Kōrero: Tūpaea, Hōri

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Tupaea, Hori

1879/1880?–1944

Nō Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti, nō Ngāti Kahungunu, nō Ngāi Te Rangi; he kaihautū, he tangata mahi pāmu

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1998.

I whānau pea a Hōri Tūpaea i te takiwā o 1879, 1880 rānei i te rohe o Te Hauke, i Heretaunga i Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay). Ko te tamaiti tuarua a Hōri a Arihi Te Nahu rāua ko tana tāne tuarua, ko Hāmiora Tūpaea, te mea tāne pakeke tonu o ā rāua tamariki. Ko te mātāmua a Arihi a Karanama (Karanema) Te Nahu, arā, hei mātāmua hoki tēnei ki a Te Hāpuku, te rangatira ahorei o Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti, me tana wahine matua, me Te Heipora. He ariki a Arihi, ā, ko te īngoa Pākehā mōna ko 'Pirinihi Arihi' (Princess Alice). He uri ia nō te tipuna rongonui rā, nō Te Huki, nō reira i pā ai ki a Ngāti Kahungunu. Ko tētahi o ōna tino hapū ko Ngāti Te Rangikoiānake. Ko te pāpā o Hōri, ko Hāmiora te tama tuarua a Hōri Kīngi Tūpaea, te tino rangatira o Ngāi Te Rangi ki Tauranga. Hei take whakaora ake anō i ngā hononga anō i waenganui i a Ngāi Te Rangi rāua ko Ngāti Kahungunu (ko tana koroua tētahi o ngā ika o taua pakanga), te take i whakamoea ai rāua ko Arihi. Koia rā te take i taharua ai te kāwai ariki o Hōri Tūpaea.

Takitahi noa iho ngā kōrero e rongohia ana mō te wā e tamariki ana a Hōri Tūpaea, me i haere rānei ki te kura, kāore rānei. Tērā tonu pea, i tae ia ki te Kāreti o Te Aute. Kāre e kore, ko ia tētahi anō o te rōpū rangatahi tūranga teitei a te Hāhi Mihinare, i muri iho nā rātou i hautū a Ngāti Kahungunu; he ākonga katoa anō hoki rātou nā Āpirana Ngata i roto i te Kotahitanga o ngā Tamariki o te Kāreti o Te Aute (Te Aute College Students' Association). Nō muri rā, ka riro ko rātou hei mema mō te Rōpū Taitamariki Māori (Young Māori Party). He uaua te kite kōrero mō te wahine a Hōri, mō Rauhina, i moea nei e ia; hore kau ā rāua tamariki ora pū. I noho rāua i Te Hauke, i te taha o te tuahine o Hōri, arā, o Makua-i-te-rangi Erihana (Ellison) me tōna whānau, i runga i tētahi whenua o Te Hāpuku. I tētahi wāhi whenua anō o te whānau i Ōpapa, e pātata ana ki te moana o Poukawa, rāua e pāmu ana.

Nō te wā o te Pakanga Tuatahi i kitea ai te māia o Tūpaea ki te ārahi i te iwi, e whakapeto ana ia i ana kaha ki te kohi moni mō ngā kaupapa o te Ope a te Hāhi (Church Army) o te Hāhi Mihinare, me te Tahua Hōia Māori (Māori Soldiers' Fund) o te Rōpū Māori o Te Tai Rāwhiti Āwhina i ngā Take o te Whawhai (Eastern Māori Patriotic Association). Ko Tūpaea tētahi o ngā mema o te Kaunihera o Tamatea (Tamatea Māori Council), he tūranga tēnei i mau mai i a ia e hia kē nei ngā tau. Hei pōwhiri i ngā toa o Te Tai Rāwhiti o te Rōpū Māori (Paionia) o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Māori (Pioneer) Battalion), e hoki mai nei ki te kāinga, ko ia te waha kōrero mō te Kaunihera i te taha o Paraire Tomoana rāua ko Taranaki Te Ua. Nā rātou i whakatakoto ngā tikanga mō te hui whakanui i ngā hōia i whakaritea mō Maehe o te tau 1919 ki Manutūkē; ko te rua o ngā take, ko te mahi moni mō te Tahua Hōia Māori. Ka kitea i roto i te rārangi o ngā kaihautū i reira, ko Hōri Tūpaea i huaina he 'whetū hou'. Ko ia tonu te tiamana o te hui nui i Te Hauke i te tau 1920, nā rātou i tautoko te tikanga a Ngata ki te pena atu i ngā moni o te Tahua Hōia Māori.

Nō te tau 1921, i whakawhiwhia a Hōri Tūpaea e te Piriniha o Wēra ki tētahi mētara whakamaharatanga, me rātou mā hoki o ngā kaihautū 26 o Te Tai Rāwhiti puta atu ki Te Matau-a-Māui. He mema anō hoki a Hōri nō te komiti o Heretaunga i whakatūria hei tautoko i te nūpepa Māori o te Hāhi Mihinare, i Te Kōpara. Uru kaha ana hoki ia ki ngā mahi hākinakina; i te tau 1923 i tū rawa ia hei perehitini mō te karapu hōkī Māori o te waengarahi me te taha tonga o Te Matau-a-Māui.

He nui te kaha o Hōri Tūpaea i pau ki te āwhina i te Hāhi Mihinare. Kātahi ia ka pakanga kia whakanuia te moni e tukua mai ana mā te pīhopatanga o Waiapu me ngā minita Māori. I te tau 1925, i a ia e tū ana hei waha kōrero mō ngā iwi reimana o Te Hauke i te hīnota ā-rohe, ka hono atu ia ki ngā tāngata e tohe ana kia whakatūria he pīhopatanga Māori. Karangatia ana e ia he hui mō te pāriha o Waipatu i Te Hauke i te 27 o Hepetema 1925, he mea pōwhiri rā e ia te pīhopa o Waiapu kia tae mai; nō reira i tono ai ia me karanga kē te pīhopa Māori ko te pīhopa o Te Aute me Aotearoa; ko te take, nā te Kāreti o Te Aute i hāpai te mātauranga Pākehā i waenganui i te iwi Māori.

Nō Tīhema o taua tau, ka tae ia hei waha kōrero reimana mō ngā iwi o Ngāti Kahungunu me te pīhopatanga o Waiapu, ki te hīnota whānui o te Hāhi Mihinare i Te Ūpoko-o-te-Ika; koirā tonu te wā i whakaaetia te pire whakatū pīhopatanga Māori, ā, uru atu ana a Hōri Tūpaea ki ngā whakawhitiwhiti kōrero tūkaha e mea ana, āe rānei me Māori tūturu te pīhopa hou, me pīhopa Pākehā rānei e mōhio ana ki te kōrero Māori. Ko ngā pīhopa me ngā Māori o te pīhopatanga o Ākarana (Auckland) i hiahia kē kia noho mai he pīhopa Pākehā; heoti, nā ngā kōrero whakatau i te hīnota whānui i Pōneke (Wellington) i Hepetema o te tau 1926, tono kē ana a Hōri Tūpaea rātou ko ngā Māori o ērā atu rohe kia noho tonu he Māori hei pīhopa. Ko te whakapae a Hōri Tūpaea, e ahu kē mai ana i te ātipīhopa ngā hamumu a ngā Mihinare Māori o Ākarana; i kitea ai te tūturutanga o tēnei kōrero nā W. N. Pānapa tonu i whakatau, kua oti kē a Ngā Puhi te whakatūpato, me ka tohe tonu rātou mō tētahi pīhopa Māori, mā tēnā tonu e whakakore atu ai te pīhopatanga Māori. Tautoko tonu atu a Pererika Pēneti (Frederick Bennett) i a Pānapa; heoi anō tā Tūpaea, ki te kore tētahi o ngā minita Māori e hiahia ki te tū hei pīhopa, me whakawahi ko Ngata tonu hei pīhopa Māori tuatahi, ko ia rā tētahi o ngā waha kōrero reimana o te pīhopatanga o Waiapu. Mutu ana te whakarau i te take nei i te mōtini a Ngata, me Māori te pīhopa tuatahi; riro ana nā Tūpaea i tautoko te mōtini; nō muri, ka mōtinitia he Pākehā hei pīhopa, ēngari hinga ana te mōtini i te pōtitanga. I te mutunga iho, ka whakaaetia te mōtini a Ngata, ēngari nā te mea kotahi noa iho te nui ake o ngā pōti e tautoko ana i te mōtini, i mahue tārewa noa te take nei.

Nō te hīnota o te rohe i Ahuriri (Napier) i Oketopa o te tau 1926, i tautokona ai te whakaaro o Tūpaea kia whakatūria he komiti tūturu hei āwhina i te pīhopa Māori. Nāwai rā riro ana ko Pererika Pēneti o Ngāti Whakaue hei pīhopa tuatahi mō Aotearoa. Nō Tīhema o te tau 1928 te whakawahinga i a ia i Pakipaki; ko Hōri Tūpaea tētahi o ngā tino tāngata tokotoru nei nā rātou ngā whaikōrero.

I uru anō a Tūpaea ki roto i ngā whakahaere whenua me ngā take tōrangapū a te rohe kāinga; i tū i a ia he hui ki Te Hauke i Hūrae o te tau 1926, mō te hunga katoa nō rātou te whenua takoto pāpaku o Poukawa, tata tonu ki te roto. Ka whakataua kia karia te poraka hei tuku atu i te wai, kātahi ka tono atu ai ki te Kaitiaki Māori (Native Trustee) ko tēhea te tikanga pai hei taka ake i te whenua hei whakanohonoho tangata. He mema anō hoki ia nō te komiti i whakatūria i Ōmāhu i Āperira o te tau 1927, hei āta tirotiro i ngā āhuatanga e pā ana ki te kaupapa utu reiti o ngā whenua Māori. Ka kitea e taua komiti, kua tahito kē ngā rārangi īngoa mō ngā reiti, kua hē noa hoki, me te aro kore noa atu hoki ki ngā wawaetanga o ngā poraka. Inarā anō hoki tētahi whakamauru ā rātou, ka whakaritea nei mā te Kōti Whenua Māori e titiro ngā āhua o ngā reiti e nama tonu ana, tae atu ki ngā tono reiti taumaha rawa atu.

Nō te tekau tau atu i 1930, ka huri a Tūpaea ki ngā raruraru whenua o Ahuriri. Nō ngā tau 1907, 1916, me 1919, i tuku petihana ai a Ngāti Hinepare rāua ko Ngāti Kahungunu ki te Pāremata, tono atu rānei ki te Kōti Whenua Māori, kia whakamanahia, kia tiakina hoki ō rātou tauranga ika me ērā atu o ā rātou taonga i Te Whanganui-a-Ōrotu, arā, kei roto rawa hoki o te whanga o Ahuriri; kāre i whiwhi. Ko tā rātou i kī ai, kāre kau tonu te whanga i riro i te hoko i te tau 1851, ka hokona nei te whenua o Ahuriri. Nā te rū i Heretaunga i te tau 1931, i ārewa ake ai te papa moana o te whanga hei whenua maroke; ka whakaarotia, he mea tika tonu kia tere te whakatakoto a te hunga nō rātou te whenua i Ahuriri, i tā rātou kerēme; ko te take, kei te mea kē te poari wahapū o Ahuriri (Napier Harbour Board) nō rātou kē te whenua, ā, ka tīmata tā rātou whakahaere mahi hei ahu i te whenua kua ara ake rā. Nō te mea ko ia tonu te tuakana o ngā uri nō rātou te whenua e ora tonu ana, ka tukua e Hōri Tūpaea he petihana ki te Pāremata i te tau 1932, e tono kāpeneheihana ana mō tō rātou whai mana ki ngā whenua o waenganui o te whanga o mua rā. Nō Āperira o te tau 1934, i whakahaerea te take nei i te Kōti Whenua Māori; riro ana nā tana taokete, nā Rāniera Erihana i whakahaere tā rātou kēhi.

E ora tonu ana a Hōri Tūpaea kāre anō he rīpoata kia oti noa; nā te akiakitanga a ētahi o ngā petihana i muri mai, ka oti te kōrero, ā, i te tau 1948, whakatūria ana he kōmihana roera mō te take nei; kāti koa he aha te aha, mutu ana i konā. Ka whakatakotoria anō te take nei i mua i te aroaro o te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi (Waitangi Tribunal) i te tau 1988, ā, nō te tau 1996, i tatū ai te take nei, tatū pai rā ki ngā rangatira o te whenua.

Ahakoa he take Hāhi, he take rānei nā te iwi, i taikaha tonu te tū a Hōri Tūpaea mō tōna iwi. Nā runga i tana manawanui ngā mihi anō ki a ia, i tatū pai ai ngā take e rua, arā, te pīhopatanga Māori me te kerēme i te whanga o Ahuriri. Ka pau nei te toenga o ōna tau ka pāngia ia e te mate manawa. I te hōhipera ā-rohe o Waipukurau i hemo ia i te 1 o Āperira i te tau 1944, ā, nehua ana ia ki Te Hauke.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Tūpaea, Hōri - Tupaea, Hori', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1998. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/4t28/tupaea-hori (accessed 21 August 2019)