Kōrero: Boyd, Te Heke-rangatira-ki-Nukutaurua

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Boyd, Te Heke-rangatira-ki-Nukutaurua

1885/1886?–1959

Nō Ngāti Moe; he wahine whai mana, he kaiwhakamārama reo

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 2000, and updated in June, 2017.

He wahine kahurangi, tino whai mana kē nei a Te Heke-rangatira-ki-Nukutaurua Boyd, inarā he mea karanga anō hoki ia ko Heke Boyd, ko Agnes Boyd kē rānei. Ko te whakamāramatanga o tōna īngoa – te īngoa ake anō hoki o tōna tipuna tuarua – he īngoa whakamahara nei ki ‘te wehenga atu o ngā rangatira ki Nukutaurua’, arā, nā te tomokia o ō rātou whenua e ngā iwi o Taranaki i heke atu ai ngā rangatira o Te Wairarapa ki te kūiti o Te Māhia whakaruruhau ai i te tekau tau atu i 1830. He uri a Heke nō te rangatira rā, nō Pirika Pō o Ngāti Moe, ko ia te rangatira o te whenua – kei reira i nāianei te marae o Pāpāwai – i ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau tekau mā iwa. Ko te mātāmua a Heke o ngā tamariki tokorima a Pikihuia Rangitakaiwaho (Pikihuia Mānihera rānei) rāua ko tana tāne, ko Hokotoki (Toki) Pāora. Nō te takiwā pea o te tau 1885, 1886 rānei i whānau ai a Heke i Pāpāwai, i Hūpēnui (Greytown) kē rānei. Ki te āhua nei i kuraina ia i te Kura Māori o Pāpāwai, ā, he wā anō ia e akona ake ana i roto i te whare o Paratene Ngata, i te riu o Waiapu, ko Paratene rā te matua o Āpirana. Nō te 26 o Ākuhata o te tau 1911, i Ahuriri, i moea e Heke – inarā, i tērā wā e mōhiotia ana ia ko Aggie Toki Pāora – te tangata ahu whenua nei a Ernest Boyd, hei tama nei ia mā George Gillespie Boyd rāua ko Rīria Huihui (ko Pare Pīkake kē rānei). I whānau ake rā a Ernest ki Awanui i Te Tai Tokerau. Tekau mā tahi nei ā rāua tamariki, otirā, tokorima e kōhungahunga tonu ana ka mate; tērā pea he tamāhine whāngai anō nei tā rāua.

I te wā i whānau ai a Heke, e tuari kē ana te mana whakahaere o Pāpāwai i waenganui ake i tōna koroua ki te taha ki tōna whaea, arā, ki a Hoani Te Rangitakaiwaho, nāna nei i tuku atu te whenua mō te marae, me te kaihautū hou, kaitōrangapū taiohi nei, me Tamahau Mahupuku. I tupu ake a Heke i te wā e pū ake ana a Pāpāwai hei tino tauranga tōrangapū mō te Māori; i te wā o ngā hui a te Pāremata Māori a te Kotahitanga i reira i ngā tau 1897 me 1898, kua tata kē nei a Heke ki te rangatahi. I te wā i mate ai a Tamahau Mahupuku i te tau 1904, kua noho kē mai ko tana irāmutu, ko Niniwa Heremaia tana piki tūranga, hei whanaunga tonu ki a Heke. I whai wāhi atu anō hoki a Heke ki ngā mahi a te whakanuinga ake o te wāhi kāinga me te marae, i ētahi wā kua 3,000 kē nei te nui o ngā tāngata ki reira.

Hāunga rā he mea moumou noa iho ngā painga o ōna whanaunga, o te whānau Mahupuku me tērā o Te Rangitakaiwaho. I tua atu i tēnā anā kē atu te ringa tōtōā o te momo noho o Niniwa, me te nui kē nei o te tuari o ngā pānga whenua i waenganui i ia whakatupuranga, mahue ake ana he herengi ruarua, kapa noa iho rānei te moni e puta ake ana ia tau. He maha ngā rangatahi kua wehe kē atu nei ki ngā tāone kimi mahi ai, taki whai kē atu ana rānei i a Niniwa ki Pōneke (Wellington). I te ekenga atu ki te tau 1919 kua noho kē mai a Heke i Katatāone (Carterton), whakapau ai i ōna rā ki reira. tau 1929, kua pokea kētia ōna rawa, ōna whenua rānei e te nama, nō mua he whaihua tonu te mahi. Ki te whakaaro o Heke ko ia tonu te uri heipū o Niniwa me tōna mana, me ngā kura ā-iwi anō hoki, ko ētahi rā he mea taurewa noa e ngā whānau rangatira o Te Tai Hauāuru. He mea tuku atu nei e Niniwa aua taonga rā ki te kaitaupua moni, hei punga mō te moni whakatārewa. I a Niniwa e ora tonu ana, ā, i muri mai hoki, whakamātautau haere tonu ai a Heke mā te ture ngā rawa e whakahoki mai, ēngari kore rawa i taea e ia te aha.

Nō te tekau tau atu i 1930 pea, he kaiwhakamārama reo hiranga tuarua nei te mahi a Heke, he whakamārama nei tāna i te tikanga o ngā wira me ngā pepa whai mana o ngā whenua mō ētahi umanga ture nei. Nā te āhua o āna mahi i nui kē nei tana kitekitea ake i te Kōti Whenua Māori, i ngā kōti rawa rānei i ngā tāone ake o Te Wairarapa, ā, taetae ake ana ia ki Pōneke i ētahi wā nei. Mō ngā take a ōna ake whenua i kitea ake anō hoki ia i te Kōti Whenua Māori; nō te 13 o Noema o te tau 1935 i tutuki i a ia tana tono atu ki te kōti kia whakatū i a ia hei kaitiaki mō Pāpāwai.

E hia kē nei ngā tau e taimate noa ana te marae o Pāpāwai. Tāpiri atu ki tēnā, e hokona haere tonutia ana ngā whenua i whakamauru nei i te hunga kāinga. Ahakoa he kaitiaki a Heke nō te marae, kāore i taea e ia te hoatu te moni ki te whakapai ake. I te tau 1950 i momoho tana tono ki te Kōti Whenua Māori kia whakawhitia ai te taitara o te whenua mō te marae i te whaipānga motuhake o ia tangata ki te rāhui marae. I whakaaetia e ia he rōpū rangatahi Māori nei ki te whakatika ake i te whare nui me te marae, ā, he mea hoatu anō hoki e ia he moni mō te peita. Oti ana te whakatahi i te marae, te mahi peita i te whare nui, me te mahi anō hoki i te huarahi. Kia āta mau ai ngā tekoteko e karapoti ana i te marae, he mea tango rawa mai ki raro kātahi ka whakamau atu ki runga pou raima. Ēngari rā, i mutu noa te mahi i konā, mahue noa ake ana ngā tekoteko ki te whenua, pirau ai. Ā mate noa atu a Heke i noho pērā tonu te āhua o Pāpāwai, tae noa atu ki te tekau tau atu i 1960, ka riro nei i te komiti whakaora i te pā o Pāpāwai (Pāpāwai Pā Restoration Committee) te mahi ki te kohi moni me te whakaaraara ake i ngā kaimahi tūao, hei whakatika.

I te wā e tae ake ana he manuhiri whakahirahira nei ki ngā marae o Te Wairarapa, he haere kē rānei tā ngā Māori o Te Wairarapa he wāhi kē, i whakapūmau tonu a Te Heke Rangatira i tana mana kia noho ko ia tētahi o ngā kaikōrero. I ētahi wā i noho ko ia hei kanohi mō ngā hapū nei o Ngāti Moe, o Ngāti Hikawera me Ngāti Māhu, ā, i tētahi hui whakarangatira nei i a Āpirana Ngata i Pōneke tū ana ko Heke hei kaikōrero mō Te Wairarapa. I ngā wā ka kōrero nei ia, piupiua ake ana e ia te tokotoko hiriwa a te Tiuka o Gloucester, he mea takoha rā e ia ki a Heke i tana toronga mai i te tau 1934–35. I ērā atu toronga mai anō o ngā kāhui ariki o Ingarangi, ko tōna rangatiratanga te take i whakamōhiotia ai a Heke ki te Tīuka o Cornwall me York me tōna hoa rangatira i te tau 1901, ā, i te tau 1920, ki te Piriniha o Wēra. Kāti, nō te taenga mai o Kuini Irihāpeti Te Tuarua ki Rotorua i te 2 o Hānuere 1954, takahia ana e Heke te kawa, he ruarua nei ngā miniti e hauoraora ake ana tana kōrero ki te Kuini mō te takoha roera, arā, mō te tokotoko hiriwa.

Nō te tau 1951 i pōtitia ai a Heke hei kaitiriwā tuatahi mō te perehitini o te peka o Katatāone o te Rōpū Wāhine Toko i te Ora (Māori Women’s Welfare League). E ai ki te kōrero i whai wāhi atu anō hoki ia ki ngā Poari Kaitiaki o Pāpāwai me Kaikōkirikiri (Pāpāwai and Kaikōkirikiri Trust Boards), he whakahaere i te kaupapa tuku koha āwhina atu i te akoranga mō ngā rangatahi Māori o Te Wairarapa te mahi.

Nō te tau 1944 i riro ake ai i a Heke rātou ko ana tēina, tuākana rānei (he kaihana ētahi) ngā pānga o tō rātou whānau i te poraka whenua nei o Pouākani, e takoto mai rā i waenganui ake i te awa o Waikato me te awa iti nei o Mangakino, i te taha raki o Taupō. He whenua tuku atu tēnei mō ngā Māori o Te Wairarapa i te takiwā o te tau 1912 mō tō rātou tukunga atu i ngā roto o Te Wairarapa ki te kāwanatanga i te tau 1896. He whenua pungapunga, akeake kē nei ēnei whenua o Pouākani, ā, nā te kore huarahi, mā runga pāti rawa e whakawhiti atu ai te tangata i te awa o Waikato; waihoki ko tēnei te take i kore ai i hua he painga ki ngā kaipupuri o te whenua. Nō te tau 1946, i tīmata ai te whakatakatū a te Tari mō ngā Mahi Nunui (Public Works Department), kāre nei he kōrero kāre he aha, ki te tango mai i te whenua, kāpeneheihana kore, mō te mahi hiko ā-awa nei te take. Tautohea ake ana e te hēkeretari o raro a Te Tari Māori, e G. P. Shepherd te taha ki ngā kaipupuri whenua i te āhua o te mahi nei. Whakahaerea ana he hui mā ngā kaipupuri whenua, ko Heke nei anō tētahi. Nā te mea kātahi anō ka whai rori te whenua nei, i tīmataria ai e tētahi komiti Māori te whakatakoto tikanga ki te mahi i te wāhi pai ake o taua poraka hei pāmu mā ngā mōrehu hōia Māori o Te Wairarapa kāore i whai whenua. Nō te marama o Hepetema o te tau 1947 i tae ake ai te Pirimia – ko ia anō hoki te Minita Māori – a Pita Pereiha (Peter Fraser) ki Hūpēnui, ka whakataurangi nei ia, heipū tonu te tere o te taenga ake o tētahi āwhina rahi tonu nei hei pūtea whakaahu mā ngā kaipupuri i tō rātou poraka. I te tau 1948, kīhai i momoho te petihana a Heke ki te Pāremata, ko tana tono rā kia uiuia ai te poraka e te Kōti Whenua Māori.

Taro rawa ake te rironga atu i te Tari mō ngā Mahi Nunui o te whenua, tata atu ki te waru rau eka te rahi, hei whakatū matatara, whakatakoto huarahi hoki, ā, he kāpeneheihana anō hoki te tikanga o te riro o ēnei whenua. Mō te āhua anō o ētahi whenua i hiahia pīrere noatia mō te tāone o Mangakino, he mea rīhi noa mō te rua tekau mā tahi tau te roa. Nō ngā tau pokapū o te tekau tau mai i 1950 i pū ai te take mō te noho tonu o te tāone o Mangakino i te mutunga ake o te rīhi i te tau 1969, kātahi anō pea ka taea te hua moni tōtika i ngā kaireti umanga o te tāone ki ngā kaiwhiwhi whenua Māori. I tae atu hoki a Heke ki ngā hui i Hūpēnui a ngā kaipupuri whenua i Pēpuere me Āperira o te tau 1956, ā, kia noho tonu ai a Mangakino hei tāone, ka whakaritea nei me whakatakoha atu e rātou ki te Karauna ērā o ngā whenua o Mangakino, e mau ake nei i runga ko ngā whare o te kāwanatanga, ko ngā whare karakia, ko te kura me te hōhipera hoki.

Ko te hui whakamutunga, hui iwi whānui ake a Te Heke-rangatira-ki-Nukutaurua Boyd, he whakatakoto i tētahi puapua whakamahara nei i Pōneke i te wā tōmuri ake o te tau 1958, tōmua kē ake rānei o te tau 1959. I muri mai i te whakahaerenga, kua ārahina a Heke e te Pirimia tonu, e Waata Naahi (Walter Nash), ki tana waka. Nō te 29 o Mei o te tau 1959 i mate ai a Heke i te hōhipera o Whakaoriori (Masterton), ā, nehua ake ana a ia i Pāpāwai. Nō mua atu nō te tau 1953 i mate atu ai tana hoa tāne a Ernest.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Boyd, Te Heke-rangatira-ki-Nukutaurua', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 2000, updated June, 2017. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/5b38/boyd-te-heke-rangatira-ki-nukutaurua (accessed 14 December 2019)