Kōrero: Carr, Harold Herbert

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Carr, Harold Herbert

1880–1973

Nō Ngāti Kahungunu; he kaiwhakawā, he kaiwhakahaere nō te Kōti Whenua Māori

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Vincent O'Malley,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 2000.

I whānau a Harold (Hērora) Herbert Williams ki Te Wairoa, i te raki o Te Matau-a- Māui (Hawke’s Bay), i te 25 o Hānuere i te tau 1880. Ko ia tētahi o ngā tamariki a Herbert Joseph Williams i whānau ia i Wēra, ko ia he pirihimana nō ngā pirihimana mau pū i reira, ā, i muri iho he karaka nō tētahi kaunihera ā-rohe – rāua ko tana wahine, ko Erihāpeti Kara (Elizabeth Carroll). E nohinohi tonu ana a Hērora ka riro ia hei whāngai mā Mere (Mary) rāua ko tana tāne, ko Henry Hyde Carr, inarā ko Mere nei te tuakana whare ngaro o Erihāpeti. Haere ake nei, mau tonu te īngoa o Carr hei īngoa matua mō Hērora. He hōia noa a Henry Carr i roto i te rōpū o ngā tāngata whai, mau pū o Te Matau-a-Māui i te tekau tau atu i 1860. I muri mai ka tū ia hei kātipa i roto i te rōpū o ngā pirihimana mau pū (Armed Constabulary). Ka mutu mai tērā ka kitea nei e ia he mahi kaiwhakamāori māna i roto i te Tari Māori (Native Department). Hei tamāhine a Erihāpeti rāua ko Mere mā Hōhepa Kara (Joseph Carroll) rāua ko Tapuke, he wahine whai mana nō Ngāti Kahungunu.

Nā ōna pānga ā-whānau, taha Pākehā, taha Māori, i māmā ake ai te huarahi mō Hērora ki te uru ki ngā mahi whakahaere whenua Māori. Ka mutu te whakaakoranga i te kura tuatahi o Te Wairoa, ka neke ia ki Pōneke (Wellington) i te tau 1896 hei āpiha tauira i te Tari Hokohoko Whenua Māori (Native Land Purchase Office). I te tau 1905 ka hoki ia ki Te Tai Rāwhiti, ā, atu i tētahi wā iti nei i Rotorua i ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1920, pau ana i a ia te rima tekau tau e mahi ana i te Kōti Whenua Māori i Tūranga (Gisborne). I te 16 o Hūrae i te tau 1906, i Pōneke, ka moe rāua ko Theresa Sheridan; ko tana hungarei, ko Patrick Sheridan, te rangatira o te Tari Hokohoko Whenua Māori i te wā e āpiha tauira ana a Hērora. Tokotoru ā rāua tamariki. Ā mate noa ia manawareka tonu te whai a Hērora i te tākaro whutupaoro. He tangata pai ia ki te purei hāwhe pēke, ā, uru atu anō hoki ki te tīma whutupaoro ā-rohe o Tūranganui-a-Kiwa (Poverty Bay) i te tau 1905.

Ahakoa i te tīmatanga he karaka iti noa ia, kāore i roa e piki ana i roto i te Tari Māori, ka eke hei kairēhita tuarua i te tari i Tūranga i te tau 1906. I te tau tonu o muri i meinga ia hei kairēhita. I te tau 1910 ka whakatūria a ia hei kōmihana ki te Kōti Whenua Māori kātahi tonu ka mutu atu te whakahou. Ahakoa ehara kē tōna karangatanga i tērā o te kaiwhakawā, i a ia te mana whakahaere, kapi katoa ana i a ia ngā mahi.

Nō te tau 1921 i tukua atu ai he mahi māna kātahi hoki te mahi pēneki te nui. Mai i te tau 1910 tīmata ai te mahi hokohoko a te Kāwanatanga i ngā hea o tēnā tangata, o tēnā tangata i ngā poraka marara noa o te rohe rahi, rohe tūhāhā rā o Te Urewera. Ahakoa nuku atu i te hāwhe o te rohe o Te Urewera kua oti kē te hoko, korekore rawa i riro mai i te Karauna te katoa o ngā hea o tētahi poraka kotahi. I Oketopa o taua tau ka hui a Hērora te māngai o te Tari Māori, rātau ko R. J. Knight o te Tari Rūri Whenua (Department of Lands and Survey) me Hēnare Te Raumoa Balneavis, te hēkeretari motuhake a te Minita Māori. Ka whakatakotoria nei e ia tā rātau take nui, he whakatōpū, he whakawhitiwhiti kē i ngā hea i te rohe o Te Urewera, whiwhi motuhake atu ai te Karauna i te taitara o ētahi o aua whenua hei wāhi whakanohonoho i te hunga Pākehā. Mana ana aua tono a Hērora rāua ko tōna hoa i roto i te Ture Whenua o Te Urewera (Urewera Lands Act) o 1921–22. Whakatūria ana a Hērora rāua ko Knight hei kōmihana whakatōpū. Piri tonu te mahi a Hērora rāua ko Knight ki te kaihautū Māori rā, ki a Āpirana Ngata, i whakatūria rā ia hei māngai mō te hunga kāore i hoko. Ka tae ki te tau 1927, ka tata tonu ki te toru koata o ngā eka, 650,000 pea te nui, o te rāhui o Te Urewera i oti i a rāua te tuku atu ki te Karauna. Ahakoa ngā uaua me te kino o ngā whakahē i whiua ki ngā kōmihana i te wā e whakahaerea ana taua take, nō muri i tū mai ko Hērora hei tino waha kōrero mō te iwi o Te Urewera, arā, mō te hunga nō rātau kē te poraka o Waikaremoana i mua i te rironga atu. Kāti, anuanu katoa ana a Hērora ki te mahi a te Karauna.

Nā te pai pea o ana rangatira ki tana mahi whakatōpū i ngā taitara o Te Urewera, i whakatūria ai ia i te marama o Hūrae o te tau 1923 hei kaiwhakawā mō te Kōti Whenua Māori. Ko ia hoki te Māori tuatahi ki te eke ki taua taumata. Ahakoa he ākonga ia nā Āpirana Ngata rāua ko Te Rangi Hīroa (Peter Buck), me tana matua kēkē, me Timi Kara (James Carroll), tata kapi katoa i a ia ngā āhua o te kaihautū o tēnei whakatipuranga Māori hou, he māmā noa ki a rātau te ao Māori me te ao Pākehā, me te tautoko mai hoki o aua ao e rua i a rātau. Rere ana ngā mihi a te rōpū ture o te takiwā o Tūranga (Gisborne District Law Society) me ngā iwi Māori o Te Tai Rāwhiti.

I te whakapaunga o te tekau tau atu i 1920 ka kōkiritia anō e ia ētahi atu kaupapa whakatōpū, ahu whenua hoki i raro i te whakahaere a Ngata; i te tau 1930 ko ia te kaiārahi o tētahi rōpū Māori i haere ki Rarotonga, he titiro nei tā rātau mahi i te āhua o ngā taitara whenua i ngā Kuki Airani. Ahakoa te mahi nei, he mea nui rawa atu ki a Hērora te rohe o Te Tai Rāwhiti, inarā ko tēneki te wāhi i kitea ai ngā hua o āna mahi, ā, nō te tau 1933 i whakatūria ko ia te kōmihana tuarua mō te Kaitiaki Māori o Te Tai Rāwhiti (East Coast Native Trust), inarā tā te tari nei he whakahaere i te nuinga o ngā toenga whenua Māori o tērā takiwā. Kōpā ana tā rāua mahi tahi ko te kōmihana ko J. S. Jessep; ahakoa he tangata pai ki te mahi, he tangata taumaha te ringa. I puta anō he petihana nā ngā kaitautoko a Hērora kia whakatūria ia hei kōmihana, ēngari kore rawa i whakaaetia. Ki te whakaaro o Jessep, i whakamahia e ia tōna tūnga kaiwhakawā mō te rohe kōti o reira hei whakakīkī i ngā tūnga komiti ki te hunga nō rātau ngā whenua. Ka tae ki te tekau tau atu i 1940 kei te ongaonga tonu rāua.

I te mutunga o tana mahi i te tau 1952, e hia hoki ngā huihuinga poroporoaki i a ia mai i Tūranga ki Te Wairoa, i haeretia ai e te hunga ture, e ōna hoa tiati, e ōna whanaunga Māori me ōna hoa. Kitea ana te aroha o ōna hoa i te nui o ngā koha taonga i tukua māna (he motukā hou anō tētahi). I tōna matenga i Tūranga i te 8 o Maehe i te tau 1973, he mea heri ia ki Te Poho-o-Rāwiri marae e pātata ana ki Tūranga takoto ai, nāna hoki i tū ai taua marae. I tāpuketia ia ki te urupā o Taruheru i te taha o tana hoa wahine, o Theresa, ka rima tau nei te matenga atu i mua i a ia. Ko ana whakarērenga iho ko tana tamāhine me tana tama.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Vincent O'Malley. 'Carr, Harold Herbert', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 2000. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/5c10/carr-harold-herbert (accessed 19 August 2019)