Kōrero: Rankin, Hōne Heke

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Rankin, Hone Heke

1896–1964

Nō Ngā Puhi; he rangatira, he kaimahi hauora, he tangata mahi pāmu

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1998.

Nō te 13 o Hānuere i te tau 1896 i whānau ai a Hōne Heke Rankin, (arā, ko John Rankin an­ō tōna īngoa) ki Tūranga (Gisborne). Hei tamaiti ia ki a Matire Ngāpua o Ngā Puhi rāua ko tōna hoa tāne, ko John Claudian (Claudius) Rankin, he kaiwhakahaere toa hokohoko nō Kaikohe. Ko Matire te tamāhine a Niurangi Pūriri rāua ko Hōne Ngāpua. Hei irāmutu a Hōne Ngāpua mā Hōne Heke Pōkai, te rangatira o Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands), inarā, nāna i haina te Tiriti o Waitangi, taihoa ake i poroa e ia te pouhaki i Kororāreka (Russell). Ko te tungāne o Matire ko Hōne Heke, te mema Pāremata mō Te Tai Tokerau atu i 1893 ki 1911. E mahi ana a Matire mā te tari rōia o Parr me Blomfield i Ākarana (Auckland), ka tūtaki nei ia ki a John Rankin, he manene nō Glasgow i Kōtirana, ā, he tangata e kīia ana ko te tohunga ture o Kaikohe. He tuakana anō tō Hōne Heke Rankin, arā, ko Hepi tōna īngoa. Ko te āhua nei, he paku noa te wā o tō rāua matua i te taha o āna tamariki, ēngari i waimarie rāua ki te mōhio ki te kōrero Pākehā, Māori hoki. Ko Te Matarahurahu te hapū tūturu o Hōne Heke, ēngari i pā anō hoki ia ki ngā kāwai rangatira o Ngāti Rāhiri, o Ngāi Tāwake, o Ngāti Tautahi, o Te Uri-o-Hua, ā, ki te nuinga atu hoki o ngā iwi o Te Tai Tokerau.

Nā te tohunga o Hōne Heke ki te whaikōrero i te marae, tāpiri atu ki te tūnga taro rawa ake i riro i a ia, tērā pū ai te whakaaro, i akona pea ia ki ngā tikanga tuku iho a te Māori. Ka kaumātua nei a Hōne, hoki ana āna kōrero mō ōna pānga ki Te Tai Rāwhiti: nō tētahi kāwai heke ōna, i whai pānga ia ki a Ngāti Kahungunu me Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki, ā, ka whanaunga anō hoki ia ki a Wī Pere. Hei tāna kōrero, i noho ia i te whare o Āpirana Ngata mō e hia tau kē, ā, he mea kura hoki ia ki Waiomatatini. He hinengaro uiui tōna, ā, ahakoa ruarua noa ngā angitu, kīhai ia i wareware ki te mahi hei whakapakari i a ia tonu. I te tekau tau atu i 1930, he hokihoki tonu tana mahi, pānui ai i te Paipera mai i te tīmatanga ki te mutunga i ngā reo e rua. Inarā hoki koinei anake te pukapuka i wātea ki a ia i tērā wā. Nōna ka taikoroua, ka tino kaha kē atu tana pānui pukapuka, ā, nāna tonu ia i tohunga ai ki te tini o ngā mahi mātauranga, mahi pūtaiao hoki.

Nō te 13 o Tīhema 1915, i haina ai a Hōne Heke hei hōia mō te ope hōia, he mea rēhita ia i tērā wā hei kaitaraiwa motokā. I whakawhiti atu ia ki tāwāhi i te taha o te Ope Tānga Tekau Mā Tahi (11th Reinforcements). Nō Ākuhata o te tau 1916 i tukua atu ia ki te mura o te ahi i te taha o te Ope Taua Tuarua (2nd Battalion) o te matua hīkoi o Ākarana (Auckland Infantry Regiment). I te marama o muri mai ka taotū ia i te pakanga o te Somme, ā, haria atu ana ki Ingarangi. Nō te marama o Pēpuere 1918 ka whakauru atu ia ki te Ope Hauora o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Medical Corps), ā, whakamutua ana tāna mahi hōia i te tau 1919. Nō muri i te pakanga ka noho tonu ia i te mahi hauora, mahi ake i te tari whakaahua whakaroto i te hōhipera o Ākarana mō te tekau tau te roa. Nō muri, i neke atu ia ki Rotorua.

Taro ake ka hoki a Hōne Heke ki Te Tai Tokerau, noho ake ai hei kaiwhakahaere i ngā kaimahi i tētahi maina mēkuri i Ngāwhā, i te wā i waenganui i ngā tau 1928 ki 1934. Nō muri mai, i hokona mai e ia tētahi whenua i Punakitere, e 30 tau, nuku atu rānei tana roa e mahi pāmu ana i reira. I te 11 o Maehe 1924, ka moe a Hōne Heke i a Hinuōriwa Te Pirihi Whiu o Ngāti Rangi, hei tamāhine ki a Maraea rāua ko Te Pirihi Whiu. Tokotoru ā rāua tamariki, ēngari i muri mai ka wehe ngā tokorua nei, hoki atu ana a Hinu ki tōna iwi. I te āhua nei nō te tau 1927, ka tūtaki a Hōne Heke ki a Parani Maihi o Ngāti Hau o Te Hokianga, ā, moea ana e ia hei wahine tuarua māna, i runga i te tikanga moe Māori. He kura māhita te mahi a Parani, ā, e ai ki ngā tātai whakapapa, he tino rangatira ia, ā, hōrapa ana tōna rongo mō te pai ki te whaikōrero. Tokowhitu ā rāua tamariki.

Eke atu ana ki te tekau tau atu i 1930, kua tīmata te tū rangatira o Hōne Heke i waenganui i tōna iwi, ā, uru atu ana ia ki roto i ngā mahi nui a tōna takiwā. Nā konei ka mahue ake a Parani ki te mahi i te pāmu rātou ko āna tamariki pakeke anake hei āwhina i a ia. I kāhititia a Hōne Heke hei mema mō te Kaunihera o Pēwhairangi (Pēwhairangi Māori Council) i te tau 1936. Puritia ana e ia tōna tūranga i te kaunihera tae noa ki te tau 1945, nuku atu pea. Nō te tau 1937, i whakawhiwhia a ia ki tētahi mētara maharatanga mō te koroneihana o te Kīngi o Ingarangi. Ko ia anō hoki tētahi o ngā rangatira o Te Tai Tokerau nā Eru Pou i pōwhiri ki tētahi hui, ki te whakawhiti kōrero mō ngā whakamāherehere hei whakanui i te rā rau tau i te tau 1940. I te tau 1939, ko tōna īngoa tētahi i runga i te rārangi īngoa o ngā rangatira Māori i pōwhiritia kia uru ki roto i tētahi mahi whakaari ngātahi mā te Pākehā me te Māori anō hoki. I te whakaari nei mō te haina i te Tiriti o Waitangi, nāna i mau te taha ki tōna tipuna, ki a Hōne Heke Pōkai.

I ngā tau o te Pakanga Tuarua, e pāmu tonu ana a Hōne Heke Rankin i tōna whenua. Ko te āhua nei, i whai wāhi atu ia ki ngā mahi a te rōpū tautoko i ngā Mahi Māori mō te Whawhai (Māori War Effort Organisation). Heoi anō, ka nui kē te mahi i mahia e ia ka whakatūria nei ia ki te Poari Whakanohonoho Hōia (Rehabilitation Board) i ngā marama whakamutunga o 1944. Nā te mea he hoa rāua ko te Pirimia, ko Pita Pereiha (Peter Fraser), nā tērā pea i whakanohoia ki te tūranga nei. Ko te takohanga a te poari, he mahi whakanohonoho i ngā hōia Pākehā me ngā hōia Māori i hoki mai i tāwāhi, arā, ki te whakahaere i te akoranga mahi, me te mahi ahu whenua hoki, tae atu ki te āwhina i te kimi mahi mā rātou, āwhina hoki kia whakawhiwhia ki te pūtea tārewa hei hoko whare, hei hoko pāmu kē rānei. I te marama o Āperira 1945, ka whakatūria e te Poari tētahi komiti tiaki pūtea, taketake mai mā ngā hōia Māori, ā, meinga atu ana a Hōne Heke ki runga i taua komiti. Ko te kaupapa mō te komiti nei, mā rātou e āta hoko mai, e āta rīhi mai rānei ngā whenua iwi hei wāhi whakanohonoho i ngā hōia Māori.

I te marama o Ākuhata 1945, ka taiāwhio a Hōne Heke Rankin rātou ko ētahi atu i ngā rohe Māori ki te tirotiro e pēhea ana te haere o ngā mahi; oti ana i a rātou te whakatatū me te whakamārama ngā tikanga whakahaere. Heoi anō, nō te taiāwhiotanga a Hōne Heke me āna hoa poari i ngā kāinga o Te Tai Tokerau i Hānuere o te tau 1946, kitea ana te nui o ngā hē: inarā, ko te kore e whiwhi o te tangata i ngā kōrero tōtika, tae atu ki te whakatakaroa a ngā kaimahi kāwanatanga i te mahi, ā, nā te kore i nui mai o ngā whenua iwi e wātea ana, i paku noa te oti o ngā mahi whakanohonoho i te hunga Māori ki runga whenua, arā, i a rātou kua oti kē te whakaako ki te mahi pāmu. Māharahara ana a Hōne Heke mā, kei kotiti noa ngā tāngata nei ki ngā tāone, ā, mehemea e mahue pērā ana, ka moumou noa ngā akoranga i mau i a rātou. Kia wātea ai ngā mema o te Poari ki te whakaputa kau i ō rātau whakaaro, nā Hōne i kore ai te āpiha Māori o te takiwā i hanake mai i tō rātou taha, ā, māhorahora ana te āhua o ngā amuamu i tae atu ki te Poari. I te marama o Maehe 1946, ko ia anō tētahi o te rōpū rite nei ki tērā, i haere ki Te Tai Rāwhiti tirotiro ai.

Haere tonu te whakahua mārika a Hōne Heke Rankin i ngā mahi whakanohonoho hōia i tōna ake takiwā. Ka nui te wāhi ki a ia i te whakatūnga i te wāhanga whakangungu i te mahi kāmura o Kaikohe (Kaikohe Carpentry Training Centre) i te marama o Maehe 1945. I Punakitere, nāna i taea ai tētahi poraka whenua nui te whakamahi hei pāmu whakaako mō ngā hōia e pīrangi ana ki tērā mahi. Nā te mea he takiwā keri kāpia tēnei i ngā tau ki mua, kīhai i pai ēnei whenua hei pāmu. Kāti e hia tau kē nei kātahi anō ka kitea te rongoā tika, arā, kei te āhua tonu o te mahi whakakotahi i ngā momo maniua, kātahi anō ka tōtika te whenua nei. Nō te tau 1948, i tuhi atu ai a Hōne Heke ki te minita whakanohonoho hōia, ki a C. F. Skinner, he tino pāpouri nōna ki te iti noa o ngā hōia Māori e whai hua ana ki te kaupapa o tērā wā mō te whakanohonoho hōia i runga i te whenua. Tono ana a Hōne Heke kia whakarerekētia te kaupapa nei, kia tere ake ai te riro mai o te whenua. I tono anō hoki ia kia whakatūria tētahi āpiha o te Tari Māori hei kaitirotiro mō ngā mahi a ngā hōia Māori e whai ana i ngā mahi pakihi, nā te mea he nui rawa nō rātou e hē noa ana i te kore e mōhio ki te whakapukapuka me te whakahaere anō hoki i ngā mahi kaute.

Pōnānā ana te Tari Whakanohonoho Hōia i te reta a Hōne Heke, ā, nō reira tonu i tino tirotirohia ai ngā kaupapa a te Tari. Heoi anō, whakaritea ana e Tipi Rōpiha, te Hēkeretari o Raro o te Tari Māori tētahi hui hei wānanga i te kaupapa nei i te tau 1949. I te marama o Hūrae i taua tau tonu, ka oti te whakarite a te Poari Whakanohonoho i tētahi komiti whakahaere a te komiti tahua moni o raro, meinga atu anō hoki a Hōne Heke hei mema. Nā te mea ko ia tētahi o ngā Māori ruarua nei e āhei ana ki te whakatutuki take, i tono wāhi rawa ia mōna ki runga ki ngā komiti iti katoa e whakahaere ana i ngā tahua moni, tae atu ki ngā mahi wāriu, whakarite hoki i ngā utu me te mahi tirotiro anō hoki i ngā mahi ahu whenua a ngā hōia Māori i whakanōhia i runga i te whenua i raro i ngā tūmomo kaupapa a te Poari. Whakaaetia ana ēnei tono a Hōne Heke, ā, e haere tonu ana āna mahi tau rawa mai ki te tekau tau atu i 1950.

Nā runga i āna mahi mō te motu, me te mea anō he tangata rangatira, i hau ai ōna rongo i tōna haukāinga, whai wāhi haere tonu hoki ia ki te nui o ngā mahi. I te whakahuringa i ngā whare o te hōhipera o Kaikohe i te tau 1947, hei kura hangarau, kura tuarua ahu whenua – taro rawa ake whakaīngoatia ana ko te kāreti o Te Tai Tokerau (Northland College) – noho ake ana ko Hōne Heke hei kaikōrero Māori matua. Tautokona nuitia ana ia e te peka Māori o te Rōpū Reipa o Aotearoa i tōna takiwā, ā, nō te tau 1949 ka tono ia kia whakaīngoatia ko ia hei kaiwhakauru mō te Rōpū Reipa mō te rohe pōti o Te Tai Tokerau. Heoi anō, he ū rawa nō te pupuri a te Rōpū Rātana i te tūnga nei, hore kau i taea e ia.

Nō te raumati o te tau 1953–54, i tae ake ai te Kuini taiohi nei, a Riripeti Te Tuarua, rāua ko tōna hoa tāne, ko te Tiuka o Ētinapara (Edinburgh) ki Aotearoa taiāwhio haere ai. Raru ana ngā whakaritenga mō te taha pōwhiri a te iwi Māori i a rāua. Nō te 28 o Tīhema 1953, i toro atu ai ngā tokorua o te whānau ariki tapairu nei i Waitangi. Nā runga i te kaha o ngā Māori ki te tautohe i te mahuetanga o Waitangi hei marae karanga i te Kuini i ngā whakaritenga tuatahi, i tū ai te hui pōwhiri i a rāua ki Waitangi. Ko Hōne Heke tētahi i runga i te komiti whakahaere, ā, ko ia anō tētahi i runga i te pae kōrero. Mahue ana i a ia tana whaikōrero e rua miniti noa te roa, kua oti kē hoki te tuku atu ki te hunga pāho kōrero. Ka mahue tana kōrero mō te rua miniti noa, e whā miniti kē ia e kōrero ana mō te Tiriti o Waitangi. E ai ki tāna, he kōrero puri mahara whakaū kē tērā i ngā tikanga tuku iho a te iwi Māori. Inarā tāna anō, nuku kē atu te Tiriti i te pukapuka ā-ture; he kawenata kē mō te tika. Whakapuakina ana e Hōne Heke tōna whakaaro kia riro māna e ārahi te Kuini rāua ko te Tiuka o Ētinapara ki Ngāruawāhia ki tōna whanaunga, ki a Kīngi Korokī. (Nā runga i te whakamā o te kāwanatanga i whakaaetia kia peka atu te ope roera, ahakoa te wā poto ki reira.) Nō muri mai, i mea anō ia, mā rāua tahi ko Korokī e ārahi atu te kāhui o te Kuini ki ngā waharoa tonu o Te Arawa. Nō muri i tēnei, kātahi anō a Hōne Heke ka hoki ki tana whaikōrero i whakaritea e ia, tapā ana e ia te Pirimia, a Te Hōrana (S. G. Holland) hei kaiwhakaahuru, hei kaitiaki hoki mō te Kuini. Hoatu ana hoki e Hōne Heke te mere tino tapu nei a Te Uira, inarā, te mere a Hongi Hika, ki a Te Hōrana puri ai mō te wā noa o te Kuini i Aotearoa nei.

Ū mārika ana tāna i kī ai, ārahina atu ana e Hōne Heke te kāhui ariki a te Kuini ki Ngāruawāhia i te 30 o Tīhema. I te werotanga o te ope i te waharoa o te marae, whakatakotoria ana e te tangata wero he tokotoko whakairo ki tō rātou aroaro. Tīkina atu ana e Hōne Heke, hoatu ana e ia ki a Te Hōrana, hei hoatu māna ki te Kuini. Ā, heoi anō, kāore anō kia tau noa te puehu. I te ārahitanga atu a Hōne Heke rāua ko Pei Te Hurinui Jones i a Korokī ki Rotorua, tono ana rāua i ngā rangatira o Te Arawa kia tukua mā Korokī te Kuini e ārahi atu ki te marae o Te Arawa, hari rawa atu hoki ki te pourangi ariki. Whakatakariri ana a Te Arawa, kore rawa e whakaaetia. Kauparetia ana te riri nei, ā, waimarie ana. Hāunga anō, ea noa ana te nuinga o ngā kōrero a Hōne Heke i te nohoanga mai o Korokī ki Te Ruatō, i Te Rotoiti, kāore tonu i tawhiti mai i te Kuini.

E hau tonu ana te rongo o Hōne Heke Rankin i te wā o te tekau tau whakamutunga o ōna rā. I te pōwhiringa anō i te Kuini i te tau 1963 i Waitangi, i whai wāhi nui tonu ia ki taua hui, ahakoa te kore i whakapono o ngā kaiwhakahaere, ka tika te kōrero a te tangata nei, arā, he momo anō ia e hore kau e tuohu ana ki te hunga kātipa. I whakatūria ia hei mema mō te Poari o Te Tī Waitangi (Waitangi Te Tii Trust Board), me te Poari Kaitiaki Māori o Te Taitokerau (Tai Tokerau Māori Trust Board) anō hoki. Whakawhiwhia ana hoki ia ki te tohu OBE, ā, he kaiwhakawā manaiti anō hoki ia. I mua tata tonu atu i tōna matenga, whakatuwheratia ana e te Kāwana Tianara te whare nui o Tūmatauenga i Ōtīria. Riro ana i a Hōne tētahi wāhanga nui o te mahi ki te whakahaere i te hanganga o te whare nei, ā, nāna anō hoki i tapa.

I mate a Hōne Heke Rankin ki te hōhipera tūmatanui o Whāngārei (Whāngārei Public Hospital) i te 16 o Āperira i te tau 1964. Mahue mai ana ko tana wahine tuarua rātou ko ngā tamariki tekau. I te whakahokinga atu i a ia ki te kāinga, haria atu ana ia ki te marae o Ōtīria, ā, i muri mai takoto ai mō ētahi hāora nei ki Ngāwhā, tae rawa atu hoki ki runga i Te Kotahitanga marae i Kaikohe. I tanumia ia i te 19 o Āperira i te taha o tōna matua kēkē, o Hōne Heke Ngāpua.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Rankin, Hōne Heke - Rankin, Hone Heke', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1998. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/4r3/rankin-hone-heke (accessed 9 December 2019)