Kōrero: Te Tomo, Te Tāite

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Te Tomo, Te Taite

1871/1872?–1939

Nō Ngāti Tūwharetoa, nō Ngāti Raukawa; he tumu kōrero, he kaitōrangapū

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1998.

I whānau a Te Tāite Te Tomo ki tētehi wāhi e pātata tonu ana ki Ōtaki i te tau 1871 pea, i te tau 1872 rānei. I moe tana kuia, a Te Rerehau, he wahine rangatira nō Ngāti Tūwharetoa, i a Te Tomo (he mea karanga anō ko Tute) o Ngāti Tūwharetoa me Ngāti Raukawa. Nō te hekenga o Ngāti Raukawa ki Ōtaki, haria ana hoki e Te Tomo tana tama, a Tauaiti, i kārangarangatia i muri nei ko Te Piwa Te Tomo. Ka moe a Te Piwa i a Kerenapu Te Parehuia, he tamāhine nā Hēnere Te Herekau, he minita nō te Hāhi Mihingare; nō Ngāti Whakatere ia, he hapū nō Ngāti Raukawa. Puta ana tō rāua uri a Te Tāite Te Tomo.

Korekore rawa he kōrero mō Te Tāite i a ia e taiohi ana, mehemea i tae rānei ki te kura, i aha rānei. Heoi anō whakapūkengatia ana ia ki ngā mahi tātaku whakapapa me ngā tikanga tawhito; nōna tētehi hinengaro tere te hopu i te kōrero, ā, mau ana i a ia mō ake tonu atu. E taitama tonu ana ia, ka tīmata tana mahi ki te kari rori, ki te tua ngahere, ki te kari wāra, ki te mahi taiepa, ki te whiu me te kuti hipi, ki te ā ōkiha hoki; noho ana nā ēnei mahi i te taiwhenua, i waimarie te mau i a ia o tētehi wāhi pitopito nei o te reo Pākehā.

I moea e Te Tāite Te Tomo a Kāretu Te Iti nō Ngāti Rongomaiwahine, he karangatanga hapū nō Ngāti Kahungunu. Ko te kī, kotahi noa anō pea tā rāua tama, arā, ko Tūrau Te Tomo, he mea whakapūkenga hoki ki roto i ngā mātauranga tuku iho pērā anō i tana pāpā. Noho ake ana a Te Tāite i Ōpoutama i Te Māhia, i roto i te iwi o tōna hoa wahine.

Kāre i roa ka whakauru atu ia ki ngā mahi a te iwi; i te tau 1905, nō te mea kāore i utua te mōkete e £6,000 te nama, kei tangohia noatia te whenua iwi, e 4,000 eka te rahi, ko te tūnga ake tēnā o Te Tāite, ka inoi atu ki a Ātirīkona Hāmuera Wiremu (Samuel Williams) o Te Aute mā rāua e whakatika te take nei. I ora ai te whenua nā te pukapuka nama he mea hoatu nā Te Wiremu ki a Te Tāite, whakakorehia ana te mōkete rā. Nō muri mai, ka rīhitia tētehi wāhi o taua whenua hei utu i tā rātou kaioha. E whakamātau ana te iwi ki te whakaara i te kaupapa o te Kotahitanga ki Manutūkē i te marama o Pēpuere 1913, ka riro ko ia hei waha kōrero mō Ngāti Kahungunu. Kia kore ai ngā whenua e wāwāhitia, ka tuku ai ki ia tangata, ki ia tangata, hainatia ana e Te Tāite tētehi petihana a te Kotahitanga e tauwhāinga ana ki tēnei kaupapa.

Ehara i te mea ko te hui a te Kotahitanga i Manutūkē te urunga tuatahitanga atu o Te Tāite ki ngā mahi tōrangapū. I te tau 1909, i tū mai a Te Tāite i te taha o te Rōpū Riwhōma (Reform Party) hei whakahē māna i te kaupapa a Āpirana Ngata, e whakamātau ana ki te whakatōpū i ngā whenua. Kātahi tēnā, noho ake ana ia atu i 1911 hei tangata whakahaere mō Māui Pōmare, te mema Pāremata mō Te Tai Hauāuru. He hiahia nō Pōmare kia tautokona ia e ngā tino rangatira o ngā iwi, i taea e Te Tāite te manaaki te taha ki a Ngāti Raukawa ki Manawatū, me Ngāti Tūwharetoa anō hoki. Nō te whakataetaetanga o Te Kani Pere ki a Ngata ki te uru atu ki te Whare Pāremata i te tau 1914, tautokona ana ia e Te Tāite; kitea rawatia ake i te tau i muri mai, e whakahē tonu ana a Te Tāite i te kaupapa whakatōpū whenua a Ngata. I te Kirihimete o taua tau, i tētehi hui a te Kīngitanga, hei tiro e pēhea ana te whakaaro mō te tuku i ā rātou tamariki ki te Pakanga Tuatahi, ka tae anō a Te Tāite hei māngai mō Māui.

Ahakoa te whakahē a Te Tāite i a Ngata mō ngā kaupapa tōrangapū, kotahi tonu tō rāua whakaaro i runga i ngā āhuatanga e pā ana ki ngā tikanga Māori me ngā kōrero tuku iho. Ko te mahi tino whakatutuki a Te Tāite ā mate noa, ko ngā waiata i tukua e ia hei kohikohinga mā Ngata, he mea tā tuatahi i te tau 1928, ko Ngā mōteatea te īngoa. E ai ki tā Ngata i muri nei, kāre he tangata i nui atu tōna mōhiotanga i tō Te Tāite. Me te aha, ko tōna taumata o te mōhiotanga he rite tonu ki ērā atu o ngā tohunga katoa i mōhio ai a Ngata. Ko tana tino waimarie, e ai ki tā Pei Te Hurinui Jones, ka mau kē te wehi o tō Te Tāite pūmanawa ki te pupuri kōrero, hāunga te whakahē tonu a Pei i ētehi o āna kōrero. E ai ki a Ngata tonu, ko te mate kē o Te Tāite he whakawhirinaki nōna ki te whakatūturu mārika i te kōrero he hākirikiri kē rā tōna tikanga, kāre kē e hāngai ana. Ahakoa anō, mō te taha ki te nui o ngā whakaaturanga me ngā whakamāramatanga mō aua waiata, e kore e taea e tētehi tangata te whakahē te pūtake, te kaupapa rānei. Huhua rawa atu hoki ngā pānui kōrero e tukua ana e Te Tāite ki Te Toa Takitini. I te tau 1933, ka whakaakona atu e ia ngā tikanga ā-iwi o Tainui i tohutohua e te kaumātua rā e Marumaru, ki a Te Puea Hērangi. I te tau 1934 i Waitangi, i te hui whakanui i te koha ki te motu a te Kāwana Tianara, a Rōre Bledisloe o te whenua i Waitangi mō te Whare Tiriti, riro ana nā Te Tāite i whakawā ngā whakataetae kapa haka i taua rā; i a ia e tuku ana i ngā paraihe, i reira tonu ia e tohutohu ana i te momo tika o te tū ki te piu i te poi me te waiata.

Nō te tau 1926 i whakaritea ko Te Tāite hei mema mō te Poari Kaitiaki o Tūwharetoa (Tūwharetoa Trust Board), kātahi anō ka whakatūria atu. I taua wā nei e mahi pāmu ana a Te Tāite i Kākāriki e tata atu ana ki Halcombe i te taha rāwhiti o te awa o Rangitīkei. E ai ki ngā kōrero, kua mate kē tana wahine tuatahi i tēnei wā, ā, kua moe kē ia i a Ngāhuia Matengaro.

I muri i te matenga o Māui Pōmare i te tau 1930, whakataetaetia ana e Te Tāite te tūranga o Pōmare, nā tērā i whakatau ko Te Tāite hei whakakapi māna. Ko tētehi atu o ngā kaiwhakauru ki taua tūnga ko Haami Tokouru Rātana o te kaupapa Rātana, ā, tautāwhitia haumūmūtia ana hoki ia e te Rōpū Unaititi (United Party). Ko tētehi anō o ngā kaiwhakauru ko Pei Jones, te tangata rā a te Rōpū Taitamariki Māori (Young Māori Party), riro ana nā Te Puea ia i tautāwhi. Heoi anō tā Ngata he mihi noa atu ki a Pei, ēngari nā runga i te mahi tōrangapū, tika ana te noho puku a Āpirana. I pau tonu hoki te kaha o Te Rata, te Kīngi Māori, ki te manaaki i a Te Tāite, pūmau nei tāna tautoko i te whakakapi a Pōmare, ahakoa anō ngā tāngata kē e hiahiatia ana e ngā wehewehenga maha o roto i te Kīngitanga. Ahakoa anō, mau tonu ana te pupuri a Te Tāite i te tūru mō te Rōpū Riwhōma, e 3,921 nei āna pōti; i muri paku atu hoki ko Toko Rātana e 3,101 nei āna pōti; riro kē ana nā Pei Jones me āna pōti e 886 i tōtara wāhi rua ai te hunga e whakataetae ana ki a Te Tāite.

Nō muri i te whakatūnga a Te Tāite hei Mema Pāremata, i te tīmatanga, i pāpouri ai a Ngata. Ko tōna amuamu ko tēnei, arā, kāore e tau te āhua o Te Tāite hei Mema Pāremata tōtika e mōhio ana ki tērā tū mahi. Heoi anō, i ngā wā i a ia i te Pāremata (i te tau 1931, i pōtitia anō ia ki te tūru, he kaha nui atu āna pōti i wā Toko Rātana,) ka kounu ia i ōna whakaaro whakahē o mua atu, ā, tino tautokona ana e ia te kāwanatanga whakakotahitanga. He hiahia nō Ngata kia hoahoa rāua ko Te Tāite, i harihari haeretia e ia i āna haere ki te tirotiro i ngā kaupapa whakatōpū whenua; he kite nō Te Tāite i te kaha pai o ngā mahi, i whakaaetia ai e ia te tika o taua kaupapa. I te wā e tupu ana ngā whakahē mō te whakahaere a Ngata i te Tari Māori i te tau 1933 ki te 1934, he wā anō i tautīneia a Āpirana e Te Tāite.

Ahakoa i kōrerotia e Te Tāite i roto i te Whare Pāremata ngā take nui katoa a te Māori, e pā ana ki ngā raupatu, ki te pēhanga o ngā mahi rēti i runga i ngā whenua ā-iwi, me ngā takahi noa ihotanga i ngā tikanga a te Māori i raro i te Tiriti o Waitangi, nā tana kore e whai mātauranga i te kura me tana kūware hoki ki te kōrero Pākehā i kore ai ia i tino tōtika hei Mema Pāremata. Noho kē mai ko ia te mea mātāmuri o ngā mema Māori, ko ngā take Māori anake wā rātou e kōrero ai i te Whare Pāremata. Auau tonu tana tono kia whakamāoritia mai ngā pire me ngā kōrero Pāremata, he pōuri nōna, he kore e mātau nōna ki te whai i ngā whakahaere. Kei tāna i kī ai, i rite tonu ia ki te nuinga o tōna iwi nā te mea kāore ia i mōhio ki te ture, ā, ki tōna whakaaro, te waiho ko te reo Pākehā anake hei reo mō ngā pukapuka kāwanatanga, ko tōna āhua he whakakore kē i te mana o tōna iwi. Koirā anō tāna i whakahē ai ko te tikanga o te pōti muna mā te iwi Māori, nā te mea nuku atu i te 7,000 te nui o ngā tāngata o te 16,000 o tōna rohe pōti, kāore i mātau ki te pānui pukapuka, tohu tika rānei i te īngoa e hiahiatia ana e rātou. I pau katoa i a ia te wā tūnga ōna ki te kōrero, ki te whakaari i ngā raruraru ā-takiwā o tōna rohe pōti, me ngā wā i kite ai ia e whakaparahakotia ana te Māori. Whakahuahuatia ana e ia i te Whare Pāremata ngā hamumu kōrero o runga marae, ngā whakapapa me ērā atu kōrero o nehe rā anō hei whakamārama i ana kauwhau. Me te aha anō i whakamihi hoki ōna hoa Pāremata ki a ia mō tana tau ki te kōrero. Huhua atu anō hoki ngā poari me ngā kōmihana i tū ai ia, tae atu hoki ki te Komiti mō Ngā Mea Māori (Native Affairs Committee) me te Poari Whakapapa (Board of Māori Ethnological Research).

I te taenga ake anō o te pōtitanga o te tau 1935, tipu ana te āwangawanga o te tokotoru nei, arā, o Ngata, o Tau Hēnare (ko ia te Mema Pāremata mō Te Tai Tokerau) me Te Tāite, mō te kaha maranga ake o te Rōpū Rātana. I Noema o te tau 1934, whakahēngia ana a T. W. Rātana e Te Tāite i roto i te Whare Pāremata he mautohe nōna ki te kaupapa whakatōpū whenua. Rere ana te whiu a Rātana i a Te Tāite he mea nōna kei te whai kē a Rātana ki te whakapōtae i a ia hei kīngi mō Aotearoa. Pānuitia atu ana e te tokotoru nei he pepa hei tohatoha haere mā rātou; ko ngā kōrero a tētehi he whakamārama, he whakatōtika hoki i te kaupapa a te kāwanatanga whakakotahitanga mō te āwhina i te hunga kore mahi; ko ngā kōrero a tētehi anō, he whakapae i te mahi whakapatipati a te Rōpū Temo (Democratic Party) i te Kīngitanga, oati ai i tētehi utu ā-tau e £1,500 te rahi mā Kīngi Korokī. Kāti, ahakoa te tautoko a te Kīngitanga i a Te Tāite, 38 te nuinga atu o ngā pōti i riro i a Toko Rātana i wā Te Tāite, riro ana hoki i a Toko te tūru. I tū anō hoki a Te Tāite i te pōtitanga i te tau 1938; ēngari, tae rawa atu ki tērā wā, kua tau kē te noho a te hononga o Rātana ki te Rōpū Reipa, ā, kore rawa ia i whiwhi.

Nō muri i te pānga o Te Tāite e te rewharewha, ka pāngia hoki ia e te niumōnia me te mate arahau, ā, mate ohorere noa ana ia i Kākāriki i te 22 o Mei o te tau 1939. Mahue mai ana ko tana wahine tuarua ko Ngāhuia, ko tana tama ko Tūrau, me ētehi atu tamariki. He aroha nō Toko Rātana kei kore e kaha te pouaru rātou ko tōna whānau ki te utu i ngā raruraru mō te tangihanga anā kē te nui, i tono ai ia ki te Pirimia, ki a Te Hāwiti (M. J. Savage), me kore e whakaaro mai te kāwanatanga ki tētahi āwhina, ā, whiwhi ana hoki. I tanumia a Te Tāite Te Tomo ki Kākāriki i te 28 o Mei i te tau 1939.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Te Tomo, Te Tāite - Te Tomo, Te Taite', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1998. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/4t9/te-tomo-te-taite (accessed 19 August 2019)