e whakatau ngā wāhine, tāne Māori rānei, ki te whakauru atu ki ngā ahumahi i te tāone, mea rānei i a rātou hei hōia ki te takiwā kāinga, ki tāwāhi rānei i te Ope Taua 28 (Māori) o Aotearoa (28th New Zealand (Māori) Battalion).

E whā marama o te tau 1942 e noho ana a Paikea hei minita whakahaere i ngā mahi Māori mō te pakanga, ka tū nei i a ia te rōpū i kīia rā ko te rōpū tautoko i ngā Mahi Māori mō te Whawhai (Māori War Effort Organisation). Nuku atu i te 300 ngā komiti ā-iwi i waihangatia hei rapu tangata hei tono ki te mahi pū, whakataritari rānei hei hōia; ka haere tonu nei te whawhai ka tukua atu anō he mahi mā rātou; nā konei i hua ai te whakaaro o te Māori, ko tēnei te wā tuatahi ko rātou tonu kei te waha i a rātou, arā, me ka tū me ka hinga rānei, kei a rātou tēnā.

Hore kau ngā tāngata katoa i rata ki te mahi whakahaere a te rōpū a Paikea; tērā atu anō hoki ngā tari Māori, he Pākehā te nuinga o ā rātou kaimahi i taua wā, ka puta nei te amuamu kei te riro kē ā rātou mahi mō te whawhai me ngā painga mihi hoki i a Paikea mā; ko ētahi o rātou ko ngā kaimahi tonu a te Tari Māori. Ka eke atu nei ki Tīhema o te tau 1942 kua tū kē ngā komiti whakahaere ā-iwi, komiti noa nei hoki puta noa i te motu; ko ā rātou mahi, he kohi moni, he whakatipu kai atu hoki mā ngā mahi tautoko i te whawhai, tohatoha tangata atu hoki hei kaimahi mā ngā ahumahi pū.

I te tīmatanga o te tau 1943, ka mahi a Paikea rātou ko Tirikātene me ētahi atu ki te whiriwhiri i tētahi tikanga e taea ai te huri te rōpū tautoko i ngā Mahi Māori mō te Whawhai hei rōpū mō te wā o te maungārongo, kia riro ai mā te Māori anō ā rātou take e whakahaere. Heoi anō, nō te 2 o Āperira 1943 i wehe atu a Paikea i Pōneke ki te kite i a Toko Rātana, te Kaiārahi o te Hāhi Rātana, i te hōhipera e takoto ana. Nō muri i a ia e hoki atu ana ki Rātana Pā ka ohorere tana pāngia e te mate, ka haria ki tētahi hōhipera tūmataiti i Whanganui. Nō te 6 o Āperira i te tau 1943, ka hinga ia i te mate pauku puku, pauku kōpiri kino kē nei hoki. Tērā te whakapae a ētahi o Te Tai Tokerau, nā te mākutu ia i mate ai. Ka haria ia ki Rātana Pā, ki reira tangihia ai e tōna iwi me ngā kaitōrangapū rongonui. Nō te whakahokinga ki Te Tai Tokerau, ka peka atu te ope mau i te tūpāpaku ki Ngāruawāhia me Ōrākei. I tanumia a Paikea ki te taha o ōna pakeke i te 15 o Āperira i te tau 1943. Ka ora ake ko tōna hoa wahine, me ā rāua tamariki, kotahi he tāne, kotahi he wahine.

Ahakoa kāre anō ia i eke ki te taumata o tōna kaha, ko ngā mahi i tutuki i a Paraire Karaka Paikea ka mutu pea te mīharo. Whāia ka mate rā te Māngai, whakatau kētia mai ana te īngoa o Piri Wiri Tua ki runga i a Paikea; hei tohu whakanui kē hoki i a ia mōna i hautū i ngā mahi tōrangapū whakahaumi a te Rōpū Rātana rātou ko te Rōpū Reipa. Ka ngaro nei a Paikea, whai ake ana i a ia ki te tūru o Te Tai Tokerau ko tana tama, ko Tāpihana Paraire Paikea.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Paikea, Paraire Karaka', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1998. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/4p1/paikea-paraire-karaka (accessed 17 October 2019)