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Te Heuheu Tukino VI, Hoani

by Angela Ballara

Biography

Ko Hoani Te Heuheu Tūkino – ko Hoani Te Rerehau, ko John Heuheu rānei ētehi o ōna īngoa – te mea pōtiki o ngā tamariki tokorima a Tūreiti Te Heuheu Tūkino V o Ngāti Tūwharetoa rāua ko tana wahine, ko Te Rerehau Kahotea (ko Mere Te Iwa Te Rerehau tētehi anō o ōna īngoa). Ko te hapū tūturu o te whānau o Te Heuheu ko Ngāti Tūrumakina, e noho mai rā i Waihī me Tokaanu i te taitonga o te moana o Taupōnui-a-Tia (Taupō). He pākanga anō hoki o Hoani ki ētehi atu o ngā hapū o taua rohe, ā, kei te taha hoki ki tōna whaea tōna pānga ki ngā hapū o te raki, tae noa ki ngā iwi o Ngāti Maniapoto rāua ko Ngāti Raukawa.

I whānau a Hoani ki Waihī i te 25 o Oketopa i te tau 1897. He tino pononga ōna mātua nā te mīhana Katorika; ko te āhua nei i kuraina a Hoani ki te kura tuatahi o ngā none. Kāore i te takoto he kōrero mehemea i haere ia ki te kura tuarua, i aha rānei, ēngari nō muri iho i kīia he āta pai noa nei tōna reo Pākehā ahakoa āna reta katoa i tuhia ki te reo Māori.

I a ia e taiohi ana, i pau ōna rā i raro i te ātārangi o tōna matua, ko ia rā hoki tētehi o ngā tino tāngata rongonui o te ao Māori me te ao tōrangapū o taua wā. Ko te tikanga, ko te tuakana o Hoani, ko Hepi Kahotea kē hei taua i a Tūreiti, ēngari nā te urutā rewharewha o te tau 1918 ka mate a Hepi. Nō te matenga o Tūreiti i Hune o te tau 1921, ka riro tana taitara me tōna mana i a Hoani, ahakoa e rua tekau mā toru noa ōna tau. Nō te 24 o Tīhema o te tau 1922 ka moe rāua ko Raukawa Maniapoto, hei tamāhine mā Te Maniapoto rāua ko Wakahuia o Taupō. I te whare karakia Katorika i Waihī te mārenatanga. Tokoono ā rāua tamariki.

Hohoro tonu te ākina atu o Hoani hei kaihautū i ngā kaupapa taumaha e hōrapa ana ki a Ngāti Tūwharetoa. I te wā o tōna matua, he mea whakatatū he kirimina e tukua atu nei ki te Kamupene Rākau o Tongariro (Tongariro Timber Company), te mana ki te tope rākau i runga i te nuinga o ngā whenua whakatipu rākau mai i Taupō tae atu ki Taumarunui. E ai ki te whakataunga, ka riro mā te kamupene rā e hanga he ara tereina, utu hoki i tētehi tiringa rahi tonu nei ki te hunga nō rātau te whenua. Nō muri i whakangohea ai te kirimina e ngā rōpū e rua nei. Tahi rā, whakaritea ana e te Kamupene Rākau o Tongariro he kirimina i waenganui i a rātau ko te Kamupene Pouaka o Egmont (Egmont Box Company), kia whai moni ai hoki tērā hei utu mō te ara tereina. I roto hoki i tēnei o ngā kirimina te mana anō ki te whakatakaroa i te utu i ngā tiringa ki te hunga o Ngāti Tūwharetoa nō rātau te whenua. Nā te ture rawa i whakamana ngā whakahounga o te kirimina, he mea tautoko e Tūreiti i te tau 1919. Auau tonu te tōmuri o taua kamupene ki te utu i ngā moni; ēngari, ahakoa kōhikihiko nei tā rātou utuutu, i ngā tau atu ki 1926 inā kē te rahi o ngā tiringa i utua atu ki a Ngāti Tūwharetoa. Ka taka ki te tau 1929, kua nama nui kē taua kamupene ki a Ngāti Tūwharetoa. Nā te heke o te moni e puta ana hei tiringa me te raru haere tonu o ngā kamupene e rua rā, i tohe ai a Ngāti Tūwharetoa kia whakakorea ngā kirimina, me te whakahoki mai anō hoki i ngā whenua ki ngā kaiwhai pānga. Nā te rerekē o ngā utu e puta ake ana ki a Hoani mā, ka nama rātau ki ngā toa hokohoko mō ā rātau mea e hiahiatia ana, kīhai rā i taea te whiwhi i te mahi pāmu.

I taua wā anō, e araara ake ana te pātai a ngā Pākehā hī taraute – o Aotearoa nei me ō tāwāhi – pukuriri kē nei, he aha tēnei mana ki te tono utu a te iwi o Hoani mā, mō te mana o te tangata ki te haere ki te hī taraute. I ngā awa o Tongariro me Waitahanui tonu, inā kē te nui o te moni e utua ana ki ngā hapū me ngā tāngata nō rātau ngā whenua, me ka whakawhiti nei te hunga mahi taraute i aua whenua rā. Nō te tau 1924, tae noa ki te wā i tīmata ai ngā whiriwhiri a te Karauna rāua ko Ngāti Tūwharetoa, i aukatitia te hoko o ngā poraka whenua e awhi ana i te moana me ngā taha o ngā tino awa hī taraute ki tētehi atu i tua atu i te Karauna. Ko te whānau o Te Heuheu rātau ko ngā whanaunga tata nei, ko te whānau Grace, ngā whānau tokorua i whai pānga nui ki ngā whenua, ā, riro ana te tono a Hoani nā te kaihāpai i tuku atu kia unuhia te aukati i ōna whenua i Tauranga–Taupō.

Ko te tikanga me tīmata kē ngā kōrerorero mō ngā mana hī ika i Pēpuere o te tau 1925. Kātahi te mutunga mai o te tau tino uaua mō Hoani ko tēnei; tū ana ngā hui totohe a ngā hapū o te raki o Taupō i Tapuaeharuru me Mōkai; e ai ki te whakapae a ngā hapū tūturu o reira kua oti kē te whakatatū he kirimina i waenganui i te kāwanatanga me ngā iwi o Waihī–Tokaanu, kua riro nei i a rātau anake ngā painga. Ko tētehi take anō i whakatakariri ai rātau i hokona atu e Hoani me ērā atu anō o rātau o Waihī te mana hī ika o Tongariro ki a Robert Jones, te tangata nāna nei te toa i torotoro ai a Hoani. Ka takoto te petihana e whakahau ana kia whakaritea he waha kōrero mō ngā hapū o te raki ki ngā hui e pā ana ki te moana o Taupō, ā, me te tū anō hoki o te hui ki Taupō, kaua ki Tokaanu.

Mau tonu te kaikiri tae noa ki te rā o te hui ka tū nei ki te marae o Hoani i te 21 o Āperira i te tau 1926. Ka takoto te tono a te kāwanatanga kia tukua atu te mana o te moana o Taupō ki te Karauna hei rāhui, hei painga mō te katoa. Kāti, ko te whakahokinga a te Karauna hei painga mō te iwi o Ngāti Tūwharetoa, me tuku atu he pūtea moni, arā, £3,000 ia tau, me te whakatū anō hoki i tētehi poari kaitiaki mō Tūwharetoa hei whakahaere i te tahua rā. I kō atu i tēnā, me ka neke atu te moni ā-tau i te £3,000 e puta ake ana i ngā raihana me ngā whaina hī ika, he wāhanga hāwhe me riro i te poari kaitiaki. Ia tau hoki tukua ake ai e te Tari Taiwhenua (Department of Internal Affairs) ētehi raihana kore utu hei tuku atu ki ngā tāngata nā te poari kaitiaki i whakaīngoa. Ko te wāhi ki te Tari Taiwhenua, ka riro mā rātau te mana ki te tuku i ngā pukapuka whakaaetanga, tae atu ki te whakahaere i te mahi whakatū i ngā hōpuni hī ika, raihana hoki i ngā kaiwhakatere rōnihi. Ka whai wāhi te marea ki te taha moana, taha awa rānei o te rohe o Taupō, kotahi tīni (22 iāri) te whānui huri noa. Mā te poari hoki e tohu ngā wāhi rāhui o ō rātau whenua, kāore e wātea ana ki a wai noa. (Ahakoa te ngana tonu o Hoani, kāore anō kia kāhititia aua rāhui i te tau 1932.)

Kāore i roa, kua kitea tonutia te pōuri koa o Ngāti Tūwharetoa ki ētehi o ngā whakataunga. Ko tētehi o ngā tino kaupapa e ongaonga ana, ko te ngaronga o ngā utu e puta ana ki ngā hapū me te hunga i whai pānga ki ngā whenua i te taha o ngā awa o Tongariro me Waitahanui. Kāore e puta he moni kāpeneheihana ki tēnei hunga i roto i te moni ka utua nei e te Karauna ki a Ngāti Tūwharetoa. I pōwhiritia a Hoani ki Pōneke (Wellington) hei kōrerorero i ēnei kaupapa, ēngari whakatika atu ana ia, tonoa kētia ana kia tekau mā rua ngā kanohi katoa hei haere, kotahi mō ia hapū nui e noho atu ana i te taha o te moana, ā, me te riro anō hoki mā te kāwanatanga e utu te haere me te noho ki Pōneke. Hui ana a Hoani rātau ko ērā atu o ngā māngai tekau mā tahi me ngā kaikōrero a te kāwanatanga i Pōneke i te 23 o Hūrae. Ka puta te kupu oati a te kāwanatanga ki te whakaara taraipiunara hei whiriwhiri i te nui o te moni kāpeneheihana ki te hunga e noho kau ana i ngā paretai o ngā awa. Nō te 26 o Hūrae i te tau 1926, i hainatia ai e Hoani te kirimina whakamutunga.

Ahakoa rā, haere tonu ngā taunu. Rere ana ngā uiui wero a ētehi, nō hea mai te mana o Hoani ki te haina i te whakaaetanga ā-pukapuka e tuku ana i a Taupō ki te kāwanatanga, arā tonu te tokomaha o Ngāti Tūwharetoa e whakahē ana rā i te tuku. Ahakoa tonu, whakataua ana te ture tuku atu i te mana o Taupō me ngā awa ki te Karauna, me te ture whakatū i te Poari Kaitiaki o Tūwharetoa (Tūwharetoa Trust Board). I te hui tuatahi a taua poari i te 24 o Noema 1926, ka mutu mai ko Hoani anake te tangata i whakatūria, i pōtitia hoki hei tumuaki. Pēnei tonu te pōti i a ia, ā mate noa.

Ko tana mahi tuatahi mā te poari, he toro haere i ngā hapū o Waitahanui, e tohe nei ki te wehe mai i tō rātau awa i te kirimina, nā te mea koirā anake tō rātau oranga. Whakawherea ana e Hoani kia mutu tā rātau whakamahi i ngā kaihī ika ki te utu moni, ā, kia whakatakotoria ā rātau kerēme kāpeneheihana ka ngaro nei tō rātau mana ki ngā taha me ngā wai o te awa. Ka whakaae tētehi rōia, ko T. W. Lewis te īngoa, kia riro māna e whai atu te katoa o ngā kerēme mō ngā awa, ā, noho ana ko Hoani tētehi o ngā kaioati hei whakarite i tana utu rōia. Kāti, e hia kē nei tō rātau roa e tatari ana ki tētehi hua noa nei i ngā kerēme. Ka mate a Lewis i te tau 1927, ka riro ko te poari hei waha i ngā utu rōia. Nā te takaroa o te utu i te kāpeneheihana i tūmanakohia, ka pōhara kē atu a Hoani rātau ko tōna iwi. I te tau 1936 i te tohe tonu a ia kia pai te whakatau i ngā kerēme mō ngā awa o Taupō.

I Hānuere o te tau 1927 ka puta te mahere whakapau moni a Hoani me tana poari, he wāhanga nei mō te mātauranga, mō te hauora, mō te ahu whenua, tae atu hoki ki ngā marae. He tumuaki rawe a Hoani ki te whakahaere hui, he ngākau mārie tōna, ā, kia kore e kotiti i whai ia kia ū tonu ngā kōrero ki te kaupapa. Me uaua kē ia e kore ai e tae atu ki ngā hui a te poari; mā te pāngia rawatia e te mate, haere kē rānei ki ngā hui kōhukihuki a te Kōti Whenua Māori anake ngā take e kore ai ia e tae. Ko ia hoki te tumuaki o te komiti iti mō te hauora, i a rātau nei te mana hoatu mahi, pana rānei i ngā tākuta, me te whakatau hoki i te taumata o te pūtea āwhina i ngā nēhi o Tokaanu me Taupō. Nō te tau 1928 i mea atu ia ki te kaiwhakahaere o te Wāhanga Whai Hauora Māori (Division of Māori Hygiene), ko ana āpiha kē rānei e haere ki te tirotiro i te rohe katoa, kātahi ka tino hanga pūrongo ai e hāngai ana ki ngā hiahia nui o ngā marae me ngā papakāinga, kia taea ai hoki e te Poari Kaitiaki te whakarārangi te momo whakapau moni.

Nā ngā pūtea āwhina a te Poari Kaitiaki ka tīmata te whakahou, te hanga whare whakairo rānei ki ngā marae o Tūwharetoa. Heoi, ka oti tēnā mahi kua puta anō he tono hou me te piki anō hoki o ngā tono hauora me ngā tono mātauranga. Tae rawa ake ki te tau 1930, ehara, mamae ana te Poari Kaitiaki me ngā mema, tae noa ki a Hoani, i te hore kau o te moni. Ka hē kē atu hoki i te matenga o Robert Jones, te tangata nāna te toa, e noho nama nui nei te tokomaha o Tūwharetoa ki a ia. I raro i te ture poari, e taea ana e ngā mema te tono moni atu i te Poari Kaitiaki, ēngari ka heke haere nei ngā tiringa rākau, me te kore e puta ake hoki o ngā kāpeneheihana awa, ka tīmata te nuinga o rātau ki te tono moni iti atu nei i ngā huihui katoa a te poari, ko ō rātau pānga whenua te punga; hāunga tonu kaha kē atu ana te hē.

Nō te hui a te Poari Kaitiaki i Hune o te tau 1930, kātahi anō ka puta te taumaha o te raruraru. Ka kitea hoki £12,000 te nui o te nama ki ngā pānga angiangi o Jones; ko Hoani tonu tētehi o te tokomaha e nama ana. Ka tau te kōrero a te Poari Kaitiaki, i te mea he tokomaha tonu o Tūwharetoa e nama ana ki a Jones, e tika ana kia riro mā te Poari Kaitiaki e utu ā rātau nama. I taua wā anō hoki, kei te nui haere kē ake ngā utu e pā ana ki te pakanga ā-ture ki te Kamupene Rākau o Tongariro mō ngā tiringa kāore anō kia utua; £2,000 tonu te nama ki a M. H. Hampson, te rōia o Tūwharetoa. I te 14 o Hune i te tau 1932, ka tono te Poari Kaitiaki ki te Minita Māori, ki a Āpirana Ngata, kia whakaaetia he moni tārewa, £5,000 te nui. Nō te 29 o Oketopa i tae ake ai a Āpirana rāua ko tana hēkeretari tūmataiti, ko Te Raumoa Balneavis, ki Tokaanu ki te whakatikatika i ngā pūtea a te Poari Kaitiaki. Whakaaetia ana he moni tārewa hei whakaea i ngā raruraru whawhati tata. Kātahi ka whakatūria ko Norman Smith, he āpiha nō te Tari Māori i Rotorua, hei kaihaina tuarua i ngā haki katoa a te Poari. I te tau 1932, ka whakaae a Hoani kia iwa paiheneti te heke iho o te pūtea a te Poari Kaitiaki mō ngā tau e toru e heke mai ana, hei āwhina hoki i ngā raruraru ā-moni o te kāwanatanga i ngā tau o te korekore. Otirā, hāunga ēnei taumahatanga, i tino pai ake ngā āhuatanga raruraru ā-moni o te Poari; ka mana nei hoki ngā ture toko i te ora, kātahi hoki ka pai kē atu, i te mea kua kore te Poari Kaitiaki e whakapau moni ki ngā mea o te iwi e pāngia ana e te mate, e te pōhara rānei.

I te nui o āna mahi ārahi i te iwi, ka hē kē atu te taha oranga ōna tonu. Ka kimi mahi nei ia māna – i te tau 1933 hei hēkeretari mā te Poari Kaitiaki, ā, nō muri kē mai ka whai hoki kia noho hei kaitiaki mō ngā mahi ika a Tūwharetoa i Te Roto-a-Ira (Rotoaira) – aukatitia ana ēnei tū mahi māna i runga i te whakaaro he whakaiti kē ērā mahi i tōna rangatiratanga. Ko te whakaaro anō hoki me kite tonu ia i ngā hui katoa a te iwi me te Poari Kaitiaki, puta noa i te motu. Ahakoa i utua ētehi o āna haere e te Poari Kaitiaki, ko ngā koha whakatakoto ki ngā marae nō tōna pūkoro tonu, ā, auau tonu tana kore e whai moni. Ko ia tonu hoki te kanohi o Tūwharetoa ki te tini o ngā hui nui, ā, ko tōna marae te wāhi mō ngā hui ā-iwi a tōna iwi, te marae karanga manuhiri pērā i a Korokī me ērā atu tū rangatira. I te tau 1936 ka taka iho mai ngā mahi a te Kaunihera Māori o Tongariro (Tongariro Māori Council) ki te Poari Kaitiaki o Tūwharetoa, ka nui kē atu ngā mahi a Hoani ki te tiaki i te āhua o ngā whare kāinga me te hauora o tōna iwi. Nō taua wā pea, ka mahue i a ia a Waihī, haere kē ana ki Tauranga–Taupō noho ai.

I te tau 1937, ka tīmata anō te mōreareatia o te Kamupene Rākau o Tongariro. I taua wā kua oti kē te hanga o tētehi kirimina hou i waenganui i te Kamupene Pouaka o Egmont me te Poari Takiwā Whenua Māori o Aotea (Aotea District Māori Land Board), ko te Poari Takiwā nei te māngai mō te hunga whai pānga. Nō te 13 o Hune 1935 ka tau te kōrero kia utua te Kamupene Pouaka e te Poari Takiwā Whenua, £23,500 te nui, hei utu atu i ngā kerēme katoa e puta ana i te whakaaetanga ā-pukapuka i waenganui i te Poari Takiwā Whenua me te Kamupene Rākau o Tongariro. Nō Tīhema o te tau 1935 i utua ai tēnei moni. Karawhiua ana te Poari Takiwā Whenua e Hoani ki te ture, ko te whakahoehoetanga te take. Kua oti kē a Hoani rātau ko tōna Poari Kaitiaki o Tūwharetoa te tohutohu, ko ngā nama katoa ki te Kamupene Pouaka o Egmont, ka riro mā te Kamupene Rākau o Tongariro e utu, ehara kē mā ngā Māori nō rātau te whenua. Hinga ana te kaupapa nei i te Kōti Matua (Supreme Court), ā, ka kōkiritia kia riro mā ngā moni a te Poari Kaitiaki e kawe te kaupapa ki te Kōti Pīra (Court of Appeal), aukatitia ana tēnei e te Minita Māori. Ka rere te pīra a te Poari Kaitiaki i te whakatau a te Minita Māori; ka kī te Poari nei e heri ana a Hoani i tana take ki te Kōti i runga i tōna mana, i tō te tino rangatira o Ngāti Tūwharetoa, ā, mehemea kua hara hoehoe te Karauna, e rua kē ēnei hara i tōna katinga i a Tūwharetoa ki te whakamahi i ngā moni a te Poari Kaitiaki ki te kōkiri i te kaupapa nei ki te Kōti Pīra. Heoi rā, hinga ana anō te kaupapa nei i te Kōti Pīra.

Tū ana ngā hui whakahē i Waihī i te tau 1938, ā, i Hānuere o te tau 1939, i tū hoki te hui nui a te motu ki reira. Kua tīmata te huri a Hoani me te tokomaha ki te whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi hei pākai riri mō rātau. Ko tā Hoani e whakamātau kē ana ki te whakatakoto, kei te tauwhāinga kē ki te Tiriti te ture e pā ana ki ngā whenua rākau, ā, me ka pērā, kei te manakore te ture. Heria ana e M. H. Hampson tēnei take ki te aroaro o te Kaunihera Motuhake a te Kīngi (Privy Council) i te tau 1940. Mamae ana te whakatau a te Kaunihera i te mea e ai ki a rātau, kāore e taea e ngā kōti te whakamana i raro i tētehi tiriti tuku mana; me mātua whakatakoto rawa mai aua tikanga i roto i ngā ture o te whenua.

Koinei te take kōkiri nui whakamutunga a Hoani Te Heuheu Tūkino. Whakahaua ana e ia te Poari Kaitiaki o Tūwharetoa, ko ia nei tō rātau heamana, kia āta tūpato te whakapau i ngā moni i te wā o te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao. Ko tāna hoki, me mau tonu he pūtea moni hei whakanohonoho i ngā mōrehu o Tūwharetoa ka hoki mai nei i te mura o te ahi. I te tau 1942 ka rutua ia e te matekohi, ā, i te tau 1943, i te marama o Mei, ka whakaaro te Poari Kaitiaki ki te wehe mai i tētehi pūtea ā-tau māna, kia āhei ai ia ki te whakaoti i āna mahi ā-iwi, hei utu hoki i ngā tākuta mātanga ki te tiaki i a ia. Nō Noema o te tau 1943, i oti te whakatau tētehi utu ā-marama māna. I pōtitia anō ia hei tumuaki mō te Poari i te 26 o Hānuere o te tau 1944, ahakoa tana kore i tae ki te hui i te māuiui. Nō te 27 o Āperira ka hinga ia, mahue mai ana ko tana hoa wahine me ā rāua tamariki tokorima. I tanumia ia ki Waihī i te 2 o Mei i te tau 1944. Ka whakawahia tana tama mātāmua, a Hepi Hoani, ki tōna kahu waero, he mea whakaīngoa nei ko Te Heuheu Tūkino VII.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

Ētahi whakaaro puaki, takenga

    Grace, J. Te H. Tuwharetoa. Wellington, 1959

    N.Z. Maori Affairs Department. Archives. Tuwharetoa Trust Board minutes, vol. 1, 1926--1946. MA1, 26/6/6. NA

    Raymond, V. Ngā marae o Ngāti Tūwharetoa. Auckland, 1992


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Te Heuheu Tukino VI, Hoani', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1998. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/4t8/te-heuheu-tukino-vi-hoani (accessed 9 July 2020)