Kōrero: Tīpoki, Te Hata

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Tipoki, Te Hata

1880–1940

Nō Ngāti Kahungunu; he manukura, he kaitohe tika whenua

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1998.

I whānau a Te Hata Tīpoki – he mea karanga kē ia ko Te Hata Kōpū i ētahi wā – i te tau 1880 i Waihīrere pea, i tētahi wāhi e pātata atu ana ki Te Wairoa, whaka-te-raki o Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay). Ko Te Hata Tīpoki anō te īngoa o tōna pāpā, he tangata e kōrerotia ana i whai kē pea i a Te Kooti Arikirangi i ngā pakanga o te tekau tau mai i 1870. He tamāhine tōna whaea a Hīria Kōpū nā te tino wahine tapairu o te takiwā ki Te Wairoa, nā Mere Karaka rāua ko tana tāne, ko Pitiera (Pitihera rānei) Kōpū. Nā te mea hei teina ngā tātai rangatira o Pitiera ki ērā o Mere, nō te moe kētanga kātahi anō ia ka tū hei rangatira mō te iwi. I ngā pakanga o te tekau tau mai i 1860, ka puta te rongo o Pitiera hei toa, hei kaihautū mō te iwi, e whawhai ana rā i te taha o te kāwanatanga. Ka mate a Pitiera i te tau 1867, ka whai a Mere Karaka i te rongopai a Te Kooti, ā, i te mutunga atu ka riro ko ia hei pou mō te Hāhi Ringatū ki Te Wairoa. Nā tēnei āhua o te taha rua o tōna whānau, i tautoko ai ia i te taha ki a Te Kooti, i te kāwanatanga rānei, i pai noa iho te whaingākau a Te Hata ki tētahi taha, ki tētahi taha i ngā whakatāuteute mō ngā whenua o Te Wairoa i riro i te rau o te patu.

He maha ngā hapū o Te Hata i roto i a Ngāti Kahungunu ki Te Wairoa; otirā ko te hapū i aronuitia e ia ko Ngāi Te Apatū, te hapū mana nui ki te marae o Waihīrere. He pānga anō ōna ki a Tamaionarangi (Tamaionerangi rānei), ki a Ngāti Mihi me Ngāti Puku.

He iti ngā kōrero mō te wā e ohi, e rangatahi ana a Te Hata. Tērā pea i haere ia ki te kura Māori o Waihīrere i te tekau tau mai i 1880, i te tīmatanga rānei o te tekau tau mai i 1890. Kāore pea i tino roa i muri o te huringa o te rau tau, ka moea e ia a Mākuini Whakapaki, hei tamāhine mā Hōhepa Kahuroa (o Te Whānau-a-Kai, he hapū nō Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki) rāua ko Mākuini Honotapu (he wahine nō Ngāti Hineterā o Te Wairoa). I waenganui i ngā tau 1906 ki te tau 1919 ka puta ā rāua tamariki tokowaru. E ai ki tētahi kōrero, tekau mā ono rawa ngā tamariki katoa. Nō te tau 1919 kua tau kē te noho a Te Hata ki Mahurangi, e pātata ana ki Te Rēinga.

I te tekau tau mai i 1920, ka tau te korowai ārahi o te iwi ki runga i ngā pakihiwi o Te Hata, ahakoa anō tōna taitamarikitanga. Ka taka ki te tau 1927 ko ia te tiamana o te rōpū toko i te ora o Kahungunu (Kahungunu Welfare Association) mō te peka o Te Wairoa, ā, nō te tau 1928, i whakatūria a ia ki te Kaunihera o Kahungunu (Kahungunu Māori Council). Ahakoa ngā pānga Ringatū o tōna whānau, i mau pono tonu a Te Hata Tīpoki ki te Hāhi Mihingare; ko ia te māngai reimana i ngā huihui a te komiti Māori o te ātirīkonatanga o Te Matau-a-Māui.

Mai i te tīmatanga ki te mutunga, i pau te kaha o Te Hata ki te whai i te tikanga ture mō tōna iwi, arā, te tautiaki mai rānei, te whakahau kē atu rānei, tae atu ki te whakahoki mai anō i te mana whenua o tōna iwi. I te tau 1920, nōna te moko tuatahi o ngā moko 131 i tuhia ake ki te petihana ki te Pāremata, kia uiuia te mana whenua o ngā poraka e whā o te taha whakarunga o te awa o Te Wairoa, arā, o Ruakituri, o Tāramarama, o Tukurangi me Waiau, i raupatutia tuatahitia rā i raro i te Ture mō te Whakanoho i te Hunga Mārie (New Zealand Settlements Act) o te tau 1863. I te tau 1867, ka whakakorea te raupatu hāunga tētahi wāhi iti nei, i uru atu ai ētahi maramara o te poraka o Kauhouroa. Ko te nuinga o aua whenua i hokona mai e te Karauna i te tau 1875. Tukua ana e 500 eka i Pākōwhai hei whenua rāhui ki te kuia o Te Hata, ki a Mere Karaka me ētahi atu. Ēngari nō te whakarerekētanga i ngā ture whenua Māori i muri mai, ka warawara noa te mana whenua o te iwi o Te Hata. Nō te uiuitanga, ka whakamanaia te Kōti Whenua Māori hei whakatau ko wai ka whai pānga ki te whenua rāhui o Pākōwhai.

I te tau 1924, ka rere anō te petihana a Te Hata rātau ko ētahi o ngā rangatira ki te Pāremata, ēngari he tohetohe kē tēnei mō te raupatutanga ake o Kauhouroa. Nā te kaha o te pēhanga tahitanga a ngā rangatira katoa o Te Wairoa, i te tau 1927 i takoto ai ēnei petihana katoa ki te aroaro o te kōmihana a Te Hīmi (Sim Commission) tiro i ngā whenua raupatu o te iwi Māori. I reira ka kitea kāore i tutuki i te Karauna tana takohanga kia whakahokia ngā whenua raupatu katoa o taua rohe. Waihoki tērā, whakaritea ana kia utua te moni kāpeneheihana, £300 i te tau, hei tuku i ngā Māori o Te Wairoa ki te whai i ngā mātauranga teitei. Kore rawa i utua.

I Hepetema o te tau 1935, ka tukua te reta a Te Hata Tīpoki rātau ko ngā rangatira o Te Wairoa ki te Pirimia, ki a Te Whōpi (G. W. Forbes), me te Minita whakahaere i ngā mahi moni, me Te Kōti (J. G. Coates), e kī nei rātau ahakoa te kore e utua, he paku rawa te £300, ā, me whakanui kē ake ki te £900 i te tau. Ka whakaurua atu hoki te tono kia whakaae te Karauna ki te mana o ngā Māori ki Waikaremoana, kia whakaritea hoki he kaupapa mō te āhua o te noho kōkuhu noa a te Pākehā i runga i ngā whenua rāhui kua kore nei e taea te hoko. Ko tō rātau hiahia kia tū ko te poraka o Ngāmāhanga hei wāhi ako i ngā taitama mahi pāmu Māori ki ngā mahi ahu whenua, ā, me te whakatū rōpū anō hoki hei tautiaki haere i ngā hua hereni o taua poraka hei āwhina i te kāhui manukura o te iwi ki te whakahaere kaupapa oranga mō te iwi. Kāore te kaupapa i oreore mō tētahi wā, ēngari i waenganui i te marama o Pēpuere i te tau 1938, ka whakakorikoria e te Pirimia (ko ia hoki te Minita Māori), e Te Hāwiti (Michael Joseph Savage), tū ana i a ia tētahi hui i te Pāremata, hei kōrero i a Kauhouroa me ētahi atu take.

Riro ana nā Tā Āpirana Ngata i tuku te kēhi a āna kaipōti o Ngāti Kahungunu. Ko tētahi wāhanga o taua kēhi i whakamaua atu ki ngā kōhetehete i waenganui i ngā 'kūpapa' me te hunga 'whana', inarā, te momo whakahua i aua rōpū nei. Ahakoa te whakahokinga whenua atu ki ēnei rōpū e rua, kore ana i tutuki i te Karauna ana oati katoa. Nō te tūnga ake o Te Hata ki te kōrero, ka kī ia kore rawa ana wehewehe i te hunga kūpapa me te hunga whana. Ahakoa tōna mōhio noa e kore e taea te whakahoki mai a Kauhouroa i te mea kua nōhia kētia e te Pākehā, e whakaae ana ia ko tētahi atu poraka e tango mai. Kore rawa i tutuki tēnei tono āna ā mate atu ia, ēngari nō te tau 1951 i utua ai te moni kāpeneheihana e £20,000 te nui.

Ko te whare whakairo o Tākitimu i te marae o Waihīrere tētahi o ngā kaupapa nui a Te Hata. I te tau 1926 ka tahuri ia ki te whakatū whare anō, ā, tekau mā rua ngā tau i pau atu i a ia ki te mahi moni hei whakatutuki i taua kaupapa. Ko tā te kāwanatanga i koha mai ai e £500, ēngari ko te utu o te whare nui me te whare kai, tae atu ki te hui whakatuwhera, hui katoa e £15,000 te utu. Ko te nuinga o ēnei moni nā ngā iwi, nā ngā rōpū Māori rānei. Ko te tikanga kē kia karangatia te whare ko Timi Kara, ka whakatakoto ai ki Te Uhi i te taha tonu o te huarahi o Nēpia ki Nūhaka. I te wā e haere ana ngā mahi whakairo, haere ana hoki te rīriri, ā, mea rawa ake i te tau 1936, puta kau ana te hiahia o Te Hata kia karangatia te whare ko Tākitimu, kia pērā i te whare o tōna koroua, o Pitiera Kōpū, ā, kia tū hoki ki Waihīrere. I reira anō ngā kaiwhakahē, me te whakaaro anō o ētahi kia whakatūria i tētahi wāhi waengapū, wāhi muia ai e te tūruhi. Nāwai ā, whakatuwheratia ana te whare nei i Waihīrere i te tau 1938.

I te matenga o Te Hata i Te Rēinga i te 8 o Pēpuere i te tau 1940, i te puta tonu ngā kōrero whakahē i runga i te whakaaro i takahia e ia te tapu i te mea kua oti anō rā te wāhi hei tūnga mō te whare hou, mahue tana whai i tēnei, whai kē ana i tētahi wāhi kē noa atu. Heoi anō, ka mahue pani iho a Mākuini rātau ko ā rāua tamariki, tokoono ngā tama, tokorua ngā tamāhine, ā, nehua ana ki ngā karakia a te Mihingare i Te Kapu. Ko tōna kaiwhakakī whārua ko tana tama tuatoru, ko Turi, ka riro ko ia nei hei manukura mō Waihīrere, eke atu hoki ki runga i te Kaunihera Māori.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Tīpoki, Te Hata - Tipoki, Te Hata', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1998. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/4t17/tipoki-te-hata (accessed 18 August 2019)